bims-proteo Biomed News
on Proteostasis
Issue of 2021‒05‒02
forty-three papers selected by
Eric Chevet

  1. Cells. 2021 Apr 27. pii: 1036. [Epub ahead of print]10(5):
      The rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of nucleated human cells has crucial functions in protein biogenesis, calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, and signal transduction. Among the roughly one hundred components, which are involved in protein import and protein folding or assembly, two components stand out: The Sec61 complex and BiP. The Sec61 complex in the ER membrane represents the major entry point for precursor polypeptides into the membrane or lumen of the ER and provides a conduit for Ca2+ ions from the ER lumen to the cytosol. The second component, the Hsp70-type molecular chaperone immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein, short BiP, plays central roles in protein folding and assembly (hence its name), protein import, cellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and various intracellular signal transduction pathways. For the purpose of this review, we focus on these two components, their relevant allosteric effectors and on the question of how their respective functional cycles are linked in order to reconcile the apparently contradictory features of the ER membrane, selective permeability for precursor polypeptides, and impermeability for Ca2+. The key issues are that the Sec61 complex exists in two conformations: An open and a closed state that are in a dynamic equilibrium with each other, and that BiP contributes to its gating in both directions in cooperation with different co-chaperones. While the open Sec61 complex forms an aqueous polypeptide-conducting- and transiently Ca2+-permeable channel, the closed complex is impermeable even to Ca2+. Therefore, we discuss the human hereditary and tumor diseases that are linked to Sec61 channel gating, termed Sec61-channelopathies, as disturbances of selective polypeptide-impermeability and/or aberrant Ca2+-permeability.
    Keywords:  BiP; SSR/TRAP complex; Sec61-channelopathies; Sec62; Sec63; common variable immunodeficiency; congenital disorder of glycosylation; endoplasmic reticulum; neutropenia; polycystic liver disease
  2. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Apr 22. pii: 4359. [Epub ahead of print]22(9):
      Ubiquitin is a small protein that is highly conserved throughout eukaryotes. It operates as a reversible post-translational modifier through a process known as ubiquitination, which involves the addition of one or several ubiquitin moieties to a substrate protein. These modifications mark proteins for proteasome-dependent degradation or alter their localization or activity in a variety of cellular processes. In most eukaryotes, ubiquitin is generated by the proteolytic cleavage of precursor proteins in which it is fused either to itself, constituting a polyubiquitin precursor, or as a single N-terminal moiety to ribosomal proteins, which are practically invariably eL40 and eS31. Herein, we summarize the contribution of the ubiquitin moiety within precursors of ribosomal proteins to ribosome biogenesis and function and discuss the biological relevance of having maintained the explicit fusion to eL40 and eS31 during evolution. There are other ubiquitin-like proteins, which also work as post-translational modifiers, among them the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO). Both ubiquitin and SUMO are able to modify ribosome assembly factors and ribosomal proteins to regulate ribosome biogenesis and function. Strikingly, ubiquitin-like domains are also found within two ribosome assembly factors; hence, the functional role of these proteins will also be highlighted.
    Keywords:  SUMO; protein folding; ribosomal protein; ribosome biogenesis; ubiquitin; ubiquitin-like domain
  3. Biochimie. 2021 Apr 27. pii: S0300-9084(21)00105-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31 or BCAP31) is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein found mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), including at mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). It acts as a broad-specificity membrane protein chaperone and quality control factor, which can promote different fates for its clients, including ER retention, ER export, ER-associated degradation (ERAD), or evasion of degradation, and it also acts as a MAM tetherer and regulatory protein. It is involved in several cellular processes - it supports ER and mitochondrial homeostasis, promotes proliferation and migration, plays several roles in metabolism and the immune system, and regulates autophagy and apoptosis. Full-length BAP31 can be anti-apoptotic, but can also mediate activation of caspase-8, and itself be cleaved by caspase-8 into p20-BAP31, which promotes apoptosis by mobilizing ER calcium stores at MAMs. BAP31 loss-of-function mutations is the cause of 'deafness, dystonia, and central hypomyelination' (DDCH) syndrome, characterized by severe neurological symptoms and early death. BAP31 is furthermore implicated in a growing number of cancers and other diseases, and several viruses have been found to target it to promote their survival or life cycle progression. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview and examination of the basic properties, functions, mechanisms, and roles in disease of BAP31.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Chaperone; ER stress; Mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM); Unfolded protein response (UPR); X-linked intellectual disability (XLID)
  4. J Cell Sci. 2021 Apr 15. pii: jcs257188. [Epub ahead of print]134(8):
      Viral infection both activates stress signaling pathways and redistributes ribosomes away from host mRNAs to translate viral mRNAs. The intricacies of this ribosome shuffle from host to viral mRNAs are poorly understood. Here, we uncover a role for the ribosome-associated quality control (RQC) factor ZNF598 during vaccinia virus mRNA translation. ZNF598 acts on collided ribosomes to ubiquitylate 40S subunit proteins uS10 (RPS20) and eS10 (RPS10), initiating RQC-dependent nascent chain degradation and ribosome recycling. We show that vaccinia infection enhances uS10 ubiquitylation, indicating an increased burden on RQC pathways during viral propagation. Consistent with an increased RQC demand, we demonstrate that vaccinia virus replication is impaired in cells that either lack ZNF598 or express a ubiquitylation-deficient version of uS10. Using SILAC-based proteomics and concurrent RNA-seq analysis, we determine that translation, but not transcription of vaccinia virus mRNAs is compromised in cells with deficient RQC activity. Additionally, vaccinia virus infection reduces cellular RQC activity, suggesting that co-option of ZNF598 by vaccinia virus plays a critical role in translational reprogramming that is needed for optimal viral propagation.
    Keywords:  Integrated stress response; Ribosomes; Ubiquitylation; Vaccinia; ZNF598
  5. FEBS J. 2021 May 01.
      The atypical E3 ligase HOIL-1 forms ester bonds between ubiquitin and serine/threonine residues in proteins, but the physiological roles of this unusual modification are unknown. We now report that IL-18 signalling leading to the production of interferon g (IFNg) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is enhanced in cytotoxic T cells from knock-in mice expressing the E3 ligase-inactive HOIL-1[C458S] mutant, demonstrating that the formation of HOIL-1-catalysed ester-linked ubiquitin bonds restricts the activation of this pathway. We show that the interaction of IRAK2 with TRAF6 is required for IL-18-stimulated IFNg and GM-CSF production, and that the increased production of these cytokines in cytotoxic T cells from HOIL-1[C458S] mice correlates with an increase in both the number and size of the Lys63/Met1-linked hybrid ubiquitin chains attached to IRAK2 in these cells. In contrast, the secretion of IL-12 and IL-6 and the formation of il-12 and il-6 mRNA induced in bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) by prolonged stimulation with TLR-activating ligands that signal via myddosomes, which also requires the interaction of IRAK2 with TRAF6, was not increased but modestly reduced in HOIL-1[C458S] BMDM. The decreased production of these cytokines correlated with reduced ubiquitylation of IRAK2. Our results establish that changes in HOIL-1-catalysed ester-linked ubiquitylation can promote or reduce cytokine production depending on the ligand, receptor and immune cell and may be explained by differences in the ubiquitylation of IRAK2.
