bims-proteo Biomed News
on Proteostasis
Issue of 2021‒07‒04
forty-two papers selected by
Eric Chevet

  1. Cell Rep. 2021 Jun 29. pii: S2211-1247(21)00704-X. [Epub ahead of print]35(13): 109328
      In this paper, we show that the essential Hsp90 co-chaperone Sgt1 is a member of a general protein quality control network that links folding and degradation through its participation in the degradation of misfolded proteins both in the cytosol and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Sgt1-dependent protein degradation acts in a parallel pathway to the ubiquitin ligase (E3) and ubiquitin chain elongase (E4), Hul5, and overproduction of Hul5 partly suppresses defects in cells with reduced Sgt1 activity. Upon proteostatic stress, Sgt1 accumulates transiently, in an Hsp90- and proteasome-dependent manner, with quality control sites (Q-bodies) of both yeast and human cells that co-localize with Vps13, a protein that creates organelle contact sites. Misfolding disease proteins, such as synphilin-1 involved in Parkinson's disease, are also sequestered to these compartments and require Sgt1 for their clearance.
    Keywords:  26S proteasome; Hsp90; Hul5; Sgt1; aging; chaperone; protein quality control; proteostasis
  2. Commun Biol. 2021 Jul 01. 4(1): 828
      The heterotrimeric Sec61 complex is a major site for the biogenesis of transmembrane proteins (TMPs), accepting nascent TMP precursors that are targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the signal recognition particle (SRP). Unlike most single-spanning membrane proteins, the integration of type III TMPs is completely resistant to small molecule inhibitors of the Sec61 translocon. Using siRNA-mediated depletion of specific ER components, in combination with the potent Sec61 inhibitor ipomoeassin F (Ipom-F), we show that type III TMPs utilise a distinct pathway for membrane integration at the ER. Hence, following SRP-mediated delivery to the ER, type III TMPs can uniquely access the membrane insertase activity of the ER membrane complex (EMC) via a mechanism that is facilitated by the Sec61 translocon. This alternative EMC-mediated insertion pathway allows type III TMPs to bypass the Ipom-F-mediated blockade of membrane integration that is seen with obligate Sec61 clients.
  3. Molecules. 2021 Jun 11. pii: 3591. [Epub ahead of print]26(12):
      In human cells, one-third of all polypeptides enter the secretory pathway at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The specificity and efficiency of this process are guaranteed by targeting of mRNAs and/or polypeptides to the ER membrane. Cytosolic SRP and its receptor in the ER membrane facilitate the cotranslational targeting of most ribosome-nascent precursor polypeptide chain (RNC) complexes together with the respective mRNAs to the Sec61 complex in the ER membrane. Alternatively, fully synthesized precursor polypeptides are targeted to the ER membrane post-translationally by either the TRC, SND, or PEX19/3 pathway. Furthermore, there is targeting of mRNAs to the ER membrane, which does not involve SRP but involves mRNA- or RNC-binding proteins on the ER surface, such as RRBP1 or KTN1. Traditionally, the targeting reactions were studied in cell-free or cellular assays, which focus on a single precursor polypeptide and allow the conclusion of whether a certain precursor can use a certain pathway. Recently, cellular approaches such as proximity-based ribosome profiling or quantitative proteomics were employed to address the question of which precursors use certain pathways under physiological conditions. Here, we combined siRNA-mediated depletion of putative mRNA receptors in HeLa cells with label-free quantitative proteomics and differential protein abundance analysis to characterize RRBP1- or KTN1-involving precursors and to identify possible genetic interactions between the various targeting pathways. Furthermore, we discuss the possible implications on the so-called TIGER domains and critically discuss the pros and cons of this experimental approach.
    Keywords:  Sec61 complex; TIGER domain; differential protein abundance analysis; endoplasmic reticulum; label-free quantitative mass spectrometry; mRNA targeting; membrane protein insertion; protein import; protein targeting; protein translocation
  4. Cell Struct Funct. 2021 Jun 30.
      Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are post-transcriptionally modified with GPI and anchored to the plasma membrane. GPI is attached to nascent proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum by the GPI transamidase complex, which consists of PIGT, PIGK, GPAA1, PIGU, and PIGS. Of these, PIGK is a catalytic subunit that is unstable without PIGT. This study investigated the pathway by which unassembled PIGK not incorporated into the complex is degraded. We showed that unassembled PIGK was degraded via the proteasome-dependent pathway and that Hrd1 (also known as SYVN1), a ubiquitin ligase involved in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway, was responsible for degradation of unassembled PIGK.Key words: Glycosylphosphatidylinositol, GPI transamidase complex, protein stability, transamidation, ERAD.
    Keywords:  ERAD; GPI transamidase complex; Glycosylphosphatidylinositol; protein stability; transamidation
  5. FEBS J. 2021 Jul 02.
      The regulatory influence of ubiquitin is vast, encompassing all cellular processes, by virtue of its central roles in protein degradation, membrane trafficking, and cell signaling. But how does ubiquitin, a 76 amino acid peptide, carry out such diverse, complex functions in eukaryotic cells? Part of the answer is rooted in the high degree of complexity associated with ubiquitin polymers, which can be "read" and processed differently depending on topology and cellular context. However, recent evidence indicates that post-translational modifications on ubiquitin itself enhance the complexity of the ubiquitin code. Here, we review recent discoveries related to the regulation of the ubiquitin code by phosphorylation. We summarize what is currently known about phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser65, Ser57 and Thr12, and we discuss the potential for phospho-regulation of ubiquitin at other sites. We also discuss accumulating evidence that ubiquitin-like modifiers, such as SUMO, are likewise regulated by phosphorylation. A complete understanding of these regulatory codes and their complex lexicon will require dissection of mechanisms that govern phosphorylation of ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins, particularly in the context of cellular stress and disease.
    Keywords:  mitophagy; phosphorylation; protein degradation; proteostasis; signalling; stress responses; ubiquitin
  6. Mol Biol Cell. 2021 Jun 30. mbcE21010014
      Heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) activation is responsible for increasing the abundance of protein folding chaperones and degradation machinery in response to proteotoxic conditions that give rise to misfolded or aggregated proteins. Here, we systematically explored the link between concurrent protein synthesis and proteotoxic stress in the budding yeast, S. cerevisiae. Consistent with prior work, inhibiting protein synthesis before inducing proteotoxic stress prevents Hsf1 activation, which we demonstrated across a broad array of stresses and validate using orthogonal means of blocking protein synthesis. However, other stress-dependent transcription pathways remained activatable under conditions of translation inhibition. Titrating the protein denaturant ethanol to a higher concentration results in Hsf1 activation in the absence of translation, suggesting extreme protein folding stress can induce proteotoxicity independent of protein synthesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate this connection under physiological conditions where protein synthesis occurs naturally at reduced rates. We find that disrupting the assembly or subcellular localization of newly synthesized proteins is sufficient to activate Hsf1. Thus, new proteins appear to be especially sensitive to proteotoxic conditions, and we propose that their aggregation may represent the bulk of the signal that activates Hsf1 in the wake of these insults.
