bims-proteo Biomed News
on Proteostasis
Issue of 2020‒12‒20
fifty papers selected by
Eric Chevet

  1. J Cell Biol. 2021 Jan 04. pii: e202005165. [Epub ahead of print]220(1):
      Cells exposed to heat shock induce a conserved gene expression program, the heat shock response (HSR), encoding protein homeostasis (proteostasis) factors. Heat shock also triggers proteostasis factors to form subcellular quality control bodies, but the relationship between these spatial structures and the HSR is unclear. Here we show that localization of the J-protein Sis1, a cofactor for the chaperone Hsp70, controls HSR activation in yeast. Under nonstress conditions, Sis1 is concentrated in the nucleoplasm, where it promotes Hsp70 binding to the transcription factor Hsf1, repressing the HSR. Upon heat shock, Sis1 forms an interconnected network with other proteostasis factors that spans the nucleolus and the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum. We propose that localization of Sis1 to this network directs Hsp70 activity away from Hsf1 in the nucleoplasm, leaving Hsf1 free to induce the HSR. In this manner, Sis1 couples HSR activation to the spatial organization of the proteostasis network.
  2. Cell Death Differ. 2020 Dec 16.
      Upregulation of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) helps tumor cells escape from immune surveillance, and therapeutic antibodies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 have shown better patient outcomes only in several types of malignancies. Recent studies suggest that the clinical efficacy of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 treatments is associated with PD-L1 levels; however, the underlying mechanism of high PD-L1 protein levels in cancers is not well defined. Here, we report that the deubiquitinase OTUB1 positively regulates PD-L1 stability and mediates cancer immune responses through the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that OTUB1 interacts with and removes K48-linked ubiquitin chains from the PD-L1 intracellular domain in a manner dependent on its deubiquitinase activity to hinder the degradation of PD-L1 through the ERAD pathway. Functionally, depletion of OTUB1 markedly decreases PD-L1 abundance, reduces PD-1 protein binding to the tumor cell surface, and causes increased tumor cell sensitivity to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)-mediated cytotoxicity. Meanwhile, OTUB1 ablation-induced PD-L1 destabilization facilitates more CD8+ T cells infiltration and increases the level of IFN-γ in serum to enhance antitumor immunity in mice, and the tumor growth suppression by OTUB1 silencing could be reversed by PD-L1 overexpression. Furthermore, we observe a significant correlation between PD-L1 abundance and OTUB1 expression in human breast carcinoma. Our study reveals OTUB1 as a deubiquitinating enzyme that influences cancer immunosuppression via regulation of PD-L1 stability and may be a potential therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy.
  3. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2020 Dec 18.
      AIMS: Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy R9 (LGMDR9) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the fukutin-related protein gene (FKRP), encoding a glycosyltransferase involved in α-dystroglycan modification. Muscle atrophy, a significant feature of LGMDR9, occurs by a change in the normal balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy-lysosomal system play a key role in protein degradation in skeletal muscle cells, but their involvement in the pathology of LGMDR9 is still largely unknown. We have aimed at clarifying whether proteolysis through the UPS and the autophagy-lysosomal pathway is dysregulated in LGMDR9 patients.METHODS: Vastus lateralis biopsies from 8 normal controls and 12 LGMDR9 patients harbouring the c.826C>A/c.826C>A FKRP genotype were assessed for protein markers related to UPS, the autophagy-lysosomal system and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/unfolded protein response (UPR), followed by ultrastructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
    RESULTS: Protein levels of E3 ubiquitin ligases Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 showed a pattern similar to normal controls. Elevation of the autophagy markers Atg7, LC3B-II, decreased level of p62 as well as downregulation of the negative autophagy regulator mTORC1, indicated an activation of autophagy in LGMDR9. Mitophagy markers Bnip3 and Parkin were decreased. TEM analysis demonstrated accumulation of autophagosome-like structures in LGMDR9 muscle. There was also an increase in the expression of ER stress/UPR markers PDI, peIF2α and CHOP and a decrease of IRE1α. However, GRP94, Bip and Calnexin remained unchanged.
    CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that autophagy and ER stress are induced in LGMDR9 muscle.
    Keywords:  ER stress; LGMD2I; LGMDR9; UPS; autophagy; muscle atrophy
  4. Elife. 2020 Dec 15. pii: e63997. [Epub ahead of print]9
      UDP-glucose: glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT) 1 and 2 are central hubs in the chaperone network of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), acting as gatekeepers to the early secretory pathway yet little is known about their cellular clients. These two quality control sensors control lectin chaperone binding and glycoprotein egress from ER. A quantitative glycoproteomics strategy was deployed to identify cellular substrates of the UGGTs at endogenous levels in CRISPR-edited HEK293 cells. The seventy-one UGGT substrates identified were mainly large multidomain and heavily glycosylated proteins when compared to the general N-glycoproteome. UGGT1 was the dominant glucosyltransferase with a preference towards large plasma membrane proteins whereas UGGT2 favored the modification of smaller, soluble lysosomal proteins. This study sheds light on differential specificities and roles of UGGT1 and UGGT2 and provides insight into the cellular reliance on carbohydrate-dependent chaperone system to facilitate proper folding and maturation of the cellular N-glycoproteome.
    Keywords:  cell biology; human
  5. Front Mol Biosci. 2020 ;7 214
      Alzheimer's Disease is driven by protein aggregation and is characterized by accumulation of Tau protein into neurofibrillary tangles. In healthy neurons the cellular protein quality control is successfully in charge of protein folding, which raises the question to which extent this control is disturbed in disease. Here, we describe that brain cells in Alzheimer's Disease show very specific derailment of the protein quality control network. We performed a meta-analysis on the Alzheimer's Disease Proteome database, which provides a quantitative assessment of disease-related proteome changes in six brain regions in comparison to age-matched controls. We noted that levels of all paralogs of the conserved Hsp90 chaperone family are reduced, while most other chaperones - or their regulatory co-chaperones - do not change in disease. The notable exception is a select group consisting of the stress inducible HSP70, its nucleotide exchange factor BAG3 - which links the Hsp70 system to autophagy - and neuronal small heat shock proteins, which are upregulated in disease. They are all members of a cascade controlled in the stress response, channeling proteins towards a pathway of chaperone assisted selective autophagy. Together, our analysis reveals that in an Alzheimer's brain, with exception of Hsp90, the players of the protein quality control are still present in full strength, even in brain regions most severely affected in disease. The specific upregulation of small heat shock proteins and HSP70:BAG3, ubiquitous in all brain areas analyzed, may represent a last, unsuccessful attempt to advert cell death.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; autophagy; chaperones; proteomics; proteostasis; stress response
  6. Dev Cell. 2020 Dec 07. pii: S1534-5807(20)30925-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      Lysosomes promote cellular homeostasis through macromolecular hydrolysis within their lumen and metabolic signaling by the mTORC1 kinase on their limiting membranes. Both hydrolytic and signaling functions require precise regulation of lysosomal cholesterol content. In Niemann-Pick type C (NPC), loss of the cholesterol exporter, NPC1, causes cholesterol accumulation within lysosomes, leading to mTORC1 hyperactivation, disrupted mitochondrial function, and neurodegeneration. The compositional and functional alterations in NPC lysosomes and nature of aberrant cholesterol-mTORC1 signaling contribution to organelle pathogenesis are not understood. Through proteomic profiling of NPC lysosomes, we find pronounced proteolytic impairment compounded with hydrolase depletion, enhanced membrane damage, and defective mitophagy. Genetic and pharmacologic mTORC1 inhibition restores lysosomal proteolysis without correcting cholesterol storage, implicating aberrant mTORC1 as a pathogenic driver downstream of cholesterol accumulation. Consistently, mTORC1 inhibition ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction in a neuronal model of NPC. Thus, cholesterol-mTORC1 signaling controls organelle homeostasis and is a targetable pathway in NPC.
