bims-proteo Biomed News
on Proteostasis
Issue of 2021‒12‒12
33 papers selected by
Eric Chevet

  1. Front Plant Sci. 2021 ;12 755447
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where one third of the proteins of a cell are synthetized. Several of these proteins participate in the signaling and response of cells, tissues, or from the organism to the environment. To secure the proper synthesis and folding of these proteins, or the disposal of unfolded or misfolded proteins, the ER has different mechanisms that interact and regulate each other. These mechanisms are known as the ER quality control (ERQC), ER-associated degradation (ERAD) and the unfolded protein response (UPR), all three participants of the maintenance of ER protein homeostasis or proteostasis. Given the importance of the client proteins of these ER mechanisms in the plant response to the environment, it is expected that changes or alterations on their components have an impact on the plant response to environmental cues or stresses. In this mini review, we focus on the impact of the alteration of components of ERQC, ERAD and UPR in the plant response to abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, osmotic, salt and irradiation. Also, we summarize findings from recent publications looking for a connection between these processes and their possible client(s) proteins. From this, we observed that a clear connection has been established between the ERAD and UPR mechanisms, but evidence that connects ERQC components to these both processes or their possible client(s) proteins is still lacking. As a proposal, we suggest the use of proteomics approaches to uncover the identity of these proteins and their connection with ER proteostasis.
    Keywords:  abiotic stress; chaperone; endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD); endoplasmic reticulum quality control (ERQC); unfolded protein response (UPR)
  2. PLoS Biol. 2021 Dec 08. 19(12): e3001474
      Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is a protein quality control pathway of fundamental importance to cellular homeostasis. Although multiple ERAD pathways exist for targeting topologically distinct substrates, all pathways require substrate ubiquitination. Here, we characterize a key role for the UBE2G2 Binding Region (G2BR) of the ERAD accessory protein ancient ubiquitous protein 1 (AUP1) in ERAD pathways. This 27-amino acid (aa) region of AUP1 binds with high specificity and low nanomolar affinity to the backside of the ERAD ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) UBE2G2. The structure of the AUP1 G2BR (G2BRAUP1) in complex with UBE2G2 reveals an interface that includes a network of salt bridges, hydrogen bonds, and hydrophobic interactions essential for AUP1 function in cells. The G2BRAUP1 shares significant structural conservation with the G2BR found in the E3 ubiquitin ligase gp78 and in vitro can similarly allosterically activate ubiquitination in conjunction with ERAD E3s. In cells, AUP1 is uniquely required to maintain normal levels of UBE2G2; this is due to G2BRAUP1 binding to the E2 and preventing its rapid degradation. In addition, the G2BRAUP1 is required for both ER membrane recruitment of UBE2G2 and for its activation at the ER membrane. Thus, by binding to the backside of a critical ERAD E2, G2BRAUP1 plays multiple critical roles in ERAD.
  3. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2021 Dec;28(12): 1029-1037
      Close coordination between chaperones is essential for protein biosynthesis, including the delivery of tail-anchored (TA) proteins containing a single C-terminal transmembrane domain to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the conserved GET pathway. For successful targeting, nascent TA proteins must be promptly chaperoned and loaded onto the cytosolic ATPase Get3 through a transfer reaction involving the chaperone SGTA and bridging factors Get4, Ubl4a and Bag6. Here, we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of metazoan pretargeting GET complexes at 3.3-3.6 Å. The structures reveal that Get3 helix 8 and the Get4 C terminus form a composite lid over the Get3 substrate-binding chamber that is opened by SGTA. Another interaction with Get4 prevents formation of Get3 helix 4, which links the substrate chamber and ATPase domain. Both interactions facilitate TA protein transfer from SGTA to Get3. Our findings show how the pretargeting complex primes Get3 for coordinated client loading and ER targeting.
  4. J Cell Biol. 2022 Jan 03. pii: e202111008. [Epub ahead of print]221(1):
      A recent study by Zheng et al. (2021. J. Cell Biol. identifies the ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) MARCH5 as a dual-organelle localized protein that not only targets to mitochondria but also to peroxisomes in a PEX19-mediated manner. Moreover, the authors demonstrate that the Torin1-dependent induction of pexophagy is executed by the MARCH5-catalyzed ubiquitination of the peroxisomal membrane protein PMP70.