  7. Autophagy. 2021 Jun 30. 1-18
      Hepatitis B virus (HBV) particles are thought to be secreted from hepatocytes through multivesicular bodies (MVBs); however, the cellular trafficking mechanisms prior to this process remain elusive. It has been reported that CCDC88A/GIV expression, which is involved in multiple aspects of vesicular trafficking, changes dynamically at different phases of chronic HBV infection. In this study, we focused on the role of CCDC88A/GIV in HBV replication. In the liver tissues of chronically HBV-infected patients, HBV infection significantly enhanced CCDC88A/GIV expression, and increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagosome formation without changing endosome formation. Additionally, colocalization of SHBsAg with early endosomes (~30.2%) far exceeded that with autophagosomes (~3.2%). In hepatoma cells, CCDC88A/GIV and its downstream proteins, DNM2 (dynamin 2; a CCDC88A/GIV effector), CLTC and RAB5A significantly enhanced HBV replication and endosome formation but inhibited autophagosome formation. Blocking endocytosis disrupted HBsAg trafficking to endosomes and caused its accumulation in the ER lumen, which triggered ER stress to initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR). Therefore, HBsAg trafficking into autophagosomes was increased, and the lysosomal activity and maturation, which was inhibited by HBV infection, were restored. Meanwhile, core particles were prevented from entering MVBs. CCDC88A/GIV and its other effector, GNAI3, decreased autophagic flux by enhancing the insulin-induced AKT-MTOR pathway, thereby inhibiting HBV antigens autophagic degradation. In conclusion, CCDC88A/GIV enhanced HBV replication by increasing endosomal trafficking and reducing autophagic degradation of HBV antigens, suggesting that CCDC88A/GIV-mediated endosomal trafficking plays an important role in HBV replication and progeny secretion.AbbreviationsACTB: actin beta; AO: acridine orange; ATF6: activating transcription factor 6; CCDC88A/GIV: coiled-coil domain containing 88A; CLTC: clathrin heavy chain; CQ: chloroquine; DAPI: 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; DNM2: dynamin 2; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERN1: endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1; EIF2A: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A; FBS: fetal bovine serum; GNAI3: G protein subunit alpha i3; HBV: hepatitis B virus; HBV RIs: HBV replication intermediates; HBcAg: HBV core protein; HBsAg: HBV surface antigen; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MVBs: multivesicular bodies; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; PDI: protein disulfide isomerase; PHH: primary human hepatocyte; pSM2: a HBV replication-competent plasmid; HSPA5/BIP: heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 5; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; siRNA: small interfering RNA; SEM: standard error of the mean; UPR: unfolded protein response.
    Keywords:  Autophagic degradatio autophagosomal trafficking; DNM2 endosomal trafficking; GNAI3 hepatitis B virus
  8. Redox Biol. 2021 Jun 17. pii: S2213-2317(21)00206-8. [Epub ahead of print]45 102047
      The contribution of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS) to mitophagy has been largely attributed to the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin. Here we show that in response to the oxidative stress associated with hypoxia or the hypoxia mimic CoCl2, the damaged and fragmented mitochondria are removed by Parkin-independent mitophagy. Mitochondria isolated from hypoxia or CoCl2-treated cells exhibited extensive ubiquitination, predominantly Lysine 48-linked and involves the degradation of key mitochondrial proteins such as the mitofusins MFN1/2, or the import channel component TOM20. Reflecting the critical role of mitochondrial protein degradation, proteasome inhibition blocked CoCl2-induced mitophagy. The five conserved ubiquitin-binding autophagy receptors (p62, NDP52, Optineurin, NBR1, TAX1BP1) were dispensable for the ensuing mitophagy, suggesting that the mitophagy step itself was independent of ubiquitination. Instead, the expression of two ubiquitin-independent mitophagy receptor proteins BNIP3 and NIX was induced by hypoxia or CoCl2-treatment followed by their recruitment to the oxidation-damaged mitochondria. By employing BNIP3/NIX double knockout and DRP1-null cell lines, we confirmed that mitochondrial clearance relies on DRP1-dependent mitochondrial fragmentation and BNIP3/NIX-mediated mitophagy. General antioxidants such as N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) or the mitochondria-specific Mitoquinone prevented HIF-1α stabilization, ameliorated hypoxia-related mitochondrial oxidative stress, and suppressed mitophagy. We conclude that the UPS and receptor-mediated autophagy converge to eliminate oxidation-damaged mitochondria.
    Keywords:  HIF-1α; Hypoxia; Mitochondria; Mitophagy; Oxidative stress; Proteasome; Ubiquitin
  9. Elife. 2021 Jun 28. pii: e64977. [Epub ahead of print]10
      Molecular chaperones, such as Hsp70, prevent proteotoxicity and maintain homeostasis. This is perhaps most evident in cancer cells, which overexpress Hsp70 and thrive even when harboring high levels of misfolded proteins. To define the response to proteotoxic challenges, we examined adaptive responses in breast cancer cells in the presence of an Hsp70 inhibitor. We discovered that the cells bin into distinct classes based on inhibitor sensitivity. Strikingly, the most resistant cells have higher autophagy levels, and autophagy was maximally activated only in resistant cells upon Hsp70 inhibition. In turn, resistance to compromised Hsp70 function required the integrated stress response transducer, GCN2, which is commonly associated with amino acid starvation. In contrast, sensitive cells succumbed to Hsp70 inhibition by activating PERK. These data reveal an unexpected route through which breast cancer cells adapt to proteotoxic insults and position GCN2 and autophagy as complementary mechanisms to ensure survival when proteostasis is compromised.
    Keywords:  cell biology; human
  10. Metabolites. 2021 Jun 26. pii: 422. [Epub ahead of print]11(7):
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a complex, multifunctional organelle of eukaryotic cells and responsible for the trafficking and processing of nearly 30% of all human proteins. Any disturbance to these processes can cause ER stress, which initiates an adaptive mechanism called unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore ER functions and homeostasis. Mitochondrial ATP production is necessary to meet the high energy demand of the UPR, while the molecular mechanisms of ER to mitochondria crosstalk under such stress conditions remain mainly enigmatic. Thus, better understanding the regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics during ER stress is essential to combat many pathologies involving ER stress, the UPR, and mitochondria. This article investigates the role of Sigma-1 Receptor (S1R), an ER chaperone, has in enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics during early ER stress using human neuroblastoma cell lines. Our results show that inducing ER stress with tunicamycin, a known ER stressor, greatly enhances mitochondrial bioenergetics in a time- and S1R-dependent manner. This is achieved by enhanced ER Ca2+ leak directed towards mitochondria by S1R during the early phase of ER stress. Our data point to the importance of S1R in promoting mitochondrial bioenergetics and maintaining balanced H2O2 metabolism during early ER stress.