    Keywords:  ESCRT; NPC1; autophagy; cholesterol; lysosome; mTORC1; mitochondria; proteolysis; proteomics
  7. FASEB Bioadv. 2020 Dec;2(12): 695-704
      Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a stress-responsive gene that is highly induced in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a salient feature of NASH, yet it is unknown whether ER stress contributes to hepatic PAI-1 induction in this disorder. Therefore, we aimed to (a) establish the role of ER stress in the regulation of hepatic Pai-1 expression, and (b) determine whether induction of Pai-1 in murine NASH is driven by ER stress. Hepatic Pai-1 expression was measured in C57BL/6 J mice and human HepG2 cells subjected to acute or prolonged pharmacologic ER stress. We found that hepatic Pai-1 expression was acutely suppressed in murine liver in response to severe ER stress followed by marked induction during the recovery phase of the ER stress response. Hepatic Pai-1 expression was induced in response to prolonged low-grade ER stress in mice. Induction of PAI-1 by ER stress in HepG2 cells was prevented by pharmacologic inhibition of MEK1/ERK signaling or by siRNA-mediated knockdown of XBP1, mediators of the recovery response to ER stress. Inhibiting ER stress with 4-phenylbutyric acid prevented hepatic Pai-1 induction in mice with diet-induced steatohepatitis. We conclude that hepatic Pai-1 is induced by ER stress via a pathway involving XBP1 and MEK1/ERK signaling, and induction of hepatic Pai-1 in murine NASH is mediated by ER stress. These data implicate ER stress as a novel mechanistic link between Pai-1 induction and NASH.
    Keywords:  X‐box binding protein 1; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; unfolded protein response
  8. Mol Cell. 2020 Dec 08. pii: S1097-2765(20)30833-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      Stalling during translation triggers ribosome quality control (RQC) to maintain proteostasis. Recently, stalling has also been linked to the activation of integrated stress response (ISR) by Gcn2. How the two processes are coordinated is unclear. Here, we show that activation of RQC by Hel2 suppresses that of Gcn2. We further show that Hel2 and Gcn2 are activated by a similar set of agents that cause ribosome stalling, with maximal activation of Hel2 observed at a lower frequency of stalling. Interestingly, inactivation of one pathway was found to result in the overactivation of the other, suggesting that both are activated by the same signal of ribosome collisions. Notably, the processes do not appear to be in direct competition with each other; ISR prefers a vacant A site, whereas RQC displays no preference. Collectively, our findings provide important details about how multiple pathways that recognize stalled ribosomes coordinate to mount the appropriate response.
    Keywords:  Gcn2; Hel2; RNA damage; alkylation; integrated stress response; ribosome quality control; ribosome rescue
  9. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2020 Dec 11. pii: S0304-4165(20)30323-8. [Epub ahead of print] 129812
      BACKGROUND: The quality of proteins destined for the secretory pathway is ensured by two distinct mechanisms in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER): productive folding of newly synthesized proteins, which is assisted by ER-localized molecular chaperones and in most cases also by disulfide bond formation and transfer of an oligosaccharide unit; and ER-associated degradation (ERAD), in which proteins unfolded or misfolded in the ER are recognized and processed for delivery to the ER membrane complex, retrotranslocated through the complex with simultaneous ubiquitination, extracted by AAA-ATPase to the cytosol, and finally degraded by the proteasome.SCOPE OF REVIEW: We describe the mechanisms of productive folding and ERAD, with particular attention to glycoproteins versus non-glycoproteins, and to yeast versus mammalian systems.
    MAJOR CONCLUSION: Molecular mechanisms of the productive folding of glycoproteins and non-glycoproteins mediated by molecular chaperones and protein disulfide isomerases are well conserved from yeast to mammals. Additionally, mammals have gained an oligosaccharide structure-dependent folding cycle for glycoproteins. The molecular mechanisms of ERAD are also well conserved from yeast to mammals, but redundant expression of yeast orthologues in mammals has been encountered, particularly for components involved in recognition and processing of glycoproteins and components of the ER membrane complex involved in retrotranslocation and simultaneous ubiquitination of glycoproteins and non-glycoproteins. This may reflect an evolutionary consequence of increasing quantity or quality needs toward mammals.
    GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: The introduction of innovative genome editing technology into analysis of the mechanisms of mammalian ERAD, as exemplified here, will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of various diseases.
    Keywords:  Calnexin cycle; Chaperone cycle; Lectin; Mannose trimming; N-glycan; Retrotranslocon
  10. Nucleic Acids Res. 2020 Dec 16. pii: gkaa1200. [Epub ahead of print]
      Proteostasis needs to be tightly controlled to meet the cellular demand for correctly de novo folded proteins and to avoid protein aggregation. While a coupling between translation rate and co-translational folding, likely involving an interplay between the ribosome and its associated chaperones, clearly appears to exist, the underlying mechanisms and the contribution of ribosomal proteins remain to be explored. The ribosomal protein uL3 contains a long internal loop whose tip region is in close proximity to the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center. Intriguingly, the rpl3[W255C] allele, in which the residue making the closest contact to this catalytic site is mutated, affects diverse aspects of ribosome biogenesis and function. Here, we have uncovered, by performing a synthetic lethal screen with this allele, an unexpected link between translation and the folding of nascent proteins by the ribosome-associated Ssb-RAC chaperone system. Our results reveal that uL3 and Ssb-RAC cooperate to prevent 80S ribosomes from piling up within the 5' region of mRNAs early on during translation elongation. Together, our study provides compelling in vivo evidence for a functional connection between peptide bond formation at the peptidyl transferase center and chaperone-assisted de novo folding of nascent polypeptides at the solvent-side of the peptide exit tunnel.
  11. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Dec 11. pii: 202011124. [Epub ahead of print]
      Fatty acids (FAs) are central cellular metabolites that contribute to lipid synthesis, and can be stored or harvested for metabolic energy. Dysregulation in FA processing and storage causes toxic FA accumulation or altered membrane compositions and contributes to metabolic and neurological disorders. Saturated lipids are particularly detrimental to cells, but how lipid saturation levels are maintained remains poorly understood. Here, we identify the cerebellar ataxia spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 20 (SCAR20)-associated protein Snx14, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-lipid droplet (LD) tethering protein, as a factor required to maintain the lipid saturation balance of cell membranes. We show that following saturated FA (SFA) treatment, the ER integrity of SNX14 KO cells is compromised, and both SNX14 KO cells and SCAR20 disease patient-derived cells are hypersensitive to SFA-mediated lipotoxic cell death. Using APEX2-based proximity labeling, we reveal the protein composition of Snx14-associated ER-LD contacts and define a functional interaction between Snx14 and Δ-9 FA desaturase SCD1. Lipidomic profiling reveals that SNX14 KO cells increase membrane lipid saturation following exposure to palmitate, phenocopying cells with perturbed SCD1 activity. In line with this, SNX14 KO cells manifest delayed FA processing and lipotoxicity, which can be rescued by SCD1 overexpression. Altogether, these mechanistic insights reveal a role for Snx14 in FA and ER homeostasis, defects in which may underlie the neuropathology of SCAR20.
    Keywords:  SCAR20 disease; desaturase; fatty acid (FA); lipid droplet (LD); sorting nexin 14
  12. Sci Adv. 2020 Dec;pii: eaba8237. [Epub ahead of print]6(50):
      Protein sorting in the secretory pathway is crucial to maintain cellular compartmentalization and homeostasis. In addition to coat-mediated sorting, the role of lipids in driving protein sorting during secretory transport is a longstanding fundamental question that still remains unanswered. Here, we conduct 3D simultaneous multicolor high-resolution live imaging to demonstrate in vivo that newly synthesized glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins having a very long chain ceramide lipid moiety are clustered and sorted into specialized endoplasmic reticulum exit sites that are distinct from those used by transmembrane proteins. Furthermore, we show that the chain length of ceramide in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane is critical for this sorting selectivity. Our study provides the first direct in vivo evidence for lipid chain length-based protein cargo sorting into selective export sites of the secretory pathway.