    Keywords:  HOIL-1; T cell; macrophage; myddosome; ubiquitylation
  6. Plant Physiol. 2021 Apr 30. pii: kiab181. [Epub ahead of print]
      Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control processes recognize and eliminate misfolded proteins to maintain cellular protein homeostasis and prevent the accumulation of defective proteins in the secretory pathway. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins carry a glycolipid modification which provides an efficient ER export signal and potentially prevents the entry into ER-associated degradation (ERAD), which is one of the major pathways for clearance of terminally misfolded proteins from the ER. Here, we analyzed the degradation routes of different misfolded glycoproteins carrying a C-terminal GPI-attachment signal peptide in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that a fusion protein consisting of the misfolded extracellular domain from Arabidopsis STRUBBELIG and the GPI-anchor attachment sequence of COBRA1 was efficiently targeted to Hydroxymethylglutaryl Reductase Degradation Protein 1 (HRD1) complex-mediated ERAD without the detectable attachment of a GPI anchor. Non-native variants of the GPI-anchored lipid transfer protein 1 (LTPG1) that lack a severely misfolded domain, on the other hand, are modified with a GPI anchor and targeted to the vacuole for degradation. Impaired processing of the GPI-anchoring signal peptide by mutation of the cleavage site or in a GPI-transamidase-compromised mutant caused ER retention and routed the non-native LTPG1 to ERAD. Collectively, these results indicate that for severely misfolded proteins ER quality control processes are dominant over ER export. For less severely misfolded proteins the GPI anchor provides an efficient ER export signal resulting in transport to the vacuole.
  7. Cell Rep. 2021 Apr 27. pii: S2211-1247(21)00356-9. [Epub ahead of print]35(4): 109040
      Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysregulation is associated with pathologies including neurodegenerative, muscular, and diabetic conditions. Depletion of ER calcium can lead to the loss of resident proteins in a process termed exodosis. To identify compounds that attenuate the redistribution of ER proteins under pathological conditions, we performed a quantitative high-throughput screen using the Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)-secreted ER calcium modulated protein (SERCaMP) assay, which monitors secretion of ER-resident proteins triggered by calcium depletion. We identify several clinically used drugs, including bromocriptine, and further characterize them using assays to measure effects on ER calcium, ER stress, and ER exodosis. Bromocriptine elicits protective effects in cell-based models of exodosis as well as in vivo models of stroke and diabetes. Bromocriptine analogs with reduced dopamine receptor activity retain similar efficacy in stabilizing the ER proteome, indicating a non-canonical mechanism of action. This study describes a strategic approach to identify small-molecule drugs capable of improving ER proteostasis in human disease conditions.
    Keywords:  ER calcium; ER proteome; ER retention sequence; ER stress; SERCaMP; bromocriptine; diabetes; endoplasmic reticulum; exodosis; stroke
  8. Mol Cell. 2021 Mar 22. pii: S1097-2765(21)00172-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Incompletely synthesized nascent chains obstructing large ribosomal subunits are targeted for degradation by ribosome-associated quality control (RQC). In bacterial RQC, RqcH marks the nascent chains with C-terminal alanine (Ala) tails that are directly recognized by proteasome-like proteases, whereas in eukaryotes, RqcH orthologs (Rqc2/NEMF [nuclear export mediator factor]) assist the Ltn1/Listerin E3 ligase in nascent chain ubiquitylation. Here, we study RQC-mediated proteolytic targeting of ribosome stalling products in mammalian cells. We show that mammalian NEMF has an additional, Listerin-independent proteolytic role, which, as in bacteria, is mediated by tRNA-Ala binding and Ala tailing. However, in mammalian cells Ala tails signal proteolysis indirectly, through a pathway that recognizes C-terminal degrons; we identify the CRL2KLHDC10 E3 ligase complex and the novel C-end rule E3, Pirh2/Rchy1, as bona fide RQC pathway components that directly bind to Ala-tailed ribosome stalling products and target them for degradation. As Listerin mutation causes neurodegeneration in mice, functionally redundant E3s may likewise be implicated in molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration.
    Keywords:  Alanine-tail; C-end rule; KLHDC10; NEMF; Pirh2; RQC; Rchy1; Rqc2; RqcH; ribosome-associated quality control
  9. Elife. 2021 Apr 27. pii: e67425. [Epub ahead of print]10
      The unfolded protein response (UPR) maintains protein folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In metazoan cells, the Ire1 branch of the UPR initiates two functional outputs-non-conventional mRNA splicing and selective mRNA decay (RIDD). By contrast, Ire1 orthologs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are specialized for only splicing or RIDD, respectively. Previously, we showed that the functional specialization lies in Ire1's RNase activity, which is either stringently splice-site specific or promiscuous (W. Li et al., 2018). Here, we developed an assay that reports on Ire1's RNase promiscuity. We found that conversion of two amino acids within the RNase domain of S. cerevisiae Ire1 to their S. pombe counterparts rendered it promiscuous. Using biochemical assays and computational modeling, we show that the mutations rewired a pair of salt bridges at Ire1 RNase domain's dimer interface, changing its protomer alignment. Thus, Ire1 protomer alignment affects its substrates specificity.
    Keywords:  S. cerevisiae; S. pombe; biochemistry; chemical biology
  10. Mol Cell. 2021 Apr 22. pii: S1097-2765(21)00220-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      How are E3 ubiquitin ligases configured to match substrate quaternary structures? Here, by studying the yeast GID complex (mutation of which causes deficiency in glucose-induced degradation of gluconeogenic enzymes), we discover supramolecular chelate assembly as an E3 ligase strategy for targeting an oligomeric substrate. Cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures show that, to bind the tetrameric substrate fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fbp1), two minimally functional GID E3s assemble into the 20-protein Chelator-GIDSR4, which resembles an organometallic supramolecular chelate. The Chelator-GIDSR4 assembly avidly binds multiple Fbp1 degrons so that multiple Fbp1 protomers are simultaneously ubiquitylated at lysines near the allosteric and substrate binding sites. Importantly, key structural and biochemical features, including capacity for supramolecular assembly, are preserved in the human ortholog, the CTLH E3. Based on our integrative structural, biochemical, and cell biological data, we propose that higher-order E3 ligase assembly generally enables multipronged targeting, capable of simultaneously incapacitating multiple protomers and functionalities of oligomeric substrates.