  5. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 10. 12(1): 7194
      Autophagosomes form at the endoplasmic reticulum in mammals, and between the vacuole and the endoplasmic reticulum in yeast. However, the roles of these sites and the mechanisms regulating autophagosome formation are incompletely understood. Vac8 is required for autophagy and recruits the Atg1 kinase complex to the vacuole. Here we show that Vac8 acts as a central hub to nucleate the phagophore assembly site at the vacuolar membrane during selective autophagy. Vac8 directly recruits the cargo complex via the Atg11 scaffold. In addition, Vac8 recruits the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex independently of autophagy. Cargo-dependent clustering and Vac8-dependent sequestering of these early autophagy factors, along with local Atg1 activation, promote phagophore assembly site assembly at the vacuole. Importantly, ectopic Vac8 redirects autophagosome formation to the nuclear membrane, indicating that the vacuolar membrane is not specifically required. We propose that multiple avidity-driven interactions drive the initiation and progression of selective autophagy.
  6. Cell Rep. 2021 Dec 07. pii: S2211-1247(21)01568-0. [Epub ahead of print]37(10): 110077
      Viruses rearrange host membranes to support different entry steps. Polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40) reorganizes the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane to generate focus structures that enable virus ER-to-cytosol escape, a decisive infection step. The molecular architecture of the ER exit site that might illuminate why it is ideally suited for membrane penetration is unknown. Here 3D focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) reconstruction reveals that the ER focus structure consists of multi-tubular ER junctions where SV40 preferentially localizes, suggesting that tubular branch points are virus ER-to-cytosol penetration sites. Functional analysis demonstrates that lunapark-an ER membrane protein that typically stabilizes three-way ER junctions-relocates to the ER foci, where it supports focus formation, leading to SV40 ER escape and infection. Our results reveal how a virus repurposes the activity of an ER membrane protein to form a virus-induced ER substructure required for membrane escape and suggest that ER tubular junctions are vulnerable sites exploited by viruses for membrane penetration.
    Keywords:  Endoplasmid reticulum; FIB-SEM; Lunapark; Membrane trafficking; Non-enveloped virus; Polyomavirus; SV40
  7. PLoS Genet. 2021 Dec 06. 17(12): e1009958
      Cell competition is a context-dependent cell elimination via cell-cell interaction whereby unfit cells ('losers') are eliminated from the tissue when confronted with fitter cells ('winners'). Despite extensive studies, the mechanism that drives loser's death and its physiological triggers remained elusive. Here, through a genetic screen in Drosophila, we find that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes cell competition. Mechanistically, ER stress upregulates the bZIP transcription factor Xrp1, which promotes phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2α via the kinase PERK, leading to cell elimination. Surprisingly, our genetic data show that different cell competition triggers such as ribosomal protein mutations or RNA helicase Hel25E mutations converge on upregulation of Xrp1, which leads to phosphorylation of eIF2α and thus causes reduction in global protein synthesis and apoptosis when confronted with wild-type cells. These findings not only uncover a core pathway of cell competition but also open the way to understanding the physiological triggers of cell competition.
  8. Dev Cell. 2021 Dec 04. pii: S1534-5807(21)00939-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) depends on extensive association with the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton for its structure and mitotic inheritance. However, mechanisms that underlie coupling of ER membranes to MTs are poorly understood. We have identified thousand and one amino acid kinase 2 (TAOK2) as a pleiotropic protein kinase that mediates tethering of ER to MTs. In human cells, TAOK2 localizes in distinct ER subdomains via transmembrane helices and an adjacent amphipathic region. Through its C-terminal tail, TAOK2 directly binds MTs, coupling ER membranes to the MT cytoskeleton. In TAOK2 knockout cells, although ER-membrane dynamics are increased, movement of ER along growing MT plus ends is disrupted. ER-MT tethering is tightly regulated by catalytic activity of TAOK2, perturbation of which leads to defects in ER morphology, association with MTs, and cell division. Our study identifies TAOK2 as an ER-MT tether and reveals a kinase-regulated mechanism for control of ER dynamics.
    Keywords:  ER kinase; TAOK2; endoplasmic reticulum; organelle-cytoskeletal tethering
  9. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 07. 12(1): 7103
      Viral infection triggers activation of the integrated stress response (ISR). In response to viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) phosphorylates the translation initiation factor eIF2, converting it from a translation initiator into a potent translation inhibitor and this restricts the synthesis of viral proteins. Phosphorylated eIF2 (eIF2-P) inhibits translation by binding to eIF2's dedicated, heterodecameric nucleotide exchange factor eIF2B and conformationally inactivating it. We show that the NSs protein of Sandfly Fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) allows the virus to evade the ISR. Mechanistically, NSs tightly binds to eIF2B (KD = 30 nM), blocks eIF2-P binding, and rescues eIF2B GEF activity. Cryo-EM structures demonstrate that SFSV NSs and eIF2-P directly compete, with the primary NSs contacts to eIF2Bα mediated by five 'aromatic fingers'. NSs binding preserves eIF2B activity by maintaining eIF2B's conformation in its active A-State.