  13. Sci Adv. 2020 Dec;pii: eabc7209. [Epub ahead of print]6(51):
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) comprises morphologically and functionally distinct domains: sheets and interconnected tubules. These domains undergo dynamic reshaping in response to changes in the cellular environment. However, the mechanisms behind this rapid remodeling are largely unknown. Here, we report that ER remodeling is actively driven by lysosomes, following lysosome repositioning in response to changes in nutritional status: The anchorage of lysosomes to ER growth tips is critical for ER tubule elongation and connection. We validate this causal link via the chemo- and optogenetically driven repositioning of lysosomes, which leads to both a redistribution of the ER tubules and a change of its global morphology. Therefore, lysosomes sense metabolic change in the cell and regulate ER tubule distribution accordingly. Dysfunction in this mechanism during axonal extension may lead to axonal growth defects. Our results demonstrate a critical role of lysosome-regulated ER dynamics and reshaping in nutrient responses and neuronal development.
  14. Genes Dev. 2020 Dec 17.
      The p53 tumor suppressor protein is a potent activator of proliferative arrest and cell death. In normal cells, this pathway is restrained by p53 protein degradation mediated by the E3-ubiquitin ligase activity of MDM2. Oncogenic stress releases p53 from MDM2 control, so activating the p53 response. However, many tumors that retain wild-type p53 inappropriately maintain the MDM2-p53 regulatory loop in order to continuously suppress p53 activity. We have shown previously that single point mutations in the human MDM2 RING finger domain prevent the interaction of MDM2 with the E2/ubiquitin complex, resulting in the loss of MDM2's E3 activity without preventing p53 binding. Here, we show that an analogous mouse MDM2 mutant (MDM2 I438K) restrains p53 sufficiently for normal growth but exhibits an enhanced stress response in vitro. In vivo, constitutive expression of MDM2 I438K leads to embryonic lethality that is rescued by p53 deletion, suggesting MDM2 I438K is not able to adequately control p53 function through development. However, the switch to I438K expression is tolerated in adult mice, sparing normal cells but allowing for an enhanced p53 response to DNA damage. Viewed as a proof of principle model for therapeutic development, our findings support an approach that would inhibit MDM2 E3 activity without preventing MDM2/p53 binding as a promising avenue for development of compounds to activate p53 in tumors with reduced on-target toxicities.
    Keywords:  E3 activity; MDM2; RING mutant; p53
  15. Nature. 2020 Dec 16.
      Autophagy, a process of degradation that occurs via the lysosomal pathway, has an essential role in multiple aspects of immunity, including immune system development, regulation of innate and adaptive immune and inflammatory responses, selective degradation of intracellular microorganisms, and host protection against infectious diseases1,2. Autophagy is known to be induced by stimuli such as nutrient deprivation and suppression of mTOR, but little is known about how autophagosomal biogenesis is initiated in mammalian cells in response to viral infection. Here, using genome-wide short interfering RNA screens, we find that the endosomal protein sorting nexin 5 (SNX5)3,4 is essential for virus-induced, but not for basal, stress- or endosome-induced, autophagy. We show that SNX5 deletion increases cellular susceptibility to viral infection in vitro, and that Snx5 knockout in mice enhances lethality after infection with several human viruses. Mechanistically, SNX5 interacts with beclin 1 and ATG14-containing class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3KC3) complex 1 (PI3KC3-C1), increases the lipid kinase activity of purified PI3KC3-C1, and is required for endosomal generation of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) and recruitment of the PtdIns(3)P-binding protein WIPI2 to virion-containing endosomes. These findings identify a context- and organelle-specific mechanism-SNX5-dependent PI3KC3-C1 activation at endosomes-for initiation of autophagy during viral infection.
  16. Plants (Basel). 2020 Dec 14. pii: E1771. [Epub ahead of print]9(12):
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest continuous membrane-bound cellular organelle and plays a central role in the biosynthesis of lipids and proteins and their distribution to other organelles. Autophagy is a conserved process that is required for recycling unwanted cellular components. Recent studies have implicated the ER as a membrane source for the formation of autophagosomes, vesicles that transport material to the vacuole during autophagy. When unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER and/or the ER lipid bilayer is disrupted, a condition known as ER stress results. During ER stress, ER membranes can also be engulfed through autophagy in a process termed ER-phagy. An interplay between ER stress responses and autophagy thus maintains the functions of the ER to allow cellular survival. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding ER-phagy in plants, including identification of regulatory factors and selective autophagy receptors. We also identify key unanswered questions in plant ER-phagy for future study.
    Keywords:  ER stress; ER-phagy; autophagy; endoplasmic reticulum; unfolded protein response
  17. Sci Rep. 2020 Dec 14. 10(1): 21626
      MZB1 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein that plays an important role in the humoral immune response by enhancing the interaction of the μ immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain with the chaperone GRP94 and by augmenting the secretion of IgM. Here, we show that MZB1 is also expressed in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Mzb1-/- pDCs have a defect in the secretion of interferon (IFN) α upon Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 stimulation and a reduced ability to enhance B cell differentiation towards plasma cells. Mzb1-/- pDCs do not properly expand the ER upon TLR9 stimulation, which may be accounted for by an impaired activation of ATF6, a regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Pharmacological inhibition of ATF6 cleavage in stimulated wild type pDCs mimics the diminished IFNα secretion by Mzb1-/- pDCs. Thus, MZB1 enables pDCs to secrete high amounts of IFNα by mitigating ER stress via the ATF6-mediated UPR.
  18. Cell Death Differ. 2020 Dec 17.
      Metazoan development from a one-cell zygote to a fully formed organism requires complex cellular differentiation and communication pathways. To coordinate these processes, embryos frequently encode signaling information with the small protein modifier ubiquitin, which is typically attached to lysine residues within substrates. During ubiquitin signaling, a three-step enzymatic cascade modifies specific substrates with topologically unique ubiquitin modifications, which mediate changes in the substrate's stability, activity, localization, or interacting proteins. Ubiquitin signaling is critically regulated by deubiquitylases (DUBs), a class of ~100 human enzymes that oppose the conjugation of ubiquitin. DUBs control many essential cellular functions and various aspects of human physiology and development. Recent genetic studies have identified mutations in several DUBs that cause developmental disorders. Here we review principles controlling DUB activity and substrate recruitment that allow these enzymes to regulate ubiquitin signaling during development. We summarize key mechanisms of how DUBs control embryonic and postnatal differentiation processes, highlight developmental disorders that are caused by mutations in particular DUB members, and describe our current understanding of how these mutations disrupt development. Finally, we discuss how emerging tools from human disease genetics will enable the identification and study of novel congenital disease-causing DUBs.
  19. Traffic. 2020 Dec 12.
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in biogenesis, modification and transport of secreted and membrane proteins. The ER membranes are spread throughout the cell cytoplasm as well as the export domains known as ER exit sites (ERES). A subpopulation of ERES is centrally localized proximal to the Golgi apparatus. The significance of this subpopulation on ER-to-Golgi transport remains unclear. Transport carriers (TCs) form at the ERES via a COPII-dependent mechanism and move to Golgi on microtubule (MT) tracks. It was shown previously that ERES are distributed along MTs and undergo chaotic short-range movements and sporadic rapid long-range movements. The long-range movements of ERES are impaired by either depolymerization of MTs or inhibition of dynein, suggesting that ERES central concentration is mediated by dynein activity. We demonstrate that the processive movements of ERES are frequently coupled with the TC departure. Using the Sar1a[H79G]-induced ERES clustering at the perinuclear region, we identified BicaudalD2 (BicD2) and Rab6 as components of the dynein adaptor complex which drives perinuclear ERES concentration at the cell center. BicD2 partially colocalized with ERES and with TC. Peri-Golgi ERES localization was significantly affected by inhibition of BicD2 function with its N-terminal fragment or inhibition of Rab6 function with its dominant-negative mutant. Golgi accumulation of secretory protein was delayed by inhibition of Rab6 and BicD2. Thus, we conclude that a BicD2/Rab6 dynein adaptor is required for maintenance of Golgi-associated ERES. We propose that Golgi-associated ERES may enhance the efficiency of the ER-to-Golgi transport. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  COPII; Dynactin; Dynein; ER-to-Golgi transport; VSVG; microtubule
  20. FEBS J. 2020 Dec 17.
      p62/SQSTM1 is a multi-protein interaction hub forming cellular punctate structures known as p62 bodies. p62 is centrally involved in the degradation of ubiquitinated cargo through autophagy, as well as in a wide range of signaling activities as part of the cellular response to nutrient sensing, oxidative stress, infection, immunity and inflammation. Structural work has shown that p62 forms flexible filamentous assemblies composed of an N-terminal PB1 domain-scaffold and a C-terminal binding platform, including folded recognition domains and structurally disordered binding motifs. In the cell, these filaments are part of cellular p62 bodies that display properties of liquid-liquid phase separation. Here, we review the accumulated structural and functional work of p62 and integrate them with the emerging framework of filamentous biomolecular condensates.