    Keywords:  CTLH; E3; GID; RING; cryo-EM; gluconeogenesis; metabolic regulation; supramolecular assembly; ubiquitin; ubiquitin ligase
  11. J Cell Sci. 2022 Mar 01. pii: jcs255026. [Epub ahead of print]135(5):
      Membrane contact sites (MCSs) between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and late endosomes/lysosomes (LE/lys) are emerging as critical hubs for diverse cellular events, and changes in their extents are linked to severe neurological diseases. While recent studies show that the synaptotagmin-like mitochondrial-lipid-binding (SMP) domain-containing protein PDZD8 may mediate the formation of ER-LE/lys MCSs, the cellular functions of PDZD8 remain largely elusive. Here, we attempt to investigate the lipid transfer activities of PDZD8 and the extent to which its cellular functions depend on its lipid transfer activities. In accordance with recent studies, we demonstrate that PDZD8 is a protrudin (ZFYVE27)-interacting protein and that PDZD8 acts as a tether at ER-LE/lys MCSs. Furthermore, we discover that the SMP domain of PDZD8 binds glycerophospholipids and ceramides both in vivo and in vitro, and that the SMP domain can transport lipids between membranes in vitro. Functionally, PDZD8 is required for LE/lys positioning and neurite outgrowth, which is dependent on the lipid transfer activity of the SMP domain.
    Keywords:  Endoplasmic reticulum; Late endosomes; Lipid transfer; Lysosomes; Membrane contact sites; PDZD8
  12. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2021 Apr 21. pii: S0981-9428(21)00207-2. [Epub ahead of print]163 327-337
      Glycosylation is an important protein post-translational modification in eukaryotic organisms. It is involved in many important life processes, such as cell recognition, differentiation, development, signal transduction and immune response. This study carried out the first N-linked glycosylation proteome analysis of wheat seedling leaves using HILIC glycosylation enrichment, chemical deglycosylation, HPLC separation and tandem mass spectrometric identification. In total, we detected 308 glycosylated peptides and 316 glycosylated sites corresponding to 248 unique glycoproteins. The identified glycoproteins were mainly concentrated in plasma membranes (25.6%), cell wall (16.8%) and extracellular area (16%). In terms of molecular function, 65% glycoproteins belonged to various enzymes with catalytic activity such as kinase, carboxypeptidase, peroxidase and phosphatase, and, particularly, 25% of glycoproteins were related to binding functions. These glycoproteins are involved in cell wall reconstruction, biomacromolecular metabolism, signal transduction, endoplasmic reticulum quality control and stress response. Analysis indicated that 57.66% of glycoproteins were highly conserved in other plant species while 42.34% of glycoproteins went unidentified among the conserved glycosylated homologous proteins in other plant species; these may be the new N-linked glycosylated proteins first identified in wheat. The glycosylation sites generally occurred on the random coil, which could play roles in maintaining the structural stability of proteins. PNGase F digestion and glycosylation site mutations further verified the glycosylation modification and glycosylation sites of LRR receptor-like serine/threonine-protein kinase (LRR-RLK) and Beta-D-glucan exohydrolase (β-D-GEH). Our results indicated that N-linked glycosylated proteins could play important roles in the early seedling growth of wheat.
    Keywords:  Biomacromolecular metabolism; Cell wall reconstruction; Glycoproteome; Signal transduction; Stress response; Wheat leaves
  13. Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Apr 26. 13
      Although the stress response in eukaryotes depends on early events triggered in cells by environmental insults, long-term processes such as aging are also affected. The loss of cellular proteostasis greatly impacts aging, which is regulated by the balancing of protein synthesis and degradation systems. As translation is the input event in proteostasis, we decided to study the role of translational activity on cell lifespan. Our hypothesis was that a reduction on translational activity or specific changes in translation may increase cellular longevity. Using mutant strains of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and various stress conditions, we showed that translational reduction caused by phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) during the exponential growth phase enhances chronological lifespan (CLS). Furthermore, through next-generation sequence analysis, we found eIF2α phosphorylation-dependent translational activation of some specific genes, especially those involved in autophagy. This fact, together with the observed regulation of autophagy, points to a conserved mechanism involving general and specific control of translation and autophagy as mediators of the role of eIF2α phosphorylation in aging.
    Keywords:  autophagy; eIF2 factor; gene expression; longevity; translational control
  14. Cells. 2021 Apr 21. pii: 970. [Epub ahead of print]10(5):
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multipurpose organelle comprising dynamic structural subdomains, such as ER sheets and tubules, serving to maintain protein, calcium, and lipid homeostasis. In neurons, the single ER is compartmentalized with a careful segregation of the structural subdomains in somatic and neurite (axodendritic) regions. The distribution and arrangement of these ER subdomains varies between different neuronal types. Mutations in ER membrane shaping proteins and morphological changes in the ER are associated with various neurodegenerative diseases implying significance of ER morphology in maintaining neuronal integrity. Specific neurons, such as the highly arborized dopaminergic neurons, are prone to stress and neurodegeneration. Differences in morphology and functionality of ER between the neurons may account for their varied sensitivity to stress and neurodegenerative changes. In this review, we explore the neuronal ER and discuss its distinct morphological attributes and specific functions. We hypothesize that morphological heterogeneity of the ER in neurons is an important factor that accounts for their selective susceptibility to neurodegeneration.
    Keywords:  dopaminergic neurons; endoplasmic reticulum subdomains; neurodegeneration; neuronal endoplasmic reticulum; sporadic neurodegeneration
  15. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Apr 23. pii: 4438. [Epub ahead of print]22(9):
      The ubiquitin (Ub) proteasome system (UPS) plays a pivotal role in regulation of numerous cellular processes, including innate and adaptive immune responses that are essential for restriction of the virus life cycle in the infected cells. Deubiquitination by the deubiquitinating enzyme, deubiquitinase (DUB), is a reversible molecular process to remove Ub or Ub chains from the target proteins. Deubiquitination is an integral strategy within the UPS in regulating survival and proliferation of the infecting virus and the virus-invaded cells. Many viruses in the infected cells are reported to encode viral DUB, and these vial DUBs actively disrupt cellular Ub-dependent processes to suppress host antiviral immune response, enhancing virus replication and thus proliferation. This review surveys the types of DUBs encoded by different viruses and their molecular processes for how the infecting viruses take advantage of the DUB system to evade the host immune response and expedite their replication.
    Keywords:  deubiquitinases (DUBs); ubiquitin proteasome system; ubiquitination; viruses
  16. Front Oncol. 2021 ;11 629846
      During tumor development and progression, intrinsic and extrinsic factors trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response, resulting in the increased expression of molecular chaperones to cope with the stress and maintain tumor cell survival. Heat shock protein (HSP) GRP94, also known as GP96, is an ER paralog of HSP90 and has been shown to promote survival signaling during tumor-induced stress and modulate the immune response through its multiple clients, including TLRs, integrins, LRP6, GARP, IGF, and HER2. Clinically, elevated expression of GRP94 correlates with an aggressive phenotype and poor clinical outcome in a variety of cancers. Thus, GRP94 is a potential molecular marker and therapeutic target in malignancies. In this review, we will undergo deep molecular profiling of GRP94 in tumor development and summarize the individual roles of GRP94 in common cancers, including breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, multiple myeloma, and others. Finally, we will briefly review the therapeutic potential of selectively targeting GRP94 for the treatment of cancers.