  10. J Cell Sci. 2021 Dec 06. pii: jcs.257808. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mutations in Mitofusin2 (MFN2), associated with the pathology of the debilitating neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2A (CMT2A) are known to alter mitochondrial morphology. One such abundant MFN2 mutant, R364W results in the generation of elongated, interconnected mitochondria. However, the mechanism leading to this mitochondrial aberration remains poorly understood. Here we show that mitochondrial hyperfusion in the presence of R364W-MFN2 is due to increased degradation of DRP1. The Ubiquitin E3 ligase MITOL is known to ubiquitylate both MFN2 and DRP1. Interaction with and its subsequent ubiquitylation by MITOL is stronger in presence of WT-MFN2 than R364W-MFN2. This differential interaction of MITOL with MFN2 in the presence of R364W-MFN2 renders the ligase more available for DRP1 ubiquitylation. Multimonoubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of DRP1 in R364W-MFN2 cells in the presence of MITOL eventually leads to mitochondrial hyperfusion. Here we provide a mechanistic insight into mitochondrial hyperfusion, while also reporting that MFN2 can indirectly modulate DRP1 - an effect not shown before.
    Keywords:  CMT2A-linked MFN2 mutant; DRP1; MITOL; Mitochondrial hyperfusion; Ubiquitylation
  11. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 07. 12(1): 7102
      Various stressors such as viral infection lead to the suppression of cap-dependent translation and the activation of the integrated stress response (ISR), since the stress-induced phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 [eIF2(αP)] tightly binds to eIF2B to prevent it from exchanging guanine nucleotide molecules on its substrate, unphosphorylated eIF2. Sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) evades this cap-dependent translation suppression through the interaction between its nonstructural protein NSs and host eIF2B. However, its precise mechanism has remained unclear. Here, our cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) analysis reveals that SFSV NSs binds to the α-subunit of eIF2B in a competitive manner with eIF2(αP). Together with SFSV NSs, eIF2B retains nucleotide exchange activity even in the presence of eIF2(αP), in line with the cryo-EM structures of the eIF2B•SFSV NSs•unphosphorylated eIF2 complex. A genome-wide ribosome profiling analysis clarified that SFSV NSs expressed in cultured human cells attenuates the ISR triggered by thapsigargin, an endoplasmic reticulum stress inducer. Furthermore, SFSV NSs introduced in rat hippocampal neurons and human induced-pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived motor neurons exhibits neuroprotective effects against the ISR-inducing stress. Since ISR inhibition is beneficial in various neurological disease models, SFSV NSs may be a promising therapeutic ISR inhibitor.
  12. Cell Signal. 2021 Dec 03. pii: S0898-6568(21)00299-0. [Epub ahead of print] 110210
      Ubiquitin E3-ligases are recruited at different steps of TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation; however, their role in temporal regulation of the pathway remains elusive. The study systematically identified TRIMs as potential feedback regulators of the TNF-α-induced NF-κB pathway. We further observed that TRIM15 is "late" response TNF-α-induced gene and inhibits the TNF-α-induced NF-κB pathway in several human cell lines. TRIM15 promotes turnover of K63-linked ubiquitin chains in a PRY/SPRY domain-dependent manner. TRIM15 interacts with TAK1 and inhibits its K63-linked ubiquitination, thus NF-κB activity. Further, TRIM15 interacts with TRIM8 and inhibits cytosolic translocation to antagonize TRIM8 modualted NF-κB. TRIM8 and TRIM15 also show functionally inverse correlation in psoriasis condition. In conclusion, TRIM15 is TNF-α-induced late response gene and inhibits TNF-α induced NF-κB pathway hence a feedback modulator to keep the proinflammatory NF-κB pathway under control.
    Keywords:  Functional antagonism; TNF-α,NF-κB; TRIM15; TRIM8; Ubiquitination
  13. Nat Commun. 2021 Dec 09. 12(1): 7175
      The CCR4-NOT complex acts as a central player in the control of mRNA turnover and mediates accelerated mRNA degradation upon HDAC inhibition. Here, we explored acetylation-induced changes in the composition of the CCR4-NOT complex by purification of the endogenously tagged scaffold subunit NOT1 and identified RNF219 as an acetylation-regulated cofactor. We demonstrate that RNF219 is an active RING-type E3 ligase which stably associates with CCR4-NOT via NOT9 through a short linear motif (SLiM) embedded within the C-terminal low-complexity region of RNF219. By using a reconstituted six-subunit human CCR4-NOT complex, we demonstrate that RNF219 inhibits deadenylation through the direct interaction of the α-helical SLiM with the NOT9 module. Transcriptome-wide mRNA half-life measurements reveal that RNF219 attenuates global mRNA turnover in cells, with differential requirement of its RING domain. Our results establish RNF219 as an inhibitor of CCR4-NOT-mediated deadenylation, whose loss upon HDAC inhibition contributes to accelerated mRNA turnover.