    Keywords:  autophagy; biomolecular condensate; interaction hub; p62/SQSTM1; phase separation; posttranslational modification; scaffold protein; signaling
  21. Front Mol Neurosci. 2020 ;13 597391
      A fundamental characteristic of neurons is the relationship between the architecture of the polarized neuron and synaptic transmission between neurons. Intracellular membrane trafficking is paramount to establish and maintain neuronal structure; perturbation in trafficking results in defects in neurodevelopment and neurological disorders. Given the physical distance from the cell body to the distal sites of the axon and dendrites, transport of newly synthesized membrane proteins from the central cell body to their functional destination at remote, distal sites represents a conundrum. With the identification of secretory organelles in dendrites, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi outposts (GOs), recent studies have proposed local protein synthesis and trafficking distinct from the conventional anterograde transport pathways of the cell body. A variety of different model organisms, including Drosophila, zebrafish, and rodents, have been used to probe the organization and function of the local neuronal secretory network. Here, we review the evidence for local secretory trafficking pathways in dendrites in a variety of cell-based neuronal systems and discuss both the similarities and differences in the organization and role of the local secretory organelles, especially the GOs. In addition, we identify the gaps in the current knowledge and the potential advances using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in defining local membrane protein trafficking in human neurons and in understanding the molecular basis of neurological diseases.
    Keywords:  Golgi morphology; Golgi outposts; Golgi stacks; membrane trafficking; neuronal dendrites
  22. Cell. 2020 Dec 09. pii: S0092-8674(20)31527-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cellular stress leads to reprogramming of mRNA translation and formation of stress granules (SGs), membraneless organelles consisting of mRNA and RNA-binding proteins. Although the function of SGs remains largely unknown, it is widely assumed they contain exclusively non-translating mRNA. Here, we re-examine this hypothesis using single-molecule imaging of mRNA translation in living cells. Although we observe non-translating mRNAs are preferentially recruited to SGs, we find unequivocal evidence that mRNAs localized to SGs can undergo translation. Our data indicate that SG-associated translation is not rare, and the entire translation cycle (initiation, elongation, and termination) can occur on SG-localized transcripts. Furthermore, translating mRNAs can be observed transitioning between the cytosol and SGs without changing their translational status. Together, these results demonstrate that mRNA localization to SGs is compatible with translation and argue against a direct role for SGs in inhibition of protein synthesis.
    Keywords:  5′; ATF4; SunTag; TOP; arsenite; integrated stress response; mRNA translation; membraneless organelles; single-molecule imaging; stress granules
  23. Cell Death Differ. 2020 Dec 17.
      Oleate, the most abundant endogenous and dietary cis-unsaturated fatty acid, has the atypical property to cause the redistribution of microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (referred to as LC3) to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), as shown here. A genome-wide screen identified multiple, mostly Golgi transport-related genes specifically involved in the oleate-induced relocation of LC3 to the Golgi apparatus. Follow-up analyses revealed that oleate also caused the retention of secreted proteins in the TGN, as determined in two assays in which the secretion of proteins was synchronized, (i) an assay involving a thermosensitive vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSVG) protein that is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) until the temperature is lowered, and (ii) an isothermic assay involving the reversible retention of the protein of interest in the ER lumen and that was used both in vitro and in vivo. A pharmacological screen searching for agents that induce LC3 aggregation at the Golgi apparatus led to the identification of "oleate mimetics" that share the capacity to block conventional protein secretion. In conclusion, oleate represents a class of molecules that act on the Golgi apparatus to cause the recruitment of LC3 and to stall protein secretion.
  24. Science. 2020 Dec 17. pii: eabb4309. [Epub ahead of print]
      The RNA-binding protein TDP-43 forms intranuclear or cytoplasmic aggregates in age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Here we found that RNA-binding deficient TDP-43 (produced by neurodegeneration-causing mutations or post-translational acetylation in its RNA recognition motifs) drove TDP-43 de-mixing into intranuclear liquid spherical shells with liquid cores. We named these droplets anisosomes, whose shells exhibited birefringence, evidence of liquid crystal formation. Guided by mathematical modeling, we identified the major components of the liquid core to be HSP70 family chaperones, whose ATP-dependent activity maintained the liquidity of shells and cores. In vivo proteasome inhibition within neurons, to mimic aging-related reduction of proteasome activity, induced TDP-43-containing spherical shells. These structures converted into aggregates when ATP levels were reduced. Thus, acetylation, HSP70, and proteasome activities regulate TDP-43 phase separation and conversion into a gel/solid phase.
  25. J Biol Chem. 2020 Dec 17. pii: jbc.RA120.016542. [Epub ahead of print]
      Prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs) catalyze post-translational hydroxylation of peptidyl proline residues. In addition to collagen P4Hs and hypoxia-inducible factor P4Hs, a third P4H; the poorly characterized endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized transmembrane prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H-TM); is found in animals. P4H-TM variants are associated with the familiar neurological HIDEA syndrome, but how these variants might contribute to disease is unknown. Here, we explored this question in a structural and functional analysis of soluble human P4H-TM. The crystal structure revealed an EF-domain with two Ca2+-binding motifs inserted within the catalytic domain. A substrate-binding groove was formed between the EF-domain and the conserved core of the catalytic domain. The proximity of the EF-domain to the active site suggests that Ca2+-binding is relevant to the catalytic activity. Functional analysis demonstrated that Ca2+-binding affinity of P4H-TM is within the range of physiological Ca2+ concentration in the ER. P4H-TM was found both as a monomer and a dimer in solution, but the monomer-dimer equilibrium was not regulated by Ca2+. The catalytic site contained bound Fe2+ and N-oxalylglycine, which is an analogue of the cosubstrate 2-oxoglutarate. Comparison to homologous P4H structures complexed with peptide substrates showed that the substrate interacting residues and the lid structure that folds over the substrate are conserved in P4H-TM, whereas the extensive loop structures that surround the substrate-binding groove, generating a negative surface potential, are different. Analysis of the structure suggests that the HIDEA variants cause loss of P4H-TM function. In conclusion, P4H-TM shares key structural elements with other P4Hs while having an unique EF-domain.
    Keywords:  2OGDD; EF-hand; HIDEA syndrome; calcium; calcium-binding protein; endoplasmic reticulum (ER); enzyme structure; prolyl 4-hydroxylase; transmembrane domain
  26. Life Sci Alliance. 2021 Feb;pii: e202000965. [Epub ahead of print]4(2):
      Hunger drives food-seeking behaviour and controls adaptation of organisms to nutrient availability and energy stores. Lipids constitute an essential source of energy in the cell that can be mobilised during fasting by autophagy. Selective degradation of proteins by autophagy is made possible essentially by the presence of LIR and KFERQ-like motifs. Using in silico screening of Drosophila proteins that contain KFERQ-like motifs, we identified and characterized the adaptor protein Arouser, which functions to regulate fat storage and mobilisation and is essential during periods of food deprivation. We show that hypomorphic arouser mutants are not satiated, are more sensitive to food deprivation, and are more aggressive, suggesting an essential role for Arouser in the coordination of metabolism and food-related behaviour. Our analysis shows that Arouser functions in the fat body through nutrient-related signalling pathways and is degraded by endosomal microautophagy. Arouser degradation occurs during feeding conditions, whereas its stabilisation during non-feeding periods is essential for resistance to starvation and survival. In summary, our data describe a novel role for endosomal microautophagy in energy homeostasis, by the degradation of the signalling regulatory protein Arouser.