    Keywords:  GRP94/GP96; biomarker; cancer; chaperone; endoplasmic reticulum stress; therapeutic target
  17. J Biol Chem. 2021 Apr 22. pii: S0021-9258(21)00453-1. [Epub ahead of print] 100665
      Peroxiredoxins catalyze the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) is the only peroxiredoxin located within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and is the most highly expressed H2O2 scavenger in the ER. PRDX4 has emerged as an important player in numerous diseases such as fibrosis and metabolic syndromes, and its over-oxidation is a potential indicator of ER redox stress. It is unclear how over-oxidation of PRDX4 governs its oligomerization state and interacting partners. Herein we addressed these questions via non-reducing Western blots, mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis. We report that the oxidation of PRDX4 in lung epithelial cells treated with tertbutyl hydroperoxide (TBuOOH) caused a shift of PRDX4 from monomer/dimer to high molecular weight (HMW) species, which contain PRDX4 modified with sulfonic acid residues (PRDX4-SO3), as well as of a complement of ER-associated proteins, including protein disulfide isomerases important in protein folding, thioredoxin domain containing protein 5, and heat shock protein A5, a key regulator of the ER stress response. Mutation of any of the four cysteines in PRDX4 altered the HMW species in response to TBuOOH, as well as the secretion of PRDX4. We also demonstrate that the expression of ER oxidoreductase 1 (ERO1a), which generates H2O2 in the ER, increased PRDX4 HMW formation and secretion. These results suggest a link between SO3 modification in the formation of HMW PRDX4 complexes in cells, while the association of key regulators of ER homeostasis with HMW oxidized PRDX4 point to a putative role of PRDX4 in regulating ER stress responses.
    Keywords:  Airway Epithelial Cells; ER stress; Lung; Peroxiredoxin 4
  18. Autophagy. 2021 Apr 27. 1-18
      Macroautophagy/autophagy is a cellular catabolic process that results in lysosome-mediated recycling of organelles and protein aggregates, as well as the destruction of intracellular pathogens. Its role in the maintenance of the intestinal epithelium is of particular interest, as several autophagy-related genes have been associated with intestinal disease. Autophagy and its regulatory mechanisms are involved in both homeostasis and repair of the intestine, supporting intestinal barrier function in response to cellular stress through tight junction regulation and protection from cell death. Furthermore, a clear role has emerged for autophagy not only in secretory cells but also in intestinal stem cells, where it affects their metabolism, as well as their proliferative and regenerative capacity. Here, we review the physiological role of autophagy in the context of intestinal epithelial maintenance and how genetic mutations affecting autophagy contribute to the development of intestinal disease.Abbreviations: AKT1S1: AKT1 substrate 1; AMBRA1: autophagy and beclin 1 regulator 1; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; APC: APC regulator of WNT signaling pathway; ATF6: activating transcription factor 6; ATG: autophagy related; atg16l1[ΔIEC] mice: mice with a specific deletion of Atg16l1 in intestinal epithelial cells; ATP: adenosine triphosphate; BECN1: beclin 1; bsk/Jnk: basket; CADPR: cyclic ADP ribose; CALCOCO2: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; CASP3: caspase 3; CD: Crohn disease; CDH1/E-cadherin: cadherin 1; CF: cystic fibrosis; CFTR: CF transmembrane conductance regulator; CGAS: cyclic GMP-AMP synthase; CLDN2: claudin 2; CoPEC: colibactin-producing E. coli; CRC: colorectal cancer; CYP1A1: cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A member 1; DC: dendritic cell; DDIT3: DNA damage inducible transcript 3; DEPTOR: DEP domain containing MTOR interacting protein; DSS: dextran sulfate sodium; EGF: epidermal growth factor; EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor; EIF2A: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A; EIF2AK3: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; EIF2AK4/GCN2: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERN1: endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1; GABARAP: GABA type A receptor-associated protein; HMGB1: high mobility group box 1; HSPA5/GRP78: heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 5; IBD: inflammatory bowel disease; IEC: intestinal epithelial cell; IFN: interferon; IFNG/IFNγ:interferon gamma; IL: interleukin; IRGM: immunity related GTPase M; ISC: intestinal stem cell; LGR5: leucine rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5; LRRK2: leucine rich repeat kinase 2; MAP1LC3A/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha; MAPK/JNK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; MAPK14/p38 MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase 14; MAPKAP1: MAPK associated protein 1; MAVS: mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein; miRNA: microRNA; MLKL: mixed lineage kinase domain like pseudokinase; MLST8: MTOR associated protein, LST8 homolog; MNV: murine norovirus; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; NBR1: NBR1 autophagy cargo receptor; NLRP: NLR family pyrin domain containing; NOD: nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing; NRBF2: nuclear receptor binding factor 2; OPTN: optineurin; OXPHOS: oxidative phosphorylation; P: phosphorylation; Patj: PATJ crumbs cell polarity complex component; PE: phosphatidyl-ethanolamine; PI3K: phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PIK3C3/VPS34: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PIK3R4: phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 4; PPARG: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma; PRR5: proline rich 5; PRR5L: proline rich 5 like; PtdIns3K: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate; RB1CC1/FIP200: RB1 inducible coiled-coil 1; RER: rough endoplasmic reticulum; RHEB: Ras homolog, MTORC1 binding; RICTOR: RPTOR independent companion of MTOR complex 2; RIPK1: receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 1; ROS: reactive oxygen species; RPTOR: regulatory associated protein of MTOR complex 1; RPS6KB1: ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1; SH3GLB1: SH3 domain containing GRB2 like, endophilin B1; SNP: single-nucleotide polymorphism; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STAT3: signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; STING1: stimulator of interferon response cGAMP interactor 1; TA: transit-amplifying; TFEB: transcription factor EB; TFE3: transcription factor binding to IGHM enhancer 3; TGM2: transglutaminase 2; TJ: tight junction; TJP1/ZO1: tight junction protein 1; TNBS: 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid; TNF/TNFα: tumor necrosis factor; Tor: target of rapamycin; TRAF: TNF receptor associated factor; TRIM11: tripartite motif containing 11; TRP53: transformation related protein 53; TSC: TSC complex subunit; Ub: ubiquitin; UC: ulcerative colitis; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; USO1/p115: USO1 vesicle transport factor; UVRAG: UV radiation resistance associated; WIPI: WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting; WNT: WNT family member; XBP1: X-box binding protein 1; ZFYVE1/DFCP1: zinc finger FYVE-type containing 1.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Crohn disease; IBD; MTOR; intestinal epithelium; intestinal stem cells
  19. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Apr 27. pii: 4598. [Epub ahead of print]22(9):
      In Drosophila, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (dPerk). dPerk can also be activated by defective mitochondria in fly models of Parkinson's disease caused by mutations in pink1 or parkin. The Perk branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR) has emerged as a major toxic process in neurodegenerative disorders causing a chronic reduction in vital proteins and neuronal death. In this study, we combined microarray analysis and quantitative proteomics analysis in adult flies overexpressing dPerk to investigate the relationship between the transcriptional and translational response to dPerk activation. We identified tribbles and Heat shock protein 22 as two novel Drosophila activating transcription factor 4 (dAtf4) regulated transcripts. Using a combined bioinformatics tool kit, we demonstrated that the activation of dPerk leads to translational repression of mitochondrial proteins associated with glutathione and nucleotide metabolism, calcium signalling and iron-sulphur cluster biosynthesis. Further efforts to enhance these translationally repressed dPerk targets might offer protection against Perk toxicity.