  14. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2021 Dec 07. pii: S0165-6147(21)00228-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      Given the unprecedented global pandemic of obesity, a better understanding of the etiology of adiposity will be necessary to ensure effective management of obesity and related complications. Among the various potential factors contributing to obesity, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress refers to a state of excessive protein unfolding or misfolding that is commonly found in metabolic diseases including diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance (IR), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, although its role in obesogenesis remains controversial. ER stress is thought to drive adiposity by dampening energy expenditure, making ER stress a likely therapeutic target for the management of obesity. We summarize the role of ER stress and the ER stress response in the onset and development of obesity, and discuss the underlying mechanisms involved with a view to identifying novel therapeutic strategies for obesity prevention and management.
    Keywords:  ER stress; adaptive UPR; maladaptive UPR; obesity; unfolded protein response
  15. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Dec 14. pii: e2001602118. [Epub ahead of print]118(50):
      SHARPIN, together with RNF31/HOIP and RBCK1/HOIL1, form the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) E3 ligase that catalyzes M1-linked polyubiquitination. Mutations in RNF31/HOIP and RBCK/HOIL1 in humans and Sharpin in mice lead to autoinflammation and immunodeficiency, but the mechanism underlying the immune dysregulation remains unclear. We now show that the phenotype of the Sharpincpdm/cpdm mice is dependent on CYLD, a deubiquitinase previously shown to mediate removal of K63-linked polyubiquitin chains. Dermatitis, disrupted splenic architecture, and loss of Peyer's patches in the Sharpincpdm/cpdm mice were fully reversed in Sharpincpdm/cpdm Cyld-/- mice. We observed enhanced association of RIPK1 with the death-signaling Complex II following TNF stimulation in Sharpincpdm/cpdm cells, a finding dependent on CYLD since we observed reversal in Sharpincpdm/cpdm Cyld-/- cells. Enhanced RIPK1 recruitment to Complex II in Sharpincpdm/cpdm cells correlated with impaired phosphorylation of CYLD at serine 418, a modification reported to inhibit its enzymatic activity. The dermatitis in the Sharpincpdm/cpdm mice was also ameliorated by the conditional deletion of Cyld using LysM-cre or Cx3cr1-cre indicating that CYLD-dependent death of myeloid cells is inflammatory. Our studies reveal that under physiological conditions, TNF- and RIPK1-dependent cell death is suppressed by the linear ubiquitin-dependent inhibition of CYLD. The Sharpincpdm/cpdm phenotype illustrates the pathological consequences when CYLD inhibition fails.
    Keywords:  TNF; apoptosis; inflammation; ripoptocide; ubiquitin
  16. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Dec 07. pii: e2117254118. [Epub ahead of print]118(49):
      Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is an important transcriptional regulator that is involved in numerous cellular processes, including cell proliferation, immune response, cell survival, and malignant transformation. It relies on the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) for several of the steps in the concerted cascade of its activation. Previously, we showed that the ubiquitin (Ub) ligase KPC1 is involved in ubiquitination and limited proteasomal processing of the NF-κB1 p105 precursor to generate the p50 active subunit of the "canonical" heterodimeric transcription factor p50-p65. Overexpression of KPC1 with the generation of an excessive amount of p50 was shown to suppress tumors, an effect which is due to multiple mechanisms. Among them are suppression of expression of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), overexpression of a broad array of tumor suppressors, and secretion of cytokines which results in recruitment of suppressive immune cells into the tumor. Here, we show that the site of KPC1 to which p105 binds is exceptionally short and is made up of the seven amino acids WILVRLW. Attachment of this short stretch to a small residual part (∼20%) of the ligase that also contains the essential Really Interesting New Gene (RING)-finger domain was sufficient to bind p105, conjugate to it Ub, and suppress tumor growth in an animal model. Fusion of the seven amino acids to a Von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL)-binding ligand (which serves as a "universal" ligase for many proteolysis-targeting chimeras; PROTACs) resulted in a compound that stimulated conjugation of Ub to p105 in a cell-free system and its processing to p50 in cells and restricted cell growth.