  27. Front Microbiol. 2020 ;11 597972
      Nef is an accessory protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and plays important roles in regulating HIV-1 infection and viral replication. Interestingly, HIV-1 Nef can promote degradation of numerous host proteins to disrupt cellular antiviral immune response. However, how HIV-1 Nef is degraded by host factors remains largely unexplored. Here, we identified c-Cbl as a host ubiquitin E3 ligase of HIV-1 Nef. We found that c-Cbl interacts with Nef and reduces protein levels of HIV-1 Nef. Further studies demonstrated that c-Cbl promoted Lys48-linked polyubiquitination of HIV-1 Nef, thus attenuating protein stability of HIV-1 Nef. Importantly, cellular c-Cbl ubiquitinated and degraded Nef proteins produced by HIV-1 NL4-3 virions, and ultimately attenuated HIV-1 virulence for infection of THP1 cells. This study reveals a ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation mechanism of HIV-1 Nef protein, and could provide potential strategies for fighting against HIV-1.
    Keywords:  E3 ubiquitin ligase; HIV-1; Nef; c-Cbl; ubiquitination
  28. Biochem Biophys Rep. 2020 Dec;24 100846
      USP5 and USP8 (Deubiquitinating enzyme) are highly overexpressed and more recognized as poor prognosis marker in various cancers. Depleting USP5 or USP8 to assess the synergism with proteasome inhibitor (Bortezomib) were measured. Furthermore, in present finding USP5 cooperates hnRNPA1 & USP8 cooperate SF2/ASF1, therefore gain in expression of either hnRNPA1 or SF2/ASF1 is sufficient to promote cell survival. On the other side, apoptosis markers were more pronounced in U87 or T98G cells devoid of either USP5 or USP8. However, apparent increase in SF2/ASF1 in absence of USP5, providing resistant factor is new. Antiapoptotic activity due to rise in SF2/ASF1 was validated after co-knock down of SF2/ASF1 in addition to USP5 induces more apoptosis comparing to individual knock down of USP5 or SF2/ASF1. This reveals SF2/ASF1 (RNA binding protein) delayed the apoptotic effect due to loss of USP5, lends ubiquitination of hnRNPA1. In presence of USP5, PI3 kinase inhibition promotes even more interaction between USP5 and hnRNPA1, thereby stabilizes hnRNPA1 in U87MG. In that way hnRNPA1 and SF2/ASF1 impart oncogenic activity. In conclusion, siRNA based strategy against USP5 is not enough to inhibit glioma, moreover targeting additionally SF2/ASF1 by knocking down USP8 is suitably more effective to deal with glioma tumour reoccurrence by indirectly targeting both SF2/ASF1 and hnRNPA1 oncogene.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; DUB, Deubiquitinating enzymes; SF2/ASF1; SF2/ASF1, Serine arginine rich alternative splice factor; USP5; USP5, Ubiquitin specific peptidase 5; USP8; USP8, Ubiquitin specific peptidase 8; hnRNPA1; hnRNPA1, Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A1
  29. J Biol Chem. 2020 Dec 17. pii: jbc.RA120.014956. [Epub ahead of print]
      Eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) serves as a vital control point within protein synthesis and regulates translation initiation in response to cellular stress. Mutations within eIF2B result in the fatal disease, leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM). Previous biochemical studies on VWM mutations have illustrated that changes in the activity of eIF2B poorly correlates with disease severity. This suggests that there may be additional characteristics of eIF2B contributing to VWM pathogenesis. Here, we investigated whether the localisation of eIF2B to eIF2B bodies was integral for function and whether this localisation could provide insight into the pathogenesis of VWM. We demonstrate that the regulatory subunit, eIF2Bα, is required for the assembly of eIF2B bodies in yeast and that loss of eIF2B bodies correlates with an inability of cells to regulate eIF2B activity.  Mutational analysis of eIF2Bα showed that missense mutations which disrupt the regulation of eIF2B similarly disrupt the assembly of eIF2B bodies. In contrast, when eIF2Bα mutations which impact the catalytic activity of eIF2B were analysed, eIF2B bodies were absent and instead eIF2B localised to small foci, termed microfoci. FRAP analysis highlighted that within these microfoci, eIF2 shuttles more slowly indicating that formation of eIF2B bodies correlates with full eIF2B activity. When eIF2Bα VWM mutations were analysed a diverse impact on localisation was observed, which did not seem to correlate with eIF2B activity.  These findings provide key insights into how the eIF2B body assembles and suggest that the body is a fundamental part of the translational regulation via eIF2α phosphorylation.
    Keywords:  molecular cell biology; protein structure; translation control; translation initiation; translation initiation factor; yeast physiology
  30. Trends Biochem Sci. 2020 Dec 08. pii: S0968-0004(20)30276-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      Chromatin functions are influenced by the addition, removal, and recognition of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs). Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like (UBL) PTMs on histone proteins can function as signaling molecules by mediating protein-protein interactions. Fueled by the identification of novel ubiquitin and UBL sites and the characterization of the writers, erasers, and readers, the breadth of chromatin functions associated with ubiquitin signaling is emerging. Here, we highlight recently appreciated roles for histone ubiquitination in DNA methylation control, PTM crosstalk, nucleosome structure, and phase separation. We also discuss the expanding diversity and functions associated with histone UBL modifications. We conclude with a look toward the future and pose key questions that will drive continued discovery at the interface of epigenetics and ubiquitin signaling.
    Keywords:  DNA methylation; epigenetics; histones; phase separation; post-translational modifications; ubiquitin-like modifications; ubiquitination
  31. Nat Commun. 2020 12 14. 11(1): 6387
      Inositol-Requiring Enzyme 1 (IRE1) is an essential component of the Unfolded Protein Response. IRE1 spans the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, comprising a sensory lumenal domain, and tandem kinase and endoribonuclease (RNase) cytoplasmic domains. Excess unfolded proteins in the ER lumen induce dimerization and oligomerization of IRE1, triggering kinase trans-autophosphorylation and RNase activation. Known ATP-competitive small-molecule IRE1 kinase inhibitors either allosterically disrupt or stabilize the active dimeric unit, accordingly inhibiting or stimulating RNase activity. Previous allosteric RNase activators display poor selectivity and/or weak cellular activity. In this study, we describe a class of ATP-competitive RNase activators possessing high selectivity and strong cellular activity. This class of activators binds IRE1 in the kinase front pocket, leading to a distinct conformation of the activation loop. Our findings reveal exquisitely precise interdomain regulation within IRE1, advancing the mechanistic understanding of this important enzyme and its investigation as a potential small-molecule therapeutic target.
  32. Mol Cell. 2020 Dec 08. pii: S1097-2765(20)30787-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      Ribosome assembly is catalyzed by numerous trans-acting factors and coupled with irreversible pre-rRNA processing, driving the pathway toward mature ribosomal subunits. One decisive step early in this progression is removal of the 5' external transcribed spacer (5'-ETS), an RNA extension at the 18S rRNA that is integrated into the huge 90S pre-ribosome structure. Upon endo-nucleolytic cleavage at an internal site, A1, the 5'-ETS is separated from the 18S rRNA and degraded. Here we present biochemical and cryo-electron microscopy analyses that depict the RNA exosome, a major 3'-5' exoribonuclease complex, in a super-complex with the 90S pre-ribosome. The exosome is docked to the 90S through its co-factor Mtr4 helicase, a processive RNA duplex-dismantling helicase, which strategically positions the exosome at the base of 5'-ETS helices H9-H9', which are dislodged in our 90S-exosome structures. These findings suggest a direct role of the exosome in structural remodeling of the 90S pre-ribosome to drive eukaryotic ribosome synthesis.