    Keywords:  Drosophila; Drosophila protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase (dPerk); ER stress; activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4); unfolded protein response
  20. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Apr 11. pii: 1822. [Epub ahead of print]13(8):
      The first Tribbles protein was identified as critical for the coordination of morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Three mammalian homologs were subsequently identified, with a structure similar to classic serine/threonine kinases, but lacking crucial amino acids for the catalytic activity. Thereby, the very weak ATP affinity classifies TRIB proteins as pseudokinases. In this review, we provide an overview of the regulation of TRIB3 gene expression at both transcriptional and post-translational levels. Despite the absence of kinase activity, TRIB3 interferes with a broad range of cellular processes through protein-protein interactions. In fact, TRIB3 acts as an adaptor/scaffold protein for many other proteins such as kinase-dependent proteins, transcription factors, ubiquitin ligases, or even components of the spliceosome machinery. We then state the contribution of TRIB3 to cancer development, progression, and metastasis. TRIB3 dysregulation can be associated with good or bad prognosis. Indeed, as TRIB3 interacts with and regulates the activity of many key signaling components, it can act as a tumor-suppressor or oncogene in a context-dependent manner.
    Keywords:  Akt; ER stress; FK506 binding protein; RNA splicing; mTOR; oncogene; pseudokinase; rapamycin; signaling pathway; tumor suppressor
  21. Mol Cell. 2021 Apr 13. pii: S1097-2765(21)00313-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      A deficient interferon (IFN) response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been implicated as a determinant of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To identify the molecular effectors that govern IFN control of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we conducted a large-scale gain-of-function analysis that evaluated the impact of human IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) on viral replication. A limited subset of ISGs were found to control viral infection, including endosomal factors inhibiting viral entry, RNA binding proteins suppressing viral RNA synthesis, and a highly enriched cluster of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi-resident ISGs inhibiting viral assembly/egress. These included broad-acting antiviral ISGs and eight ISGs that specifically inhibited SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1 replication. Among the broad-acting ISGs was BST2/tetherin, which impeded viral release and is antagonized by SARS-CoV-2 Orf7a protein. Overall, these data illuminate a set of ISGs that underlie innate immune control of SARS-CoV-2/SARS-CoV-1 infection, which will facilitate the understanding of host determinants that impact disease severity and offer potential therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.
    Keywords:  BST2; ISG; Orf7a; SARS-CoV-2; innate immunity; interferon; viral evasion
  22. FASEB J. 2021 May;35(5): e21594
      Protein misfolding is a central feature of most neurodegenerative diseases. Molecular chaperones can modulate the toxicity associated with protein misfolding, but it remains elusive which molecular chaperones and co-chaperones interact with specific misfolded proteins. TDP-43 misfolding and inclusion formation are a hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other neurodegenerative diseases. Using yeast and mammalian neuronal cells we find that Hsp90 and its co-chaperone Sti1 have the capacity to alter TDP-43 misfolding, inclusion formation, aggregation, and cellular toxicity. Our data also demonstrate that impaired Hsp90 function sensitizes cells to TDP-43 toxicity and that Sti1 specifically interacts with and strongly modulates TDP-43 toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Our study thus uncovers a previously unrecognized tie between Hsp90, Sti1, TDP-43 misfolding, and cellular toxicity.
    Keywords:  ALS; Hsp90; Sti1; TDP-43; protein aggregation; yeast
  23. J Cell Biol. 2021 Jun 07. pii: e202103105. [Epub ahead of print]220(6):
      TMEM41B and VMP1 are integral membrane proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and regulate the formation of autophagosomes, lipid droplets (LDs), and lipoproteins. Recently, TMEM41B was identified as a crucial host factor for infection by all coronaviruses and flaviviruses. The molecular function of TMEM41B and VMP1, which belong to a large evolutionarily conserved family, remains elusive. Here, we show that TMEM41B and VMP1 are phospholipid scramblases whose deficiency impairs the normal cellular distribution of cholesterol and phosphatidylserine. Their mechanism of action on LD formation is likely to be different from that of seipin. Their role in maintaining cellular phosphatidylserine and cholesterol homeostasis may partially explain their requirement for viral infection. Our results suggest that the proper sorting and distribution of cellular lipids are essential for organelle biogenesis and viral infection.
  24. PLoS Genet. 2021 Apr;17(4): e1009539
      Canavan disease is a severe progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by swelling and spongy degeneration of brain white matter. The disease is genetically linked to polymorphisms in the aspartoacylase (ASPA) gene, including the substitution C152W. ASPA C152W is associated with greatly reduced protein levels in cells, yet biophysical experiments suggest a wild-type like thermal stability. Here, we use ASPA C152W as a model to investigate the degradation pathway of a disease-causing protein variant. When we expressed ASPA C152W in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found a decreased steady state compared to wild-type ASPA as a result of increased proteasomal degradation. However, molecular dynamics simulations of ASPA C152W did not substantially deviate from wild-type ASPA, indicating that the native state is structurally preserved. Instead, we suggest that the C152W substitution interferes with the de novo folding pathway resulting in increased proteasomal degradation before reaching its stable conformation. Systematic mapping of the protein quality control components acting on misfolded and aggregation-prone species of C152W, revealed that the degradation is highly dependent on the molecular chaperone Hsp70, its co-chaperone Hsp110 as well as several quality control E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases, including Ubr1. In addition, the disaggregase Hsp104 facilitated refolding of aggregated ASPA C152W, while Cdc48 mediated degradation of insoluble ASPA protein. In human cells, ASPA C152W displayed increased proteasomal turnover that was similarly dependent on Hsp70 and Hsp110. Our findings underscore the use of yeast to determine the protein quality control components involved in the degradation of human pathogenic variants in order to identify potential therapeutic targets.