    Keywords:  ER Ca2+ leak; ER stress; UPR; mitochondrial Ca2+; mitochondrial bioenergetics; mitochondrial metabolism; sigma-1 receptor
  11. J Cell Biol. 2021 Aug 02. pii: e202011078. [Epub ahead of print]220(8):
      The ER is a key organelle of membrane biogenesis and crucial for the folding of both membrane and secretory proteins. Sensors of the unfolded protein response (UPR) monitor the unfolded protein load in the ER and convey effector functions for maintaining ER homeostasis. Aberrant compositions of the ER membrane, referred to as lipid bilayer stress, are equally potent activators of the UPR. How the distinct signals from lipid bilayer stress and unfolded proteins are processed by the conserved UPR transducer Ire1 remains unknown. Here, we have generated a functional, cysteine-less variant of Ire1 and performed systematic cysteine cross-linking experiments in native membranes to establish its transmembrane architecture in signaling-active clusters. We show that the transmembrane helices of two neighboring Ire1 molecules adopt an X-shaped configuration independent of the primary cause for ER stress. This suggests that different forms of stress converge in a common, signaling-active transmembrane architecture of Ire1.
  12. Cancer Commun (Lond). 2021 Jul 01.
      BACKGROUND: Tumor metastasis is a major factor for poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the relationship between ubiquitination and metastasis need to be studied more systematically. We analyzed the ubiquitinome of HCC in this study to have a more comprehensive insight into human HCC metastasis.METHODS: The protein ubiquitination levels in 15 HCC specimens with vascular invasion and 15 without vascular invasion were detected by ubiquitinome. Proteins with significantly different ubiquitination levels between HCCs with and without vascular invasion were used to predict E3 ubiquitin ligases associated with tumor metastasis. The topological network of protein substrates and corresponding E3 ubiquitin ligases was constructed to identify the key E3 ubiquitin ligase. Besides, the growth, migration and invasion ability of LM3 and HUH7 hepatoma cell lines with and without SYVN1 expression interference were measured by cell proliferation assay, subcutaneous tumor assay, umphal vein endothelium tube formation assay, transwell migration and invasion assays. Finally, the interacting proteins of SYVN1 were screened and verified by protein interaction omics, immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation. Ubiquitin levels of related protein substrates in LM3 and HUH7 cells were compared in negative control, SYVN1 knockdown, and SYVN1 overexpression groups.
    RESULTS: In this study, our whole-cell proteomic dataset and ubiquitinomic dataset contained approximately 5600 proteins and 12,000 ubiquitinated sites. We discovered increased ubiquitinated sites with shorter ubiquitin chains during the progression of HCC metastasis. In addition, proteomic and ubiquitinomic analyses revealed that high expression of E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SYVN1 is related with tumor metastasis. Furthermore, we found that SYVN1 interacted with heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and impacted the ubiquitination of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (EEF2K).
    CONCLUSIONS: The ubiquitination profiles of HCC with and without vascular invasion were significantly different. SYVN1 was the most important E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase responsible for this phenomenon, and it was related with tumor metastasis and growth. Therefore, SYVN1 might be a potential therapeutic target for HCC.
    Keywords:  E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase; cancer; eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase; heat shock protein 90; hepatocellular carcinoma; liver; metastasis; proteomics; synoviolin; ubiquitin
  13. Mol Cell. 2021 Jul 01. pii: S1097-2765(21)00402-0. [Epub ahead of print]81(13): 2808-2822.e10
      The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) pathway senses cytosolic DNA and induces interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) to activate the innate immune system. Here, we report the unexpected discovery that cGAS also senses dysfunctional protein production. Purified ribosomes interact directly with cGAS and stimulate its DNA-dependent activity in vitro. Disruption of the ribosome-associated protein quality control (RQC) pathway, which detects and resolves ribosome collision during translation, results in cGAS-dependent ISG expression and causes re-localization of cGAS from the nucleus to the cytosol. Indeed, cGAS preferentially binds collided ribosomes in vitro, and orthogonal perturbations that result in elevated levels of collided ribosomes and RQC activation cause sub-cellular re-localization of cGAS and ribosome binding in vivo as well. Thus, translation stress potently increases DNA-dependent cGAS activation. These findings have implications for the inflammatory response to viral infection and tumorigenesis, both of which substantially reprogram cellular protein synthesis.
    Keywords:  ASCC3; IRF3; STING; ZNF598; cGAS; innate immunity; interferon signalling; mRNA translation; ribosome collision; ribosome-associated protein quality control
  14. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Jul 06. pii: e2102902118. [Epub ahead of print]118(27):
      Mutations in the human peptide:N-glycanase gene (NGLY1), which encodes a cytosolic de-N-glycosylating enzyme, cause a congenital autosomal recessive disorder. In rodents, the loss of Ngly1 results in severe developmental delay or lethality, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we found that deletion of Fbxo6 (also known as Fbs2), which encodes a ubiquitin ligase subunit that recognizes glycoproteins, rescued the lethality-related defects in Ngly1-KO mice. In NGLY1-KO cells, FBS2 overexpression resulted in the substantial inhibition of proteasome activity, causing cytotoxicity. Nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 1 (NFE2L1, also known as NRF1), an endoplasmic reticulum-associated transcriptional factor involved in expression of proteasome subunits, was also abnormally ubiquitinated by SCFFBS2 in NGLY1-KO cells, resulting in its retention in the cytosol. However, the cytotoxicity caused by FBS2 was restored by the overexpression of "glycan-less" NRF1 mutants, regardless of their transcriptional activity, or by the deletion of NRF1 in NGLY1-KO cells. We conclude that the proteasome dysfunction caused by the accumulation of N-glycoproteins, primarily NRF1, ubiquitinated by SCFFBS2 accounts for the pathogenesis resulting from NGLY1 deficiency.
    Keywords:  ERAD; FBXO6/FBS2; NGLY1; proteasome; ubiquitination
  15. Biochem J. 2021 Jun 29. pii: BCJ20210315. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cullin ubiquitin ligases drive replisome disassembly during DNA replication termination.  In worm, frog and mouse cells, CUL2LRR1 is required to ubiquitylate the MCM7 subunit of the CMG helicase.  Here we show that cullin ligases also drive CMG-MCM7 ubiquitylation in human cells, thereby making the helicase into a substrate for the p97 unfoldase.  Using purified human proteins, including a panel of E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes, we have reconstituted CMG helicase ubiquitylation, dependent upon neddylated CUL2LRR1.  The reaction is highly specific to CMG-MCM7 and requires the LRR1 substrate targeting subunit, since replacement of LRR1 with the alternative CUL2 adaptor VHL switches ubiquitylation from CMG-MCM7 to HIF1.  CUL2LRR1 firstly drives monoubiquitylation of CMG-MCM7 by the UBE2D class of E2 enzymes.  Subsequently, CUL2LRR1 activates UBE2R1/R2 or UBE2G1/G2 to extend a single K48-linked ubiquitin chain on CMG-MCM7.  Thereby, CUL2LRR1 converts CMG into a substrate for p97, which disassembles the ubiquitylated helicase during DNA replication termination.