    Keywords:  KPC1; NF-κB; PROTAC; p50; ubiquitin–proteasome
  17. FASEB J. 2022 Jan;36(1): e22087
      Proper dendritic morphology is fundamental to nerve signal transmission; thus, revealing the mechanism by which dendrite arborization is regulated is of great significance. Our previous studies have found that the epigenetic molecule chromodomain Y-like (CDYL) negatively regulates dendritic branching. Current research mostly focuses on the processes downstream of CDYL, whereas the upstream regulatory process has not been investigated to date. In this study, we identified an upstream regulator of CDYL, the E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif-containing protein 32 (TRIM32), which promotes dendrite arborization by mediating the ubiquitylation and degradation of CDYL. By using mass spectrometry and biochemistry strategies, we proved that TRIM32 interacted with CDYL and mediated CDYL ubiquitylation modification in vivo and in vitro. Overexpressing TRIM32 decreased the protein level of CDYL, leading to an increase in the dendritic complexity of primary cultured rat neurons. In contrast, knocking down TRIM32 increased the protein level of CDYL and decreased the dendritic complexity. The truncated form of TRIM32 without E3 ligase activity (ΔRING) lost its ability to regulate dendritic complexity. Most importantly, knockdown of CDYL abolished the reduced complexity of dendrites caused by TRIM32 knockdown, indicating that the TRIM32-mediated regulation of dendritic development depends on its regulation of downstream CDYL. Hence, our findings reveal that TRIM32 could promote dendrite arborization by mediating CDYL degradation. This work initially defines a novel biological role of TRIM32 in regulating mechanisms upstream of CDYL and further presents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of CDYL-related neurodevelopmental disorders.
    Keywords:  CDYL; TRIM32; degradation; dendrite arborization; ubiquitylation
  18. Epigenomics. 2021 Dec 08.
      Ubiquitination and SUMOylation are two essential components of the ubiquitination proteasome system playing fundamental roles in protein homeostasis maintenance and signal transduction, perturbation of which is associated with tumorigenesis. By comparing the mechanisms of ubiquitination and SUMOylation, assessing their crosstalk, reviewing their differential associations with cancer and identifying unaddressed yet important questions that may lead the field trend, this review sheds light on the similarities and differences of ubiquitination and SUMOylation toward the improved harnessing of both post-translational modification machineries, as well as forecasts novel onco-therapeutic opportunities through cell homeostasis control.
    Keywords:  SUMOylation; cancer; protein homeostasis; ubiquitination
  19. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Dec 14. pii: e2107993118. [Epub ahead of print]118(50):
      Cellular homeostasis requires the sensing of and adaptation to intracellular oxygen (O2) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The Arg/N-degron pathway targets proteins that bear destabilizing N-terminal residues for degradation by the proteasome or via autophagy. Under normoxic conditions, the N-terminal Cys (Nt-Cys) residues of specific substrates can be oxidized by dioxygenases such as plant cysteine oxidases and cysteamine (2-aminoethanethiol) dioxygenases and arginylated by ATE1 R-transferases to generate Arg-CysO2(H) (R-CO2). Proteins bearing the R-CO2 N-degron are targeted via Lys48 (K48)-linked ubiquitylation by UBR1/UBR2 N-recognins for proteasomal degradation. During acute hypoxia, such proteins are partially stabilized, owing to decreased Nt-Cys oxidation. Here, we show that if hypoxia is prolonged, the Nt-Cys of regulatory proteins can be chemically oxidized by ROS to generate Arg-CysO3(H) (R-CO3), a lysosomal N-degron. The resulting R-CO3 is bound by KCMF1, a N-recognin that induces K63-linked ubiquitylation, followed by K27-linked ubiquitylation by the noncanonical N-recognin UBR4. Autophagic targeting of Cys/N-degron substrates is mediated by the autophagic N-recognin p62/SQTSM-1/Sequestosome-1 through recognition of K27/K63-linked ubiquitin (Ub) chains. This Cys/N-degron-dependent reprogramming in the proteolytic flux is important for cellular homeostasis under both chronic hypoxia and oxidative stress. A small-compound ligand of p62 is cytoprotective under oxidative stress through its ability to accelerate proteolytic flux of K27/K63-ubiquitylated Cys/N-degron substrates. Our results suggest that the Nt-Cys of conditional Cys/N-degron substrates acts as an acceptor of O2 to maintain both O2 and ROS homeostasis and modulates half-lives of substrates through either the proteasome or lysosome by reprogramming of their Ub codes.