  25. Elife. 2021 04 26. pii: e66904. [Epub ahead of print]10
      Translation-dependent quality control pathways such as no-go decay (NGD), non-stop decay (NSD), and nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) govern protein synthesis and proteostasis by resolving non-translating ribosomes and preventing the production of potentially toxic peptides derived from faulty and aberrant mRNAs. However, how translation is altered and the in vivo defects that arise in the absence of these pathways are poorly understood. Here, we show that the NGD/NSD factors Pelo and Hbs1l are critical in mice for cerebellar neurogenesis but expendable for survival of these neurons after development. Analysis of mutant mouse embryonic fibroblasts revealed translational pauses, alteration of signaling pathways, and translational reprogramming. Similar effects on signaling pathways, including mTOR activation, the translatome and mouse cerebellar development were observed upon deletion of the NMD factor Upf2. Our data reveal that these quality control pathways that function to mitigate errors at distinct steps in translation can evoke similar cellular responses.
    Keywords:  cerebellum; chromosomes; gene expression; mouse; n-Tr20; neurogenesis; ribosome; translation
  26. Science. 2021 Apr 29. pii: eaay8118. [Epub ahead of print]
      During infection Legionella bacteria translocate a variety of effectors into host cells that modify host cell membrane trafficking for the benefit of the intracellular pathogen. Here we found a self-organizing system consisting of a bacterial phosphoinositide kinase and its opposing phosphatase that formed spatiotemporal patterns, including traveling waves, to remodel host cellular membranes. The Legionella effector MavQ, a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, was targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). MavQ and the Legionella PI 3-phosphatase SidP, even in the absence of other bacterial components, drove rapid PI 3-phosphate turnover on the ER, spontaneously forming traveling waves that spread along ER subdomains inducing vesicle/tubule budding. Thus, bacteria can exploit a self-organizing membrane-targeting mechanism to hijack host cellular structures for survival.
  27. Cell Chem Biol. 2021 Apr 28. pii: S2451-9456(21)00202-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Molecular glue degraders are small, drug-like compounds that induce interactions between an E3 ubiquitin ligase and a target, which result in ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the recruited protein. In recent years, serendipitous discoveries revealed that some preclinical and clinical compounds already work as molecular glue degraders, with many more postulated to destabilize their targets through indirect or yet unresolved mechanisms. Here we review strategies by which E3 ubiquitin ligases can be reprogrammed by monovalent degraders, with a focus on molecular glues hijacking cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases. We argue that such drugs exploit the intrinsic property of proteins to form higher-order assemblies, a phenomenon previously seen with disease-causing sequence variations. Modifications of the protein surface by a bound small molecule can change the interactome of the target protein. By inducing interactions between a ligase and a substrate, molecular glue degraders offer an exciting path for the development of novel therapeutics.
    Keywords:  chemical inducers of proximity; molecular glue degraders; molecular glues; targeted protein degradation
  28. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2021 Apr 21. pii: S0006-291X(21)00658-6. [Epub ahead of print]558 1-7
      ATF6 has two isoforms, ATF6α and ATF6β, which are ubiquitously expressed type II transmembrane glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While the regulatory mechanisms and transcriptional roles of ATF6α in response to ER stress have been well-studied, those of its paralogue ATF6β are less understood. Moreover, there is no specific cell-based reporter assay to monitor ATF6β activation. Here, we developed a new cell-based reporter system that can monitor activation of endogenous ATF6β. This system expresses a chimeric protein containing a synthetic transcription factor followed by the transmembrane domain and C-terminal luminal domain of ATF6β. Under ER stress conditions, the chimeric protein was cleaved by regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) to liberate the N-terminal synthetic transcription factor, which induced luciferase expression in the HeLa Luciferase Reporter cell line. This new stable reporter cell line will be an innovative tool to investigate RIP of ATF6β.
    Keywords:  ATF6β; ER stress; GAL4 binding site; Luciferase; Regulated intramembrane proteolysis; Reporter cell line
  29. EMBO J. 2021 Apr 28. e106771
      Chemical compounds have recently been introduced as alternative and non-integrating inducers of pluripotent stem cell fate. However, chemical reprogramming is hampered by low efficiency and the molecular mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that inhibition of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) by R406 significantly promotes mouse chemical reprogramming. Mechanistically, R406 alleviates Syk / calcineurin (Cn) / nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling-mediated suppression of glycine, serine, and threonine metabolic genes and dependent metabolites. Syk inhibition upregulates glycine level and downstream transsulfuration cysteine biosynthesis, promoting cysteine metabolism and cellular hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) production. This metabolic rewiring decreased oxidative phosphorylation and ROS levels, enhancing chemical reprogramming. In sum, our study identifies Syk-Cn-NFAT signaling axis as a new barrier of chemical reprogramming and suggests metabolic rewiring and redox homeostasis as important opportunities for controlling cell fates.
    Keywords:  R406; Syk; chemical reprogramming; hydrogen sulfide; metabolism
  30. STAR Protoc. 2021 Jun 18. 2(2): 100412
      Sphingolipid biosynthesis occurs in both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus. Ceramide synthesized in the ER is transported to the Golgi and incorporated into complex sphingolipids. Here, we present a step-by-step protocol to analyze sphingolipid metabolism in budding yeast. Ceramide and inositolphosphorylceramide (IPC) are classes of sphingolipids present in yeast and are metabolically labeled with radioactive precursors. This protocol for metabolic labeling can be used to investigate ceramide transport in an in vivo environment. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Ikeda et al. (2020).
    Keywords:  Cell Biology; Metabolism; Model Organisms; Molecular Biology
  31. J Phys Chem B. 2021 Apr 30.
      KRAS, a 21 kDa guanine nucleotide-binding protein that functions as a molecular switch, plays a key role in regulating cellular growth. Dysregulation of this key signaling node leads to uncontrolled cell growth, a hallmark of cancer cells. KRAS undergoes post-translational modification by monoubiquitination at various locations, including at lysine104 (K104) and lysine147 (K147). Previous studies have suggested that K104 stabilizes helix-2/helix-3 interactions and K147 is involved in nucleotide binding. However, the impact of monoubiquitination at these residues on the overall structure, dynamics, or function of KRAS is not fully understood. In this study, we examined KRAS monoubiquitination at these sites using data from extensive (12 μs aggregate time) molecular dynamics simulations complemented by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy data. We found that ubiquitin forms dynamic nonspecific interactions with various regions of KRAS and that ubiquitination at both sites modulates conformational fluctuations. In both cases, ubiquitin samples a broad range of conformational space and does not form long-lasting noncovalent contacts with KRAS but it adopts several preferred orientations relative to KRAS. To examine the functional impact of these preferred orientations, we performed a systematic comparison of the dominant configurations of the ubiquitin/KRAS simulated complex with experimental structures of KRAS bound to regulatory and effector proteins as well as a model membrane. Results from these analyses suggest that conformational selection and population shift may minimize the deleterious effects of KRAS ubiquitination at K104 and K147 on binding to some but not all interaction partners. Our findings thus provide new insights into the steric effects of ubiquitin and suggest a potential avenue for therapeutic targeting.