    Keywords:  CUL2-LRR1; DNA synthesis and repair; cmg helicase; cullin ligase; p97; ubiquitins
  16. EMBO J. 2021 Jun 30. e107913
      The formation of protein aggregates is a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases. Observations on patient samples and model systems demonstrated links between aggregate formation and declining mitochondrial functionality, but causalities remain unclear. We used Saccharomyces cerevisiae to analyze how mitochondrial processes regulate the behavior of aggregation-prone polyQ protein derived from human huntingtin. Expression of Q97-GFP rapidly led to insoluble cytosolic aggregates and cell death. Although aggregation impaired mitochondrial respiration only slightly, it considerably interfered with the import of mitochondrial precursor proteins. Mutants in the import component Mia40 were hypersensitive to Q97-GFP, whereas Mia40 overexpression strongly suppressed the formation of toxic Q97-GFP aggregates both in yeast and in human cells. Based on these observations, we propose that the post-translational import of mitochondrial precursor proteins into mitochondria competes with aggregation-prone cytosolic proteins for chaperones and proteasome capacity. Mia40 regulates this competition as it has a rate-limiting role in mitochondrial protein import. Therefore, Mia40 is a dynamic regulator in mitochondrial biogenesis that can be exploited to stabilize cytosolic proteostasis.
    Keywords:  Mia40; huntingtin; mitochondria; protein aggregation; protein translocation
  17. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Jun 20. pii: 3079. [Epub ahead of print]13(12):
      The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a critical regulator of cellular protein levels and activity. It is, therefore, not surprising that its dysregulation is implicated in numerous human diseases, including many types of cancer. Moreover, since cancer cells exhibit increased rates of protein turnover, their heightened dependence on the UPS makes it an attractive target for inhibition via targeted therapeutics. Indeed, the clinical application of proteasome inhibitors in treatment of multiple myeloma has been very successful, stimulating the development of small-molecule inhibitors targeting other UPS components. On the other hand, while the discovery of potent and selective chemical compounds can be both challenging and time consuming, the area of targeted protein degradation through utilization of the UPS machinery has seen promising developments in recent years. The repertoire of proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs), which employ E3 ligases for the degradation of cancer-related proteins via the proteasome, continues to grow. In this review, we will provide a thorough overview of small-molecule UPS inhibitors and highlight advancements in the development of targeted protein degradation strategies for cancer therapeutics.
    Keywords:  E3 ligase; cancer; deubiquitinase (DUB); proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC); small-molecule; ubiquitin (Ub); ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)
  18. Nat Cell Biol. 2021 Jun 28.
      Endosome fission is essential for cargo sorting and targeting in the endosomal system. However, whether organelles other than the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) participate in endosome fission through membrane contacts is unknown. Here, we characterize a Golgi-derived vesicle, the SEC14L2 compartment, that plays a unique role in facilitating endosome fission through ternary contacts with endosomes and the ER. Localized to the ER-mediated endosome fission site, the phosphatidylinositol transfer protein SEC14L2 promotes phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) conversion before endosome fission. In the absence of SEC14L2, endosome fission is attenuated and more enlarged endosomes arise due to endosomal accumulation of PtdIns4P and reduction in PtdIns3P. Collectively, our data suggest roles of the Golgi network in ER-associated endosome fission and a mechanism involving ER-endosome contacts in the regulation of endosomal phosphoinositide conversion.
  19. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2021 Jun 30.
      Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is often associated with elevated levels of CO2 (hypercapnia) and impaired alveolar fluid clearance. Misfolding of the Na,K-ATPase (NKA), a key molecule involved in both alveolar epithelial barrier tightness and in resolution of alveolar edema, in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) may decrease plasma membrane (PM) abundance of the transporter. Here, we investigated how hypercapnia affects the NKA β-subunit (NKA-β) in the ER. Exposing murine precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) and human alveolar epithelial A549 cells to elevated CO2 levels led to a rapid decrease of NKA-β abundance in the ER and at the cell surface. Knockdown of ER alpha-mannosidase I (MAN1B1) and ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase like protein 1 by siRNA or treatment with the MAN1B1 inhibitor, kifunensine rescued loss of NKA-β in the ER, suggesting ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of the enzyme. Furthermore, hypercapnia activated the unfolded protein response (UPR) by promoting phosphorylation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) and treatment with a siRNA against IRE1α prevented the decrease of NKA-β in the ER. Of note, the hypercapnia-induced phosphorylation of IRE1α was triggered by a Ca2+-dependent mechanism. Additionally, inhibition of the inositol trisphosphate receptor decreased phosphorylation levels of IRE1α in PCLS and A549 cells, suggesting that Ca2+ efflux from the ER might be responsible for IRE1α activation and ERAD of NKA-β. In conclusion, here we provide evidence that hypercapnia attenuates maturation of the regulatory subunit of NKA by activating IRE1α and promoting ERAD, which may contribute to impaired alveolar epithelial integrity in patients with ARDS and hypercapnia.
    Keywords:  Na,K-ATPase; alveolar epithelium; carbon dioxide; endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation; sodium transport
  20. Cell Death Dis. 2021 Jun 28. 12(7): 657
      Subcellular organelles communicate with each other to regulate function and coordinate responses to changing cellular conditions. The physical-functional coupling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with mitochondria allows for the direct transfer of Ca2+ between organelles and is an important avenue for rapidly increasing mitochondrial metabolic activity. As such, increasing ER-mitochondrial coupling can boost the generation of ATP that is needed to restore homeostasis in the face of cellular stress. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR) is activated by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in mitochondria. Retrograde signaling from mitochondria to the nucleus promotes mtUPR transcriptional responses aimed at restoring protein homeostasis. It is currently unknown whether the changes in mitochondrial-ER coupling also play a role during mtUPR stress. We hypothesized that mitochondrial stress favors an expansion of functional contacts between mitochondria and ER, thereby increasing mitochondrial metabolism as part of a protective response. Hela cells were treated with doxycycline, an antibiotic that inhibits the translation of mitochondrial-encoded proteins to create protein disequilibrium. Treatment with doxycycline decreased the abundance of mitochondrial encoded proteins while increasing expression of CHOP, C/EBPβ, ClpP, and mtHsp60, markers of the mtUPR. There was no change in either mitophagic activity or cell viability. Furthermore, ER UPR was not activated, suggesting focused activation of the mtUPR. Within 2 h of doxycycline treatment, there was a significant increase in physical contacts between mitochondria and ER that was distributed throughout the cell, along with an increase in the kinetics of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. This was followed by the rise in the rate of oxygen consumption at 4 h, indicating a boost in mitochondrial metabolic activity. In conclusion, an early phase of the response to doxycycline-induced mitochondrial stress is an increase in mitochondrial-ER coupling that potentiates mitochondrial metabolic activity as a means to support subsequent steps in the mtUPR pathway and sustain cellular adaptation.