    Keywords:  5’ ETS; 90S pre-ribosome; MTR4; exosome; ribosome biogenesis
  33. Biochem Biophys Rep. 2020 Dec;24 100870
      Mutation in the transmembrane protein 65 gene (TMEM65) results in mitochondrial dysfunction and a severe mitochondrial encephalomyopathy phenotype. However, neither the function of TMEM65 nor the cellular responses to its depletion have been fully elucidated. Hence, we knocked down TMEM65 in human cultured cells and analyzed the resulting cellular responses. Depletion of TMEM65 led to a mild increase in ROS generation and upregulation of the mRNA levels of oxidative stress suppressors, such as NFE2L2 and SESN3, indicating that TMEM65 knockdown induced an oxidative stress response. A mild induction of apoptosis was also observed upon depletion of TMEM65. Depletion of TMEM65 upregulated protein levels of the mitochondrial chaperone HSPD1 and mitochondrial protease LONP1, indicating that mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) was induced in response to TMEM65 depletion. Additionally, we found that the mitochondrial protein import receptor TOMM22 and HSPA9 (mitochondrial Hsp70), were also upregulated in TMEM65-depleted cells. Notably, the depletion of TMEM65 did not lead to upregulation of TOMM22 in an ATF5-dependent manner, although upregulation of LONP1 reportedly occurs in an ATF5-dependent manner. Taken together, our findings suggest that depletion of TMEM65 causes mild oxidative stress and apoptosis, induces UPRmt, and upregulates protein expression of mitochondrial protein import receptor TOMM22 in an ATF5-independent manner.
    Keywords:  Mitochondrial protein import; Mitochondrial unfolded protein response; Oxidative stress; TMEM65; TOMM22
  34. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr. 2020 Dec 09. pii: S0005-2736(20)30372-2. [Epub ahead of print] 183530
      As the largest membrane organelle, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main location for protein preliminary processing and phospholipid synthesis. Phospholipid bilayer is the main component of the ER, so it plays an intuitively important role in the steady state of protein synthesis in the ER. Despite of their importance, relationship between phospholipid homeostasis and protein processing in Aspergillus niger remains poorly understood. In this study, phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE)/phosphatidyl choline (PC) and phosphatidyl acid (PA) metabolic mutants and ER protein processing mutants were established by knockout the key genes in phospholipid synthesis or UPR effector hacA. Based on global transcriptome and lipidome analysis, the relationship between the phospholipids imbalance and ER protein secretory imbalance was revealed as followed: The cells compensate for the damage caused by ER protein secretory deficiency or phospholipid deficiency from enhancing the protein processing and the synthesis of phospholipids at the transcription level, therefore phospholipid deficiency (Δopi3) and continuous activation of UPR (hacAi) have a synergistic effect in promoting protein secretion and phospholipid biosynthesis. At the same time, the metabolic deficiencies of phospholipid homeostasis and the processing deficiencies of ER protein will also cause cells sensitive to oxidative stress, cell wall inhibition and DNA damage.
    Keywords:  Aspergillus niger; Endoplasmic reticulum; Lipidome; Phospholipid metabolic; Protein processing pathway; Transcriptome
  35. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Dec 14. pii: 202007991. [Epub ahead of print]
      Brain metastases are the most common intracranial tumors in adults and are associated with increased patient morbidity and mortality. Limited therapeutic options are currently available for the treatment of brain metastasis. Here, we report on the discovery of an actionable signaling pathway utilized by metastatic tumor cells whereby the transcriptional regulator Heat Shock Factor 1 (HSF1) drives a transcriptional program, divergent from its canonical role as the master regulator of the heat shock response, leading to enhanced expression of a subset of E2F transcription factor family gene targets. We find that HSF1 is required for survival and outgrowth by metastatic lung cancer cells in the brain parenchyma. Further, we identify the ABL2 tyrosine kinase as an upstream regulator of HSF1 protein expression and show that the Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain of ABL2 directly interacts with HSF1 protein at a noncanonical, proline-independent SH3 interaction motif. Pharmacologic inhibition of the ABL2 kinase using small molecule allosteric inhibitors, but not ATP-competitive inhibitors, disrupts this interaction. Importantly, knockdown as well as pharmacologic inhibition of ABL2 using allosteric inhibitors impairs expression of HSF1 protein and HSF1-E2F transcriptional gene targets. Collectively, these findings reveal a targetable ABL2-HSF1-E2F signaling pathway required for survival by brain-metastatic tumor cells.
    Keywords:  ABL kinases; ABL2; HSF1; brain metastasis; lung adenocarcinoma
  36. J Virol. 2020 Dec 16. pii: JVI.02346-20. [Epub ahead of print]
      Autophagy is a catabolic process contributing to intrinsic cellular defense by degrading viral particles or proteins, however, several viruses hijack this pathway for their own benefit. The role of autophagy during human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication has not been definitely clarified yet. Utilizing siRNA-based screening, we observed that depletion of many autophagy-related proteins resulted in reduced virus release suggesting a requirement of autophagy-related factors for efficient HCMV replication. Additionally, we could show that the autophagy-initiating serine/threonine-protein kinase ULK1 as well as other constituents of the ULK1 complex were upregulated at early times of infection and stayed upregulated throughout the replication cycle. We demonstrate that an indirect interference with ULK1 through inhibition of the upstream regulator AMPK impaired virus release. Furthermore, this result was verified by direct abrogation of ULK1 kinase activity utilizing the ULK1-specific kinase inhibitors SBI-0206965 and ULK-101. Analysis of viral protein expression in the presence of ULK-101 revealed a connection between the cellular kinase ULK1 and the viral tegument protein pp28 (pUL99) and we identified pp28 as a novel viral substrate of ULK1 by in vitro kinase assays. In the absence of ULK1 kinase activity, large pp28- and pp65-positive structures could be detected in the cytoplasm at late time points of infection. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that these structures represent large perinuclear protein accumulations presumably representing aggresomes. Our results indicate that HCMV manipulates ULK1 and further components of the autophagic machinery to ensure efficient release of viral particles.IMPORTANCE The catabolic program of autophagy represents a powerful immune defense against viruses that is, however, counteracted by antagonizing viral factors. Understanding the exact interplay between autophagy and HCMV infection is of major importance since autophagy-related proteins emerged as promising targets for pharmacologic intervention. Our study provides evidence for a proviral role of several autophagy-related proteins suggesting that HCMV has developed strategies to usurp components of the autophagic machinery for its own benefit. In particular, we observed a strong upregulation of the autophagy-initiating protein kinase ULK1 and further components of the ULK1 complex during HCMV replication. In addition, both siRNA-mediated depletion of ULK1 and interference with ULK1 protein kinase activity by two chemically different inhibitors resulted in impaired viral particle release. Thus, we propose that ULK1 kinase activity is required for efficient HCMV replication and thus represents a promising novel target for future antiviral drug development.
  37. Cell Death Differ. 2020 Dec 16.
      Tripartite motif-containing 28 (TRIM28) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase harboring multiple cellular functions. We found that the TRIM28 protein is frequently overexpressed in patients with lung cancer. The stable overexpression of TRIM28 in lung cancer cells and xenograft models significantly increased the proliferation, migration, and invasiveness, whereas knockdown of TRIM28 had the opposite effect. We further observed that TRIM28 regulates the ubiquitin ligases RLIM and MDM2 to target the p53 levels during lung tumorigenesis. These data provide new insights into lung cancer development and potential new therapeutic targets for this disease.