  32. Nat Cell Biol. 2021 Apr 26.
      Macroautophagic clearance of cytosolic materials entails the initiation, growth and closure of autophagosomes. Cargo triggers the assembly of a web of cargo receptors and core machinery. Autophagy-related protein 9 (ATG9) vesicles seed the growing autophagosomal membrane, which is supplied by de novo phospholipid synthesis, phospholipid transport via ATG2 proteins and lipid flipping by ATG9. Autophagosomes close via ESCRT complexes. Here, we review recent discoveries that illuminate the molecular mechanisms of autophagosome formation and discuss emerging questions in this rapidly developing field.
  33. Mol Cell. 2021 Apr 16. pii: S1097-2765(21)00215-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      Autophagy is a fundamental catabolic process that uses a unique post-translational modification, the conjugation of ATG8 protein to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). ATG8 lipidation also occurs during non-canonical autophagy, a parallel pathway involving conjugation of ATG8 to single membranes (CASM) at endolysosomal compartments, with key functions in immunity, vision, and neurobiology. It is widely assumed that CASM involves the same conjugation of ATG8 to PE, but this has not been formally tested. Here, we discover that all ATG8s can also undergo alternative lipidation to phosphatidylserine (PS) during CASM, induced pharmacologically, by LC3-associated phagocytosis or influenza A virus infection, in mammalian cells. Importantly, ATG8-PS and ATG8-PE adducts are differentially delipidated by the ATG4 family and bear different cellular dynamics, indicating significant molecular distinctions. These results provide important insights into autophagy signaling, revealing an alternative form of the hallmark ATG8 lipidation event. Furthermore, ATG8-PS provides a specific "molecular signature" for the non-canonical autophagy pathway.
    Keywords:  ATG4; ATG8; LC3-associated phagocytosis; non-canonical autophagy; phosphatidylserine
  34. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Apr 01. pii: 1666. [Epub ahead of print]13(7):
      O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a single sugar post-translational modification (PTM) of intracellular proteins linking nutrient flux through the Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway (HBP) to the control of cis-regulatory elements in the genome. Aberrant O-GlcNAcylation is associated with the development, progression, and alterations in gene expression in cancer. O-GlcNAc cycling is defined as the addition and subsequent removal of the modification by O-GlcNAc Transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) provides a novel method for cells to regulate various aspects of gene expression, including RNA polymerase function, epigenetic dynamics, and transcription factor activity. We will focus on the complex relationship between phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation in the regulation of the RNA Polymerase II (RNAP II) pre-initiation complex and the regulation of the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNAP II via the synchronous actions of OGT, OGA, and kinases. Additionally, we discuss how O-GlcNAcylation of TATA-box binding protein (TBP) alters cellular metabolism. Next, in a non-exhaustive manner, we will discuss the current literature on how O-GlcNAcylation drives gene transcription in cancer through changes in transcription factor or chromatin remodeling complex functions. We conclude with a discussion of the challenges associated with studying O-GlcNAcylation and present several new approaches for studying O-GlcNAc regulated transcription that will advance our understanding of the role of O-GlcNAc in cancer.
    Keywords:  O-GlcNAc; O-GlcNAc transferase; O-GlcNAcase; transcription
  35. EMBO J. 2021 May 01. e106214
      BNIP3 is a mitophagy receptor with context-dependent roles in cancer, but whether and how it modulates melanoma growth in vivo remains unknown. Here, we found that elevated BNIP3 levels correlated with poorer melanoma patient's survival and depletion of BNIP3 in B16-F10 melanoma cells compromised tumor growth in vivo. BNIP3 depletion halted mitophagy and enforced a PHD2-mediated downregulation of HIF-1α and its glycolytic program both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that BNIP3-deprived melanoma cells displayed increased intracellular iron levels caused by heightened NCOA4-mediated ferritinophagy, which fostered PHD2-mediated HIF-1α destabilization. These effects were not phenocopied by ATG5 or NIX silencing. Restoring HIF-1α levels in BNIP3-depleted melanoma cells rescued their metabolic phenotype and tumor growth in vivo, but did not affect NCOA4 turnover, underscoring that these BNIP3 effects are not secondary to HIF-1α. These results unravel an unexpected role of BNIP3 as upstream regulator of the pro-tumorigenic HIF-1α glycolytic program in melanoma cells.
    Keywords:  BNIP3; HIF-1α; ferritinophagy; melanoma; metabolism
  36. Oncogene. 2021 Apr 30.
      Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide and KRAS is the most commonly mutated gene in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein GRP78/BiP is a key endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein and a major pro-survival effector of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas database and immunostain of patient tissues revealed that compared to normal lung, GRP78 expression is generally elevated in human lung cancers, including tumors bearing the KRASG12D mutation. To test the requirement of GRP78 in human lung oncogenesis, we generated mouse models containing floxed Grp78 and Kras Lox-Stop-Lox G12D (KrasLSL-G12D) alleles. Simultaneous activation of the KrasG12D allele and knockout of the Grp78 alleles were achieved in the whole lung or selectively in lung alveolar epithelial type 2 cells known to be precursors for adenomas that progress to LUAD. Here we report that GRP78 haploinsufficiency is sufficient to suppress KrasG12D-mediated lung tumor progression and prolong survival. Furthermore, GRP78 knockdown in human lung cancer cell line A427 (KrasG12D/+) leads to activation of UPR and apoptotic markers and loss of cell viability. Our studies provide evidence that targeting GRP78 represents a novel therapeutic approach to suppress mutant KRAS-mediated lung tumorigenesis.