  21. J Biol Chem. 2021 Jun 23. pii: S0021-9258(21)00710-9. [Epub ahead of print] 100910
      Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is characterised by frequent mutation of VHL protein, a tumour suppressor which functions as the substrate recognition subunit of a Cullin2 E3 ligase complex (CRL2VHL). CRL2VHL plays important roles in oxygen sensing by targeting Hypoxia Inducible Factor-alpha (HIF-α) subunits for ubiquitination and degradation. VHL is also commonly hijacked by bifunctional molecules such as proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) to induce degradation of target molecules. We previously reported the design and characterisation of VHL inhibitors VH032 and VH298 that block the VHL:HIF-α interaction, activate the HIF transcription factor and induce a hypoxic response, which can be beneficial to treat anemia and mitochondrial diseases. How these compounds affect the global cellular proteome remained unknown. Here, we use unbiased quantitative mass spectrometry to identify the proteomic changes elicited by the VHL inhibitor compared to hypoxia or the broad-spectrum prolyl-hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzyme inhibitor IOX2. Our results demonstrate that VHL inhibitors selectively activate the HIF response similar to the changes induced in hypoxia and IOX2 treatment. Interestingly, VHL inhibitors were found to specifically upregulate VHL itself. Our analysis revealed that this occurs via protein stabilisation of VHL isoforms and not via changes in transcript levels. Increased VHL levels upon VH298 treatment resulted in turn in reduced levels of HIF-1α protein. This work demonstrates the specificity of VHL inhibitors and reveal different antagonistic effects upon their acute versus prolonged treatment in cells. These findings suggest that therapeutic use of VHL inhibitors may not produce overt side effects from HIF stabilisation as previously thought.
    Keywords:  E3 ubiquitin ligase; Hypoxia; chemical probe; hypoxia‐inducible factor (HIF); inhibitor; proteolysis; proteostasis; small molecule; von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)
  22. Cell Rep. 2021 Jun 29. pii: S2211-1247(21)00697-5. [Epub ahead of print]35(13): 109321
      The major cap-binding protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), an ancient protein required for translation of all eukaryotic genomes, is a surprising yet potent oncogenic driver. The genetic interactions that maintain the oncogenic activity of this key translation factor remain unknown. In this study, we carry out a genome-wide CRISPRi screen wherein we identify more than 600 genetic interactions that sustain eIF4E oncogenic activity. Our data show that eIF4E controls the translation of Tfeb, a key executer of the autophagy response. This autophagy survival response is triggered by mitochondrial proteotoxic stress, which allows cancer cell survival. Our screen also reveals a functional interaction between eIF4E and a single anti-apoptotic factor, Bcl-xL, in tumor growth. Furthermore, we show that eIF4E and the exon-junction complex (EJC), which is involved in many steps of RNA metabolism, interact to control the migratory properties of cancer cells. Overall, we uncover several cancer-specific vulnerabilities that provide further resolution of the cancer translatome.
    Keywords:  Bcl-xL; CRISPRi; EJC; Tfeb; UPR(mt)-like stress response; autophagy; cancer; eIF4E; mitochondria; translation control
  23. PLoS Genet. 2021 Jul 02. 17(7): e1009664
      Mitochondrial defects can cause a variety of human diseases and protective mechanisms exist to maintain mitochondrial functionality. Imbalances in mitochondrial proteostasis trigger a transcriptional program, termed mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR). However, the temporal sequence of events in mtUPR is unclear and the consequences on mitochondrial protein import are controversial. Here, we have quantitatively analyzed all main import pathways into mitochondria after different time spans of mtUPR induction. Kinetic analyses reveal that protein import into all mitochondrial subcompartments strongly increases early upon mtUPR and that this is accompanied by rapid remodelling of the mitochondrial signature lipid cardiolipin. Genetic inactivation of cardiolipin synthesis precluded stimulation of protein import and compromised cellular fitness. At late stages of mtUPR upon sustained stress, mitochondrial protein import efficiency declined. Our work clarifies the enigma of protein import upon mtUPR and identifies sequential mtUPR stages, in which an early increase in protein biogenesis to restore mitochondrial proteostasis is followed by late stages characterized by a decrease in import capacity upon prolonged stress induction.
  24. Sci Signal. 2021 Jun 29. pii: eabe9613. [Epub ahead of print]14(689):
      The maintenance of telomere length supports repetitive cell division and therefore plays a central role in cancer development and progression. Telomeres are extended by either the enzyme telomerase or the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. Here, we found that the telomere-associated protein SLX4IP dictates telomere proteome composition by recruiting and activating the E3 SUMO ligase PIAS1 to the SLX4 complex. PIAS1 SUMOylated the telomere-binding protein RAP1, which disrupted its interaction with the telomere-binding protein TRF2 and facilitated its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. In the cytosol, RAP1 bound to IκB kinase (IKK), resulting in activation of the transcription factor NF-κB and its induction of Jagged-1 expression, which promoted Notch signaling and the institution of ALT. This axis could be targeted therapeutically in ALT-driven cancers and in tumor cells that develop resistance to antitelomerase therapies. Our results illuminate the mechanisms underlying SLX4IP-dependent telomere plasticity and demonstrate the role of telomere proteins in directly coordinating intracellular signaling and telomere maintenance dynamics.
  25. EMBO Rep. 2021 Jun 30. e52905
      Planarians are able to stand long periods of starvation by maintaining adult stem cell pools and regenerative capacity. The molecular pathways that are needed for the maintenance of regeneration during starvation are not known. Here, we show that down-regulation of chaperonin TRiC/CCT subunits abrogates the regeneration capacity of planarians during starvation, but TRiC/CCT subunits are dispensable for regeneration in fed planarians. Under starvation, they are required to maintain mitotic fidelity and for blastema formation. We show that TRiC subunits modulate the unfolded protein response (UPR) and are required to maintain ATP levels in starved planarians. Regenerative defects in starved CCT-depleted planarians can be rescued by either chemical induction of mild endoplasmic reticulum stress, which leads to induction of the UPR, or by the supplementation of fatty acids. Together, these results indicate that CCT-dependent UPR induction promotes regeneration of planarians under food restriction.