  38. Nucleic Acids Res. 2020 Dec 11. pii: gkaa1180. [Epub ahead of print]
      Translational control is essential in response to stress. We investigated the translational programmes launched by the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe upon five environmental stresses. We also explored the contribution of defence pathways to these programmes: The Integrated Stress Response (ISR), which regulates translation initiation, and the stress-response MAPK pathway. We performed ribosome profiling of cells subjected to each stress, in wild type cells and in cells with the defence pathways inactivated. The transcription factor Fil1, a functional homologue of the yeast Gcn4 and the mammalian Atf4 proteins, was translationally upregulated and required for the response to most stresses. Moreover, many mRNAs encoding proteins required for ribosome biogenesis were translationally downregulated. Thus, several stresses trigger a universal translational response, including reduced ribosome production and a Fil1-mediated transcriptional programme. Surprisingly, ribosomes stalled on tryptophan codons upon oxidative stress, likely due to a decrease in charged tRNA-Tryptophan. Stalling caused ribosome accumulation upstream of tryptophan codons (ribosome queuing/collisions), demonstrating that stalled ribosomes affect translation elongation by other ribosomes. Consistently, tryptophan codon stalling led to reduced translation elongation and contributed to the ISR-mediated inhibition of initiation. We show that different stresses elicit common and specific translational responses, revealing a novel role in Tryptophan-tRNA availability.
  39. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Dec 14. pii: E3764. [Epub ahead of print]12(12):
      Multiple myeloma is a genetically heterogeneous plasma cell malignancy characterized by organ damage and a massive production of (in-)complete monoclonal antibodies. Coping with protein homeostasis and post-translational regulation is therefore essential for multiple myeloma cells to survive. Furthermore, post-translational modifications such as ubiquitination and SUMOylation play key roles in essential pathways in multiple myeloma, including NFκB signaling, epigenetic regulation, as well as DNA damage repair. Drugs modulating the ubiquitin-proteasome system, such as proteasome inhibitors and thalidomide analogs, are approved and highly effective drugs in multiple myeloma. In this review, we focus on ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifications in the biology and current developments of new treatments for multiple myeloma.
    Keywords:  IMiD; NEDD; PROTAC; SUMO; multiple myeloma; proteasome; ubiquitin
  40. Front Immunol. 2020 ;11 586613
      Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells that play a key role in immune homeostasis and the adaptive immune response. DC-induced immune tolerance or activation is strictly dependent on the distinct maturation stages and migration ability of DCs. Ubiquitination is a reversible protein post-translational modification process that has emerged as a crucial mechanism that regulates DC maturation and function. Recent studies have shown that ubiquitin enzymes, including E3 ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases (DUBs), are pivotal regulators of DC-mediated immune function and serve as potential targets for DC-based immunotherapy of immune-related disorders (e.g., autoimmune disease, infections, and tumors). In this review, we summarize the recent progress regarding the molecular mechanisms and function of ubiquitination in DC-mediated immune homeostasis and immune response.
    Keywords:  DC maturation; dendritic cells; immune responses; post-translational modification; ubiquitination
  41. Elife. 2020 Dec 15. pii: e57457. [Epub ahead of print]9
      The AAA+ protein disaggregase, Hsp104, increases fitness under stress by reversing stress-induced protein aggregation. Natural Hsp104 variants might exist with enhanced, selective activity against neurodegenerative disease substrates. However, natural Hsp104 variation remains largely unexplored. Here, we screened a cross-kingdom collection of Hsp104 homologs in yeast proteotoxicity models. Prokaryotic ClpG reduced TDP-43, FUS, and a-synuclein toxicity, whereas prokaryotic ClpB and hyperactive variants were ineffective. We uncovered therapeutic genetic variation among eukaryotic Hsp104 homologs that specifically antagonized TDP-43 condensation and toxicity in yeast and TDP-43 aggregation in human cells. We also uncovered distinct eukaryotic Hsp104 homologs that selectively antagonized a-synuclein condensation and toxicity in yeast and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in C. elegans. Surprisingly, this therapeutic variation did not manifest as enhanced disaggregase activity, but rather as increased passive inhibition of aggregation of specific substrates. By exploring natural tuning of this passive Hsp104 activity, we elucidated enhanced, substrate-specific agents that counter proteotoxicity underlying neurodegeneration.
    Keywords:  C. elegans; S. cerevisiae; biochemistry; chemical biology; genetics; genomics
  42. Front Immunol. 2020 ;11 601926
      The LUBAC ubiquitin ligase complex, composed of the HOIP, HOIL-1L, and SHARPIN subunits, stimulates the canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation pathways through its Met1-linked linear ubiquitination activity. Here we performed cellular and mathematical modeling analyses of the LUBAC involvement in the T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated NF-κB activation pathway, using the Jurkat human T cell line. LUBAC is indispensable for TCR-induced NF-κB and T cell activation, and transiently associates with and linearly ubiquitinates the CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complex, through the catalytic HOIP subunit. In contrast, the linear ubiquitination of NEMO, a substrate of the TNF-α-induced canonical NF-κB activation pathway, was limited during the TCR pathway. Among deubiquitinases, OTULIN, but not CYLD, plays a major role in downregulating LUBAC-mediated TCR signaling. Mathematical modeling indicated that linear ubiquitination of the CBM complex accelerates the activation of IκB kinase (IKK), as compared with the activity induced by linear ubiquitination of NEMO alone. Moreover, simulations of the sequential linear ubiquitination of the CBM complex suggested that the allosteric regulation of linear (de)ubiquitination of CBM subunits is controlled by the ubiquitin-linkage lengths. These results indicated that, unlike the TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation pathway, the TCR-mediated NF-κB activation in T lymphocytes has a characteristic mechanism to induce LUBAC-mediated NF-κB activation.
    Keywords:  CBM complex; LUBAC; NF-κB; T cell receptor; linear ubiquitin; mathematical model
  43. Sci Transl Med. 2020 Dec 16. pii: eabb5647. [Epub ahead of print]12(574):
      Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a cellular stress-protective transcription factor exploited by a wide range of cancers to drive proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis. Nuclear HSF1 abundance is a prognostic indicator for cancer severity, therapy resistance, and shortened patient survival. The HSF1 gene was amplified, and nuclear HSF1 abundance was markedly increased in prostate cancers and particularly in neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC), for which there are no available treatment options. Despite genetic validation of HSF1 as a therapeutic target in a range of cancers, a direct and selective small-molecule HSF1 inhibitor has not been validated or developed for use in the clinic. We described the identification of a direct HSF1 inhibitor, Direct Targeted HSF1 InhiBitor (DTHIB), which physically engages HSF1 and selectively stimulates degradation of nuclear HSF1. DTHIB robustly inhibited the HSF1 cancer gene signature and prostate cancer cell proliferation. In addition, it potently attenuated tumor progression in four therapy-resistant prostate cancer animal models, including an NEPC model, where it caused profound tumor regression. This study reports the identification and validation of a direct HSF1 inhibitor and provides a path for the development of a small-molecule HSF1-targeted therapy for prostate cancers and other therapy-resistant cancers.
  44. Front Oncol. 2020 ;10 574011
      Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults with poor overall outcome and 5-year survival of less than 5%. Treatment has not changed much in the last decade or so, with surgical resection and radio/chemotherapy being the main options. Glioblastoma is highly heterogeneous and frequently becomes treatment-resistant due to the ability of glioblastoma cells to adopt stem cell states facilitating tumor recurrence. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies. The ubiquitin system, in particular E3 ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinating enzymes, have emerged as a promising source of novel drug targets. In addition to conventional small molecule drug discovery approaches aimed at modulating enzyme activity, several new and exciting strategies are also being explored. Among these, PROteolysis TArgeting Chimeras (PROTACs) aim to harness the endogenous protein turnover machinery to direct therapeutically relevant targets, including previously considered "undruggable" ones, for proteasomal degradation. PROTAC and other strategies targeting the ubiquitin proteasome system offer new therapeutic avenues which will expand the drug development toolboxes for glioblastoma. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of E3 ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinating enzymes in the context of glioblastoma and their involvement in core signaling pathways including EGFR, TGF-β, p53 and stemness-related pathways. Finally, we offer new insights into how these ubiquitin-dependent mechanisms could be exploited therapeutically for glioblastoma.