    Keywords:  Arg/N-degron pathway; Cys/N-degron pathway; N-degron pathway; oxidative stress sensor; oxygen sensor
  20. Hypertension. 2022 Jan;79(1): 60-75
      Familial hyperkalemic hypertension is caused by pathogenic variants in genes of the CUL3 (cullin-3)-KLHL3 (kelch-like-family-member-3)-WNK (with no-lysine [K] kinase) pathway, manifesting clinically as hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, and high systolic blood pressure. The ubiquitin E3 ligase CUL3-KLHL3 targets WNK kinases for degradation to limit activation of the thiazide-sensitive NCC (Na-Cl cotransporter). All known variants in CUL3 lead to exon 9 skipping (CUL3Δ9) and typically result in severe familial hyperkalemic hypertension and growth disturbances in patients. Whether other variants in CUL3 cause familial hyperkalemic hypertension is unknown. Here, we identify a novel de novo heterozygous CUL3 variant (CUL3Δ474-477) in a pediatric familial hyperkalemic hypertension patient with multiple congenital anomalies and reveal molecular mechanisms by which CUL3Δ474-477 leads to dysregulation of the CUL3-KLHL3-WNK signaling axis. Using patient-derived urinary extracellular vesicles and dermal fibroblasts, in vitro assays, and cultured kidney cells, we demonstrate that CUL3Δ474-477 causes reduced total CUL3 levels due to increased autoubiquitination. The CUL3Δ474-477 that escapes autodegradation shows enhanced modification with NEDD8 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 8) and increased formation of CUL3-KLHL3 complexes that are impaired in ubiquitinating WNK4. Proteomic analysis of CUL3 complexes revealed that, in addition to increased KLHL3 binding, the CUL3Δ474-477 variant also exhibits increased interactions with other BTB (Bric-a-brac, Tramtrack, and Broad complex) substrate adaptors, providing a rationale for the patient's diverse phenotypes. We conclude that the pathophysiological effects of CUL3Δ474-477 are caused by reduced CUL3 levels and formation of catalytically impaired CUL3 ligase complexes.
    Keywords:  blood pressure; extracellular vesicles; hyperkalemia; pseudohypoaldosteronism; ubiquitination
  21. Nat Chem Biol. 2021 Dec 09.
      In eukaryotic cells, many messenger RNAs (mRNAs) possess upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in addition to the main coding region. After uORF translation, the ribosome could either recycle at the stop codon or resume scanning for downstream start codons in a process known as reinitiation. Accumulating evidence suggests that some initiation factors, including eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3), linger on the early elongating ribosome, forming an eIF3-80S complex. Very little is known about how eIF3 is carried along with the 80S during elongation and whether the eIF3-80S association is subject to regulation. Here, we report that eIF3a undergoes dynamic O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification in response to nutrient starvation. Stress-induced de-O-GlcNAcylation promotes eIF3 retention on the elongating ribosome and facilitates activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) reinitiation. Eliminating the modification site from eIF3a via CRISPR genome editing induces ATF4 reinitiation even under the nutrient-rich condition. Our findings illustrate a mechanism in balancing ribosome recycling and reinitiation, thereby linking the nutrient stress response and translational reprogramming.
  22. Nat Cell Biol. 2021 Dec 06.
      Mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) are implicated in diverse physiological processes-for example, mitochondrial quality control-and are linked to various neurodegenerative diseases. However, their specific cargo composition and complex molecular biogenesis are still unknown. Here we report the proteome and lipidome of steady-state TOMM20+ MDVs. We identified 107 high-confidence MDV cargoes, which include all β-barrel proteins and the TOM import complex. MDV cargoes are delivered as fully assembled complexes to lysosomes, thus representing a selective mitochondrial quality control mechanism for multi-subunit complexes, including the TOM machinery. Moreover, we define key biogenesis steps of phosphatidic acid-enriched MDVs starting with the MIRO1/2-dependent formation of thin membrane protrusions pulled along microtubule filaments, followed by MID49/MID51/MFF-dependent recruitment of the dynamin family GTPase DRP1 and finally DRP1-dependent scission. In summary, we define the function of MDVs in mitochondrial quality control and present a mechanistic model for global GTPase-driven MDV biogenesis.
  23. Mol Cell. 2021 Nov 26. pii: S1097-2765(21)00991-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mutations in PINK1 cause autosomal-recessive Parkinson's disease. Mitochondrial damage results in PINK1 import arrest on the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) complex, resulting in the activation of its ubiquitin kinase activity by autophosphorylation and initiation of Parkin-dependent mitochondrial clearance. Herein, we report crystal structures of the entire cytosolic domain of insect PINK1. Our structures reveal a dimeric autophosphorylation complex targeting phosphorylation at the invariant Ser205 (human Ser228). The dimer interface requires insert 2, which is unique to PINK1. The structures also reveal how an N-terminal helix binds to the C-terminal extension and provide insights into stabilization of PINK1 on the core TOM complex.
    Keywords:  PINK1; Parkin; Parkinson; TOM; X-ray crystallography; kinase; mass spectrometry; mitochondria; phosphorylation; ubiquitin
  24. Cell Rep. 2021 Dec 07. pii: S2211-1247(21)01571-0. [Epub ahead of print]37(10): 110080
      DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) are a specific type of DNA lesion in which proteins are covalently attached to DNA. Unrepaired DPCs lead to genomic instability, cancer, neurodegeneration, and accelerated aging. DPC proteolysis was recently identified as a specialized pathway for DPC repair. The DNA-dependent protease SPRTN and the 26S proteasome emerged as two independent proteolytic systems. DPCs are also repaired by homologous recombination (HR), a canonical DNA repair pathway. While studying the cellular response to DPC formation, we identify ubiquitylation and SUMOylation as two major signaling events in DNA replication-coupled DPC repair. DPC ubiquitylation recruits SPRTN to repair sites, promoting DPC removal. DPC SUMOylation prevents DNA double-strand break formation, HR activation, and potentially deleterious genomic rearrangements. In this way, SUMOylation channels DPC repair toward SPRTN proteolysis, which is a safer pathway choice for DPC repair and prevention of genomic instability.