    Keywords:  ER stress; chaperonin; hematopoietic stem cell; planarian; starvation
  26. Mol Biol Cell. 2021 Jun 30. mbcE21030104
      Aneuploid yeast cells are in a chronic state of proteotoxicity yet do not constitutively induce the cytosolic unfolded protein response (HSR) by Heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1). Here, we demonstrate that an active environmental stress response (ESR), a hallmark of aneuploidy across different models, suppresses Hsf1 induction in models of single chromosome gain. Furthermore, engineered activation of the ESR in the absence of stress was sufficient to suppress Hsf1 activation in euploid cells by subsequent heat shock while increasing thermotolerance and blocking formation of heat-induced protein aggregates. Suppression of the ESR in aneuploid cells resulted in longer cell doubling times and decreased viability in the presence of additional proteotoxicity. Lastly, we show that in euploids Hsf1 induction by heat shock is curbed by the ESR. Strikingly, we found a similar relationship between the ESR and the HSR using an inducible model of aneuploidy. Our work explains a long-standing paradox in the field and provides new insights into conserved mechanisms of proteostasis with potential relevance to cancers associated with aneuploidy.
  27. J Immunol. 2021 Jun 30. pii: ji2100125. [Epub ahead of print]
      Fish IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is a crucial transcription factor in the IFN activation signaling pathway, which leads to IFN production and a positive cycle. Unrestricted IFN expression results in hyperimmune responses and therefore, IFN must be tightly regulated. In the current study, we found that zebrafish Ub-activating enzyme (Uba1) negatively regulated IRF3 via the K-48 ubiquitin proteasome degradation of IRF3. First, ifn expression stimulated by spring viraemia of carp virus infection was blunted by the overexpression of Uba1 and enhanced by Uba1 knockdown. Afterward, we found that Uba1 was localized in the cytoplasm, where it interacted with and degraded IRF3. Functional domains analysis revealed that the C-terminal ubiquitin-fold domain was necessary for IRF3 degradation by Uba1 and the N-terminal DNA-binding domain of IRF3 was indispensable for the degradation by Uba1.The degradation of IRF3 was subsequently impaired by treatment with MG132, a ubiquitin proteasome inhibitor. Further mechanism analysis revealed that Uba1 induced the K48-linked Ub-proteasomal degradation of IRF3. Finally, the antiviral capacity of IRF3 was significantly attenuated by Uba1. Taken together, our study reveals that zebrafish Uba1 interacts with and activates the ubiquitinated degradation of IRF3, providing evidence of the IFN immune balance mechanism in fish.
  28. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2021 Jun 26. pii: S1535-9476(21)00092-X. [Epub ahead of print] 100120
      Human coronaviruses have become an increasing threat to global health; three highly pathogenic strains have emerged since the early 2000s, including most recently SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of coronavirus pathogenesis is needed, including how these highly virulent strains differ from those that cause milder, common-cold like disease. While significant progress has been made in understanding how SARS-CoV-2 proteins interact with the host cell, non-structural protein 3 (nsp3) has largely been omitted from the analyses. Nsp3 is a viral protease with important roles in viral protein biogenesis, replication complex formation, and modulation of host ubiquitinylation and ISGylation. Herein, we use affinity purification-mass spectrometry to study the host-viral protein-protein interactome of nsp3 from five coronavirus strains: pathogenic strains SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV; and endemic common-cold strains hCoV-229E and hCoV-OC43. We divide each nsp3 into three fragments and use tandem mass tag technology to directly compare the interactors across the five strains for each fragment. We find that few interactors are common across all variants for a particular fragment, but we identify shared patterns between select variants, such as ribosomal proteins enriched in the N-terminal fragment (nsp3.1) dataset for SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. We also identify unique biological processes enriched for individual homologs, for instance nuclear protein important for the middle fragment of hCoV-229E, as well as ribosome biogenesis of the MERS nsp3.2 homolog. Lastly, we further investigate the interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 nsp3 N-terminal fragment with ATF6, a regulator of the unfolded protein response. We show that SARS-CoV-2 nsp3.1 directly binds to ATF6 and can suppress the ATF6 stress response. Characterizing the host interactions of nsp3 widens our understanding of how coronaviruses co-opt cellular pathways and presents new avenues for host-targeted antiviral therapeutics.
  29. J Biol Chem. 2021 Jun 23. pii: S0021-9258(21)00715-8. [Epub ahead of print] 100915
      The thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the renal distal convoluted tubule (DCT) plays a critical role in regulating blood pressure (BP) and K+ homeostasis. During hyperkalemia, reduced NCC phosphorylation and total NCC abundance facilitate downstream electrogenic K+ secretion and BP reduction. However, the mechanism for the K+-dependent reduction in total NCC levels is unknown. Here, we show that NCC levels were reduced in ex vivo renal tubules incubated in a high-K+ medium for 24-48 h. This reduction was independent of NCC transcription, but was prevented using inhibitors of the proteasome (MG132) or lysosome (chloroquine). Ex vivo, high K+ increased NCC ubiquitylation, but inhibition of the ubiquitin conjugation pathway prevented the high K+-mediated reduction in NCC protein. In tubules incubated in high K+ media ex vivo or in the renal cortex of mice fed a high K+ diet for 4 days, the abundance and phosphorylation of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), a key regulator of ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation and protein folding, was decreased. Conversely, in similar samples the expression of PP1α, known to dephosphorylate Hsp70, was also increased. NCC co-immunoprecipitated with Hsp70 and PP1α, and inhibiting their actions prevented the high K+-mediated reduction in total NCC levels. In conclusion, we show that hyperkalemia drives NCC ubiquitylation and degradation via a PP1α-dependent process facilitated by Hsp70. This mechanism facilitates K+-dependent reductions in NCC to protect plasma K+ homeostasis and potentially reduces BP.
    Keywords:  aldosterone; hypertension; kidney; post‐translational modification (PTM); ubiquitylation (ubiquitination)
  30. Mol Cell. 2021 Jun 23. pii: S1097-2765(21)00457-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      N-degron pathways are a set of proteolytic systems that target the N-terminal destabilizing residues of substrates for proteasomal degradation. Recently, the Gly/N-degron pathway has been identified as a new branch of the N-degron pathway. The N-terminal glycine degron (Gly/N-degron) is recognized by ZYG11B and ZER1, the substrate receptors of the Cullin 2-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL2). Here we present the crystal structures of ZYG11B and ZER1 bound to various Gly/N-degrons. The structures reveal that ZYG11B and ZER1 utilize their armadillo (ARM) repeats forming a deep and narrow cavity to engage mainly the first four residues of Gly/N-degrons. The α-amino group of the Gly/N-degron is accommodated in an acidic pocket by five conserved hydrogen bonds. These structures, together with biochemical studies, decipher the molecular basis for the specific recognition of the Gly/N-degron by ZYG11B and ZER1, providing key information for future structure-based chemical probe design.