  37. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Apr 15. pii: 4082. [Epub ahead of print]22(8):
      The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a 223 amino acid-long transmembrane endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein. The S1R modulates the activity of multiple effector proteins, but its signaling functions are poorly understood. S1R is associated with cholesterol, and in our recent studies we demonstrated that S1R association with cholesterol induces the formation of S1R clusters. We propose that these S1R-cholesterol interactions enable the formation of cholesterol-enriched microdomains in the ER membrane. We hypothesize that a number of secreted and signaling proteins are recruited and retained in these microdomains. This hypothesis is consistent with the results of an unbiased screen for S1R-interacting partners, which we performed using the engineered ascorbate peroxidase 2 (APEX2) technology. We further propose that S1R agonists enable the disassembly of these cholesterol-enriched microdomains and the release of accumulated proteins such as ion channels, signaling receptors, and trophic factors from the ER. This hypothesis may explain the pleotropic signaling functions of the S1R, consistent with previously observed effects of S1R agonists in various experimental systems.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; Huntington’s disease; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; cholesterol; contact sites; drug target; endoplasmic reticulum; mitochondria; neurodegeneration; sigma-1 receptor
  38. Blood. 2021 Apr 25. pii: blood.2020008986. [Epub ahead of print]
      Ferroportin (FPN), the body's sole iron exporter, is essential for maintaining systemic iron homeostasis. In response to either increased iron or inflammation, hepatocyte-secreted hepcidin binds to FPN, inducing its internalization and subsequent degradation. However, the E3 ubiquitin ligase that underlies FPN degradation has not been identified. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a novel mechanism involving the RNF217-mediated degradation of FPN. A combination of two different E3 screens revealed that the Rnf217 gene is a target of Tet1, mediating the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of FPN. Interestingly, loss of Tet1 expression causes an accumulation of FPN and an impaired response to iron overload, manifested by increased iron accumulation in the liver together with decreased iron in the spleen and duodenum. Moreover, we found that the degradation and ubiquitination of FPN could be attenuated by mutating RNF217. Finally, using two conditional knockout mouse lines, we found that knocking out Rnf217 in macrophages increases splenic iron export by stabilizing FPN, whereas knocking out Rnf217 in intestinal cells appears to increase iron absorption. These findings suggest that the Tet1-RNF217-FPN axis regulates iron homeostasis, revealing new therapeutic targets for FPN-related diseases.
  39. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 05 11. pii: e2100425118. [Epub ahead of print]118(19):
      Binding of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor triggers translocation of the virus into cells. Both the ACE2 receptor and the spike protein are heavily glycosylated, including at sites near their binding interface. We built fully glycosylated models of the ACE2 receptor bound to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Using atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we found that the glycosylation of the human ACE2 receptor contributes substantially to the binding of the virus. Interestingly, the glycans at two glycosylation sites, N90 and N322, have opposite effects on spike protein binding. The glycan at the N90 site partly covers the binding interface of the spike RBD. Therefore, this glycan can interfere with the binding of the spike protein and protect against docking of the virus to the cell. By contrast, the glycan at the N322 site interacts tightly with the RBD of the ACE2-bound spike protein and strengthens the complex. Remarkably, the N322 glycan binds to a conserved region of the spike protein identified previously as a cryptic epitope for a neutralizing antibody. By mapping the glycan binding sites, our MD simulations aid in the targeted development of neutralizing antibodies and SARS-CoV-2 fusion inhibitors.
    Keywords:  ACE2 receptor; SARS-CoV-2; glycosylation; molecular dynamics; virus-host interaction
  40. EMBO J. 2021 May 01. e103563
      The early secretory pathway and autophagy are two essential and evolutionarily conserved endomembrane processes that are finely interlinked. Although growing evidence suggests that intracellular trafficking is important for autophagosome biogenesis, the molecular regulatory network involved is still not fully defined. In this study, we demonstrate a crucial effect of the COPII vesicle-related protein TFG (Trk-fused gene) on ULK1 puncta number and localization during autophagy induction. This, in turn, affects formation of the isolation membrane, as well as the correct dynamics of association between LC3B and early ATG proteins, leading to the proper formation of both omegasomes and autophagosomes. Consistently, fibroblasts derived from a hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) patient carrying mutated TFG (R106C) show defects in both autophagy and ULK1 puncta accumulation. In addition, we demonstrate that TFG activity in autophagy depends on its interaction with the ATG8 protein LC3C through a canonical LIR motif, thereby favouring LC3C-ULK1 binding. Altogether, our results uncover a link between TFG and autophagy and identify TFG as a molecular scaffold linking the early secretion pathway to autophagy.
    Keywords:  ERGIC; LC3C; TFG; autophagy
  41. FASEB J. 2021 May;35(5): e21564
      The serine-threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric enzyme complex that regulates many fundamental cellular processes. PP2A is involved in tumorigenesis because mutations in the scaffold subunit, PPP2R1B, were found in several types of cancers. However, the biological function of PPP2R1B remains largely unknown. We report here that homozygous deletion of Ppp2r1b in Mus musculus impairs meiotic recombination and causes meiotic arrest in spermatocytes. Consistently, male mice lacking Ppp2r1b are characterized with infertility. Furthermore, heterozygous missense mutations in the Homo sapiens PPP2R1B gene, which encodes PPP2R1B, are identified in azoospermia patients with meiotic arrest. We found that PPP2R1B mutants are susceptible to degradation by an E3 ligase CRL4ADCAF6 , and resistant to de-polyubiquitylation by ubiquitin-specific protease 5 (USP5). In addition, heterozygous mutations in PPP2R1B reduce stability of the wild-type PPP2R1B. Our results demonstrate an essential role of PPP2R1B in spermatogenesis and identify upstream regulators of PPP2R1B.
    Keywords:  DCAF6; USP5; meiotic arrest; meiotic recombination; spermatogenesis
  42. Biophys Rev. 2021 Apr;13(2): 203-219
      Among the four proteolytic systems in the cell, autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are the main proteolytic events that allow for the removal of cell debris and proteins to maintain cellular homeostasis. Previous studies have revealed that these systems perform their functions independently of each other. However, recent studies indicate the existence of regulatory interactions between these proteolytic systems via ubiquitinated tags and a reciprocal regulation mechanism with several crosstalk points. UPS plays an important role in the elimination of short-lived/soluble misfolded proteins, whereas autophagy eliminates defective organelles and persistent insoluble protein aggregates. Both of these systems seem to act independently; however, disruption of one pathway affects the activity of the other pathway and contributes to different pathological conditions. This review summarizes the recent findings on direct and indirect dependencies of autophagy and UPS and their execution at the molecular level along with the important drug targets in skeletal muscle atrophy.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Mitophagy; Molecular mechanism; Skeletal muscle atrophy; The ubiquitin-proteasome system
  43. Dev Cell. 2021 Apr 27. pii: S1534-5807(21)00317-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cellular senescence is a complex stress response implicated in aging. Autophagy can suppress senescence but is counterintuitively necessary for full senescence. Although its anti-senescence role is well described, to what extent autophagy contributes to senescence establishment and the underlying mechanisms is poorly understood. Here, we show that selective autophagy of multiple regulatory components coordinates the homeostatic state of senescence. We combined a proteomic analysis of autophagy components with protein stability profiling, identifying autophagy substrate proteins involved in several senescence-related processes. Selective autophagy of KEAP1 promoted redox homeostasis during senescence. Furthermore, selective autophagy limited translational machinery components to ameliorate senescence-associated proteotoxic stress. Lastly, selective autophagy of TNIP1 enhanced senescence-associated inflammation. These selective autophagy networks appear to operate in vivo senescence during human osteoarthritis. Our data highlight a caretaker role of autophagy in the stress support network of senescence through regulated protein stability and unravel the intertwined relationship between two important age-related processes.
    Keywords:  aging; autophagy; cellular senescence; inflammation; oxidative stress; proteostasis; regulated protein stability; selective autophagy; stress response