    Keywords:  BRCA deficiency; DNA replication; DNA-protein crosslink repair; SPRTN protease; SUMO; formaldehyde toxicity; genome stability; homologous recombination; synthetic lethality; ubiquitin
  25. J Chem Theory Comput. 2021 Dec 09.
      The ribosome stalling mechanism is a crucial biological process, yet its atomistic underpinning is still elusive. In this framework, the human XBP1u translational arrest peptide (AP) plays a central role in regulating the unfolded protein response (UPR) in eukaryotic cells. Here, we report multimicrosecond all-atom molecular dynamics simulations designed to probe the interactions between the XBP1u AP and the mammalian ribosome exit tunnel, both for the wild type AP and for four mutant variants of different arrest potencies. Enhanced sampling simulations allow investigating the AP release process of the different variants, shedding light on this complex mechanism. The present outcomes are in qualitative/quantitative agreement with available experimental data. In conclusion, we provide an unprecedented atomistic picture of this biological process and clear-cut insights into the key AP-ribosome interactions.
  26. FEBS J. 2021 Dec 09.
      p62/Sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1) is a selective autophagy receptor that recruits and delivers intracellular substrates for bulk clearance through the autophagy lysosomal pathway. Interestingly, p62 also serves as a signaling scaffold to participate in the regulation of multiple physiological processes, including oxidative stress response, metabolism, inflammation, and programmed cell death. Perturbation of p62 activity has been frequently found to associate with the pathogenesis of many liver diseases. p62 has been identified as a critical component of protein aggregates in the forms of Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) or intracellular hyaline bodies (IHBs), which are known to be frequently detected in biopsy samples from alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Importantly, abundance of these p62 inclusion bodies is increasingly recognized as a biomarker for NASH and HCC. Although the level of p62 bodies seems to predict the progression and prognosis of these liver diseases, understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which p62 regulates and contributes to the development and progression of these diseases remains incomplete. In this review, we will focus on the function and regulation of p62, and its pathophysiological roles in the liver, by critically reviewing the findings from pre-clinical models that recapitulate the pathogenesis and manifestation of these liver diseases in human. In addition, we will also explore the suitability of p62 as a predictive biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of liver diseases including NASH and HCC, as well as recent development of small molecule compounds for targeting the p62 signaling axis.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Liver Cancer; MOAP-1; Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Nrf2; p62 bodies
  27. Nat Cell Biol. 2021 Dec 07.
      Circadian rhythms align physiological functions with the light-dark cycle through oscillatory changes in the abundance of proteins in the clock transcriptional programme. Timely removal of these proteins by different proteolytic systems is essential to circadian strength and adaptability. Here we show a functional interplay between the circadian clock and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), whereby CMA contributes to the rhythmic removal of clock machinery proteins (selective chronophagy) and to the circadian remodelling of a subset of the cellular proteome. Disruption of this autophagic pathway in vivo leads to temporal shifts and amplitude changes of the clock-dependent transcriptional waves and fragmented circadian patterns, resembling those in sleep disorders and ageing. Conversely, loss of the circadian clock abolishes the rhythmicity of CMA, leading to pronounced changes in the CMA-dependent cellular proteome. Disruption of this circadian clock/CMA axis may be responsible for both pathways malfunctioning in ageing and for the subsequently pronounced proteostasis defect.
  28. Commun Biol. 2021 12 07. 4(1): 1369
      The binding of the major stress-inducible human 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) to the anionic phospholipid bis-(monoacylglycero)-phosphate (BMP) in the lysosomal membrane is crucial for its impact on cellular pathology in lysosomal storage disorders. However, the conformational features of this protein-lipid complex remain unclear. Here, we apply hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to describe the dynamics of the full-length Hsp70 in the cytosol and its conformational changes upon translocation into lysosomes. Using wild-type and W90F mutant proteins, we also map and discriminate the interaction of Hsp70 with BMP and other lipid components of the lysosomal membrane. We identify the N-terminal of the nucleotide binding domain (residues 87-118) as the primary orchestrator of BMP interaction. We show that the conformation of this domain is significantly reorganized in the W90F mutant, explaining its inability to stabilize lysosomal membranes. Overall, our results reveal important new molecular details of the protective effect of Hsp70 in lysosomal storage diseases, which, in turn, could guide future drug development.