    Keywords:  CRL2; Crystal structure; Gly/N-degron; N-degron pathway; Protein degradation; Ubiquitination; ZER1; ZYG11B
  31. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Jul 06. pii: e2023418118. [Epub ahead of print]118(27):
      The autophagy-lysosomal pathway plays a critical role in intracellular clearance and metabolic homeostasis. While neuronal autophagy is known to participate in the degradation of neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated and misfolded tau protein in Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies, how microglial-specific autophagy regulates microglial intrinsic properties and neuronal tau pathology is not well understood. We report here that Atg7, a key mediator of autophagosome biogenesis, plays an essential role in the regulation of microglial lipid metabolism and neuroinflammation. Microglia-specific deletion of Atg7 leads to the transition of microglia to a proinflammatory status in vivo and to inflammasome activation in vitro. Activation of ApoE and lipid efflux attenuates the lipid droplets accumulation and inhibits cytokine production in microglial cells with Atg7 deficiency. Functionally, we show that the absence of microglial Atg7 enhances intraneuronal tau pathology and its spreading. Our results reveal an essential role for microglial autophagy in regulating lipid homeostasis, neuroinflammation, and tau pathology.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer's disease; autophagy; lipid metabolism; microglia; tau
  32. Dev Cell. 2021 Jun 29. pii: S1534-5807(21)00518-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      Lysosomes are the recycling center and nutrient signaling hub of the cell. Here, we show that lysosomes also control mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation by proteomic reprogramming. The chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) lysosome subgroup promotes osteogenesis, while suppressing adipogenesis, by selectively removing osteogenesis-deterring factors, especially master transcriptional factors, such as adipogenic TLE3, ZNF423, and chondrogenic SOX9. The activity of the CMA-committed lysosomes in MSCs are controlled by Van-Gogh-like 2 (Vangl2) at lysosomes. Vangl2 directly binds to lysosome-associated membrane protein 2A (LAMP-2A) and targets it for degradation. MSC-specific Vangl2 ablation in mice increases LAMP-2A expression and CMA-lysosome numbers, promoting bone formation while reducing marrow fat. The Vangl2:LAMP-2A ratio in MSCs correlates inversely with the capacity of the cells for osteoblastic differentiation in humans and mice. These findings demonstrate a critical role for lysosomes in MSC lineage acquisition and establish Vangl2-LAMP-2A signaling as a critical control mechanism.
    Keywords:  LAMP-2A; MSC; Vangl2; autophagy; lysosome; osteoblast; osteogenesis
  33. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Jun 26. pii: 3195. [Epub ahead of print]13(13):
      The protein quality control network, including autophagy, the proteasome and the unfolded protein response (UPR), is triggered by stress and is overactive in acquired antiestrogen therapy resistance. We show for the first time that the aggresome load correlates with apoptosis and is increased in antiestrogen-sensitive cells compared to endocrine-resistant variants. LC-MS/MS analysis of the aggregated proteins obtained after 4OH-tamoxifen and Fulvestrant treatment identified proteins with essential function in protein quality control in antiestrogen-sensitive cells, but not in resistant variants. These include the UPR modulators RTCB and PDIA6, as well as many proteasome proteins such as PSMC2 and PSMD11. RTCB is a tRNA and XBP1 ligase and its aggregation induced by antiestrogens correlated with impaired XBP1s expression in sensitive cells. Knock down of RTCB was sufficient to restore sensitivity to tamoxifen in endocrine-resistant cells and increased the formation of aggresomes, leading to apoptotic cell death. Analysis of primary human breast cancer samples and their metastases appearing after endocrine treatment showed that RTCB is only localized to aggresomes in the primary tumors, while total aggresomes, including aggregated RTCB, were significantly reduced in the metastases. Therefore, different protein aggregation patterns may indicate loss of function of essential proteins resulting in enhanced protein aggregation that can be used to identify antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells and improve the response to antiestrogenic therapy.
    Keywords:  antiestrogen resistance; breast cancer; estrogen receptors; protein aggregation; tRNA-splicing ligase RTCB homolog (RTCB)
  34. EMBO Rep. 2021 Jun 29. e51780
      Snail is a dedicated transcriptional repressor and acts as a master inducer of EMT and metastasis, yet the underlying signaling cascades triggered by Snail still remain elusive. Here, we report that Snail promotes colorectal cancer (CRC) migration by preventing non-coding RNA LOC113230-mediated degradation of argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1). LOC113230 is a novel Snail target gene, and Snail binds to the functional E-boxes within its proximal promoter to repress its expression in response to TGF-β induction. Ectopic expression of LOC113230 potently suppresses CRC cell growth, migration, and lung metastasis in xenograft experiments. Mechanistically, LOC113230 acts as a scaffold to facilitate recruiting LRPPRC and the TRAF2 E3 ubiquitin ligase to ASS1, resulting in enhanced ubiquitination and degradation of ASS1 and decreased arginine synthesis. Moreover, elevated ASS1 expression is essential for CRC growth and migration. Collectively, these findings suggest that TGF-β and Snail promote arginine synthesis via inhibiting LOC113230-mediated LRPPRC/TRAF2/ASS1 complex assembly and this complex can serve as potential target for the development of new therapeutic approaches to treat CRC.
    Keywords:  Snail; argininosuccinate synthase 1; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; metastasis; ubiquitination
  35. Front Immunol. 2021 ;12 687102
      The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I (MHC-I) region contains a multitude of genes relevant to immune response. Multiple E3 ubiquitin ligase genes, including tripartite motif 10 (TRIM10), TRIM15, TRIM26, TRIM27, TRIM31, TRIM38, TRIM39, TRIM40, and RING finger protein 39 (RNF39), are organized in a tight cluster, and an additional two TRIM genes (namely TRIM38 and TRIM27) telomeric of the cluster within the MHC-I region. The E3 ubiquitin ligases encoded by these genes possess important roles in controlling the intensity of innate immune responses. In this review, we discuss the E3 ubiquitin ligases encoded within the MHC-I region, highlight their regulatory roles in innate immunity, and outline their potential functions in infection, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
    Keywords:  E3 ubiquitin ligases; MHC class I region; autoimmune diseases; innate immunity; post-translational modifications
  36. Nat Commun. 2021 Jun 29. 12(1): 4019
      The vast majority of human tumors with p53 mutations undergo loss of the remaining wildtype p53 allele (loss-of-heterozygosity, p53LOH). p53LOH has watershed significance in promoting tumor progression. However, driving forces for p53LOH are poorly understood. Here we identify the repressive WTp53-HSF1 axis as one driver of p53LOH. We find that the WTp53 allele in AOM/DSS chemically-induced colorectal tumors (CRC) of p53R248Q/+ mice retains partial activity and represses heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1), the master regulator of the proteotoxic stress response (HSR) that is ubiquitously activated in cancer. HSR is critical for stabilizing oncogenic proteins including mutp53. WTp53-retaining CRC tumors, tumor-derived organoids and human CRC cells all suppress the tumor-promoting HSF1 program. Mechanistically, retained WTp53 activates CDKN1A/p21, causing cell cycle inhibition and suppression of E2F target MLK3. MLK3 links cell cycle with the MAPK stress pathway to activate the HSR response. In p53R248Q/+ tumors WTp53 activation by constitutive stress represses MLK3, thereby weakening the MAPK-HSF1 response necessary for tumor survival. This creates selection pressure for p53LOH which eliminates the repressive WTp53-MAPK-HSF1 axis and unleashes tumor-promoting HSF1 functions, inducing mutp53 stabilization enabling invasion.