    Keywords:  E3 ubiquitin ligases; PROTAC (proteolysis-targeting chimeric molecule); cancer; deubiquinating enzymes; glioblastoma; stem cell; ubiquitin; ubiquitin-proteasome system
  45. Elife. 2020 Dec 15. pii: e63614. [Epub ahead of print]9
      The inner nuclear membrane is functionalized by diverse transmembrane proteins that associate with nuclear lamins and/or chromatin. When cells enter mitosis, membrane-chromatin contacts must be broken to allow for proper chromosome segregation; yet how this occurs remains ill-understood. Unexpectedly, we observed that an imbalance in the levels of the lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1), an activator of ER-resident Torsin AAA+-ATPases, causes a failure in membrane removal from mitotic chromatin, accompanied by chromosome segregation errors and changes in post-mitotic nuclear morphology. These defects are dependent on a hitherto unknown chromatin-binding region of LAP1 that we have delineated. LAP1-induced NE abnormalities are efficiently suppressed by expression of wild-type but not ATPase-deficient Torsins. Furthermore, a dominant-negative Torsin induces chromosome segregation defects in a LAP1-dependent manner. These results indicate that association of LAP1 with chromatin in the nucleus can be modulated by Torsins in the perinuclear space, shedding new light on the LAP1-Torsin interplay.
    Keywords:  cell biology; human
  46. Cell Death Dis. 2020 Dec 14. 11(12): 1069
      Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder and frequently exacerbates in postmenopausal women. In NAFLD, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in lipid metabolism, in which salubrinal is a selective inhibitor of eIF2α de-phosphorylation in response to ER stress. To determine the potential mechanism of obesity-induced NAFLD, we employed salubrinal and evaluated the effect of ER stress and autophagy on lipid metabolism. Ninety-five female C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups: standard chow diet, high-fat (HF) diet, HF with salubrinal, HF with ovariectomy, and HF with ovariectomy and salubrinal. All mice except for SC were given HF diet. After the 8-week obesity induction, salubrinal was subcutaneously injected for the next 8 weeks. The expression of ER stress and autophagy markers was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Compared to the normal mice, the serum lipid level and adipose tissue were increased in obese mice, while salubrinal attenuated obesity by blocking lipid disorder. Also, the histological severity of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in the liver and lipidosis was suppressed in response to salubrinal. Furthermore, salubrinal inhibited ER stress by increasing the expression of p-eIF2α and ATF4 with a decrease in the level of CHOP. It promoted autophagy by increasing LC3II/I and inhibiting p62. Correlation analysis indicated that lipogenesis in the development of NAFLD was associated with ER stress. Collectively, we demonstrated that eIF2α played a key role in obesity-induced NAFLD, and salubrinal alleviated hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism by altering ER stress and autophagy through eIF2α signaling.
  47. Brain Sci. 2020 Dec 09. pii: E958. [Epub ahead of print]10(12):
      O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is a ubiquitous enzyme that regulates the addition of β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to serine and threonine residues of target proteins. Autophagy is a cellular process of self-digestion, in which cytoplasmic resources, such as aggregate proteins, toxic compounds, damaged organelles, mitochondria, and lipid molecules, are degraded and recycled. Here, we examined how three different OGT inhibitors, alloxan, BXZ2, and OSMI-1, modulate O-GlcNAcylation in rat cortical neurons, and their autophagic effects were determined by immunoblot and immunofluorescence assays. We found that the treatment of cortical neurons with an OGT inhibitor decreased O-GlcNAcylation levels and increased LC3-II expression. Interestingly, the pre-treatment with rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, further increased the expression levels of LC3-II induced by OGT inhibition, implicating the involvement of mTOR signaling in O-GlcNAcylation-dependent autophagy. In contrast, OGT inhibitor-mediated autophagy was significantly attenuated by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), a blocker of autophagosome formation. However, when pre-treated with chloroquine (CQ), a lysosomotropic agent and a late-stage autophagy inhibitor, OGT inhibitors significantly increased LC3-II levels along with LC3 puncta formation, indicating the stimulation of autophagic flux. Lastly, we found that OGT inhibitors significantly decreased the levels of the autophagy substrate p62/SQSTM1 while increasing the expression of lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1). Together, our study reveals that the modulation of O-GlcNAcylation by OGT inhibition regulates mTOR-dependent autophagy in rat cortical neurons.
    Keywords:  LC3 puncta; O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT); O-GlcNAcylation; autophagy; cortical neuron; mTOR
  48. Neoplasia. 2020 Dec 11. pii: S1476-5586(20)30181-0. [Epub ahead of print]23(1): 129-139
      SUMOylation is an important post-translational modification that participates in a variety of cellular physiological and pathological processes in eukaryotic cells. Sirt2, a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, usually exerts a tumor-suppressor function. However, the role of SUMOylation in cancer cells is not fully known. In this study, we found that SUMOylation can occur in the Sirt2 protein at both lysine 183 and lysine 340 sites. SUMOylation did not affect Sirt2 localization or stability but was involved in P38-mTORC2-AKT cellular signal transduction via direct deacetylation on a new substrate MAPK/P38. SUMOylation-deficient Sirt2 lost the capability of suppressing tumor processes and showed resistance to the Sirt2-specific inhibitor AK-7 in neuroblastoma cells. Here, we revealed the important function of Sirt2-SUMOylation, which is closely associated with cellular signal transduction and is essential for suppressing tumorigenesis in neuroblastoma.
    Keywords:  Acetylation; Cell Signaling; Neuroblastoma; SUMOylation; Sirt2
  49. SLAS Discov. 2020 Dec 17. 2472555220979584
      Proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) are heterobifunctional compounds that recruit the E3 ubiquitin ligase machinery to proteins of interest, resulting in their ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Targeted protein degradation has generated considerable interest in drug discovery because inhibition of one particular function of a protein often does not deliver the therapeutic efficacy that results from whole-protein depletion. However, the physicochemistry and intrinsically complex pharmacology of PROTACs present challenges, particularly for the development of orally bioavailable drugs. Here we describe the application of a translational pharmacology framework (called the four pillars) to expedite PROTAC development by informing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) understanding and helping elucidate structure-activity relationships. Experimental methods are reviewed that help illuminate exposure of the drug or probe at the site of action (pillar 1) and engagement of its target(s) (pillar 2) that drive functional pharmacological effects (pillar 3) resulting in modulation of a relevant phenotype (pillar 4). We hope the guidance will be useful to those developing targeted protein degraders and help establish PROTAC molecules as robust target validation chemical probes.
    Keywords:  biomarkers; cell-based assays; medicinal chemistry; pharmacology: ligand binding; receptor binding; targeted degradation
  50. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Dec 09. pii: E9365. [Epub ahead of print]21(24):
      CARD14/CARMA2 is a scaffold molecule whose genetic alterations are linked to human inherited inflammatory skin disorders. However, the mechanisms through which CARD14/CARMA2 controls innate immune response and chronic inflammation are not well understood. By means of a yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified the UBA Domain Containing 1 (UBAC1), the non-catalytic subunit of the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase KPC complex, as an interactor of CARMA2sh, the CARD14/CARMA2 isoform mainly expressed in human keratinocytes. UBAC1 participates in the CARMA2sh/TANK complex and promotes K63-linked ubiquitination of TANK. In human keratinocytes, UBAC1 negatively regulates the NF-κF-activating capacity of CARMA2sh following exposure to poly (I:C), an agonist of Toll-like Receptor 3. Overall, our data indicate that UBAC1 participates in the inflammatory signal transduction pathways involving CARMA2sh.
    Keywords:  BCL10; CARD14; CARMA2sh; NF-κB; TANK; UBAC1; Ubiquitin; psoriasis