  29. STAR Protoc. 2021 Dec 17. 2(4): 100975
      Endocytic internalization of extracellular proteins plays roles in signaling, nutrient uptake, immunity, and extracellular protein quality control. However, there are few protocols for analyzing the lysosomal degradation of extracellular protein. Here, we purified secreted proteins fused with pH-sensitive GFP and acid- and protease-resistant RFP from mammalian cells and describe an internalization assay for mammalian cells. This protocol enables quantification of cellular uptake and lysosomal degradation of protein-of-interest (POI) via cell biological and biochemical analyses. For full details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Itakura et al. (2020).
    Keywords:  Cell Biology; Cell-based Assays; Flow Cytometry/Mass Cytometry; Molecular/Chemical Probes; Protein expression and purification
  30. iScience. 2021 Dec 17. 24(12): 103448
      The eIF2α phosphorylation-dependent integrated stress response (ISR) is a signaling pathway that maintains homeostasis in mammalian cells exposed to various stresses. Here, ISR activation in adipocytes improves obesity and diabetes by regulating appetite in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Adipocyte-specific ISR activation using transgenic mice decreases body weight and improves glucose tolerance and obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) via preferential inhibition of HFD intake. The transcriptome analysis of ISR-activated adipose tissue reveals that growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) expression is induced by the ISR through the direct regulation of the transcription factors ATF4 and DDIT3. Deficiency in the GDF15 receptor GFRAL abolishes the adipocyte ISR-dependent preferential inhibition of HFD intake and the anti-obesity effects. Pharmacologically, 10(E), 12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid induces ISR-dependent GDF15 expression in adipocytes and decreases the intake of the HFD. Based on our findings the specific activation of the ISR in adipocytes controls the non-cell-autonomous regulation of appetite.
    Keywords:  Biological sciences; Cell biology; Human metabolism
  31. Mol Cell Biol. 2021 Dec 06. MCB0045921
      The rare capacity for heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) chaperones to support almost the entire cellular signaling networks was viewed as a potential breakthrough point to combat tumor resistance to single oncogene-based therapeutics. Over two decades, several generations of Hsp90 ATP-binding inhibitors have entered numerous cancer clinical trials, but few have advanced to FDA approval for treatment of human cancers. Herein, we report that Hsp90 expression dramatically vary especially among different types of non-cancer cells and organs. The highly variable levels of Hsp90 from as low as 1.7% to as high as 9% of their total cellular proteins were responsible for either an extreme sensitivity or an extreme resistance to a classical Hsp90 ATP-binding inhibitor. Among randomly selected cancer cell lines, the same client proteins for regulation of cell growth exhibited unexpectedly heterogenous reactions in response to Hsp90 ATP-binding inhibitor, inconsistent with the current understanding. Finally, a minimum amount (<10%) of Hsp90β was still required for client protein stability and cell survival even in the presence of full Hsp90α. These new findings of Hsp90 expression in host and isoform compensation in tumor cells could complicate biomarker selection, toxicity readout and clinical efficacy of Hsp90-ATP-binding inhibitors in cancer clinical trials.
  32. iScience. 2021 Dec 17. 24(12): 103460
      Deficiency of the serine hydrolase prolyl endopeptidase-like (PREPL) causes a recessive metabolic disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and growth hormone deficiency. The pathophysiology of PREPL deficiency and the physiological substrates of PREPL remain largely unknown. In this study, we connect PREPL with mitochondrial gene expression and oxidative phosphorylation by analyzing its protein interactors. We demonstrate that the long PREPLL isoform localizes to mitochondria, whereas PREPLS remains cytosolic. Prepl KO mice showed reduced mitochondrial complex activities and disrupted mitochondrial gene expression. Furthermore, mitochondrial ultrastructure was abnormal in a PREPL-deficient patient and Prepl KO mice. In addition, we reveal that PREPL has (thio)esterase activity and inhibition of PREPL by Palmostatin M suggests a depalmitoylating function. We subsequently determined the crystal structure of PREPL, thereby providing insight into the mechanism of action. Taken together, PREPL is a (thio)esterase rather than a peptidase and PREPLL is involved in mitochondrial homeostasis.
    Keywords:  Molecular biology; Molecular medicine; Structural biology
  33. Trends Cell Biol. 2021 Dec 01. pii: S0962-8924(21)00227-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      Chaperone expression is developmentally regulated, establishing tissue-specific networks. However, the molecular basis underlying this specificity is mainly unknown. Recent evidence suggests that chaperone network rewiring is mediated, in part, by differentiation transcription factors to fit the proteome folding demands, with implications for the tissue-specific manifestation of protein misfolding diseases.
    Keywords:  chaperone; differentiation; proteostasis; stress