  37. Oncogene. 2021 Jul 01.
      Cancer cells show increases in protein degradation pathways, including autophagy, during progression to meet the increased protein degradation demand and support cell survival. On the other hand, reduced autophagy activity during aging is associated with a reduced DNA damage response and increased genomic instability. Therefore, it is a puzzling how DNA repair can be increased in cancer cells that are resistant to chemotherapies or during progression when autophagy activity is intact or increased. We discovered that tripartite motif containing 44 (TRIM44) is a pivotal element regulating the DNA damage response in cancer cells with intact autophagy. TRIM44 deubiquitinates p62, an autophagy substrate, which leads to its oligomerization. This prevents p62 localization to the nucleus upon irradiation. Increased cytoplasmic retention of p62 by TRIM44 prevents the degradation of FLNA and 53BP1, which increases DNA damage repair. Together, our data support TRIM44 a potential therapeutic target for therapy-resistant tumor cells with intact autophagy.
  38. RSC Chem Biol. 2021 Apr 16. 2(3): 917-931
      A hallmark of N-linked glycosylation in the secretory compartments of eukaryotic cells is the sequential remodeling of an initially uniform oligosaccharide to a site-specific, heterogeneous ensemble of glycostructures on mature proteins. To understand site-specific processing, we used protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), a model protein with five glycosylation sites, for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and compared the result to a biochemical in vitro analysis with four different glycan processing enzymes. As predicted by an analysis of the accessibility of the N-glycans for their processing enzymes derived from the MD simulations, N-glycans at different glycosylation sites showed different kinetic properties for the processing enzymes. In addition, altering the tertiary structure of the glycoprotein PDI affected its N-glycan remodeling in a site-specific way. We propose that the observed differential N-glycan reactivities depend on the surrounding protein tertiary structure and lead to different glycan structures in the same protein through kinetically controlled processing pathways.
  39. ACS Chem Biol. 2021 Jun 28.
      Myogenic differentiation, the irreversible developmental process where precursor myoblast muscle stem cells become contractile myotubes, is heavily regulated by glycosylation and glycan-protein interactions at the cell surface and the extracellular matrix. The glycan-binding protein galectin-1 has been found to be a potent activator of myogenic differentiation. While it is being explored as a potential therapeutic for muscle repair, a precise understanding of its glycoprotein interactors is lacking. These gaps are due in part to the difficulties of capturing glycan-protein interactions in live cells. Here, we demonstrate the use of a proximity tagging strategy coupled with quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomics to capture, enrich, and identify the glycan-mediated glycoprotein interactors of galectin-1 in cultured live mouse myoblasts. Our interactome dataset can serve as a resource to aid the determination of mechanisms through which galectin-1 promotes myogenic differentiation. Moreover, it can also facilitate the determination of the physiological glycoprotein counter-receptors of galectin-1. Indeed, we identify several known and novel glycan-mediated ligands of galectin-1 as well as validate that galectin-1 binds the native CD44 glycoprotein in a glycan-mediated manner.
  40. Mol Cell. 2021 Jun 23. pii: S1097-2765(21)00452-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      RelA-SpoT Homolog (RSH) enzymes control bacterial physiology through synthesis and degradation of the nucleotide alarmone (p)ppGpp. We recently discovered multiple families of small alarmone synthetase (SAS) RSH acting as toxins of toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules, with the FaRel subfamily of toxSAS abrogating bacterial growth by producing an analog of (p)ppGpp, (pp)pApp. Here we probe the mechanism of growth arrest used by four experimentally unexplored subfamilies of toxSAS: FaRel2, PhRel, PhRel2, and CapRel. Surprisingly, all these toxins specifically inhibit protein synthesis. To do so, they transfer a pyrophosphate moiety from ATP to the tRNA 3' CCA. The modification inhibits both tRNA aminoacylation and the sensing of cellular amino acid starvation by the ribosome-associated RSH RelA. Conversely, we show that some small alarmone hydrolase (SAH) RSH enzymes can reverse the pyrophosphorylation of tRNA to counter the growth inhibition by toxSAS. Collectively, we establish RSHs as RNA-modifying enzymes.
    Keywords:  (p)ppApp; (p)ppGpp; RelA-SpoT Homolog; SAH; SAS; ribosome; tRNA modification; toxSAS; toxin-antitoxin; translation
  41. Open Biol. 2021 Jun;11(6): 200371
      A feature of metazoan reproduction is the elimination of maternal centrosomes from the oocyte. In animals that form syncytial cysts during oogenesis, including Drosophila and human, all centrosomes within the cyst migrate to the oocyte where they are subsequently degenerated. The importance and the underlying mechanism of this event remain unclear. Here, we show that, during early Drosophila oogenesis, control of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), the ubiquitin ligase complex essential for cell cycle control, ensures proper transport of centrosomes into the oocyte through the regulation of Polo/Plk1 kinase, a critical regulator of the integrity and activity of the centrosome. We show that novel mutations in the APC/C-specific E2, Vihar/Ube2c, that affect its inhibitory regulation on APC/C cause precocious Polo degradation and impedes centrosome transport, through destabilization of centrosomes. The failure of centrosome migration correlates with weakened microtubule polarization in the cyst and allows ectopic microtubule nucleation in nurse cells, leading to the loss of oocyte identity. These results suggest a role for centrosome migration in oocyte fate maintenance through the concentration and confinement of microtubule nucleation activity into the oocyte. Considering the conserved roles of APC/C and Polo throughout the animal kingdom, our findings may be translated into other animals.
    Keywords:  APC/C; Drosophila; Polo kinase; centrosomes; fertility; germline
  42. Sci Adv. 2021 Jul;pii: eabg1969. [Epub ahead of print]7(27):
      The plasma membrane shapes and protects the eukaryotic cell from its surroundings and is crucial for cell life. Although initial repair mechanisms to reseal injured membranes are well established, less is known about how cells restructure damaged membranes in the aftermath to restore homeostasis. Here, we show that cells respond to plasma membrane injury by activating proteins associated with macropinocytosis specifically at the damaged membrane. Subsequent to membrane resealing, cells form large macropinosomes originating from the repair site, which eventually become positive for autophagy-related LC3B protein. This process occurs independent of ULK1, ATG13, and WIPI2 but dependent on ATG7, p62, and Rubicon. Internalized macropinosomes shrink in the cytoplasm, likely by osmotic draining, and eventually fuse with lysosomes. We propose that a form of macropinocytosis coupled to noncanonical autophagy, which we term LC3-associated macropinocytosis (LAM) functions to remove damaged material from the plasma membrane and restore membrane integrity upon injury.