bims-proteo Biomed News
on Proteostasis
Issue of 2020‒11‒15
forty-eight papers selected by
Eric Chevet
INSERM


  1. Autophagy. 2020 Nov 08.
    Stephani M, Picchianti L, Dagdas Y.
      Reticulophagy, the autophagic degradation of the endoplasmic reticulum, is crucial to maintain ER homeostasis during stress. Although several reticulophagy receptors have been discovered recently, most of them have been studied using nutrient starvation. How macroautophagy/autophagy cross-talks with other ER-quality control mechanisms is largely unknown. Using ATG8-based affinity proteomics in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified AT5G06830/C53, a soluble protein that directly interacts with ATG8. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of C53-ATG8 interaction using both human (CDK5RAP3) and Arabidopsis proteins revealed that C53 binds ATG8 via shuffled Atg8-family interacting motifs (sAIMs) located at its intrinsically disordered region (IDR). C53 is recruited to phagophores, precursors to autophagosomes, during ER stress in an autophagy-dependent manner. Consistently, c53 mutants are highly sensitive to ER stress treatments. C53 senses ER stress by forming a tripartite receptor complex that involves UFL1, the E3 ligase that mediates ufmylation, and its ER-resident adaptor protein DDRGK1. C53 activity is regulated by another ubiquitin-like protein, UFM1, which is transferred from C53 to the ribosomes upon ribosome collision/stalling at the ER, thereby activating the C53 pathway to recycle stalled nascent chains. Altogether our findings suggest C53 forms an ancient quality control pathway that links ribosome-associated quality control with selective autophagy at the ER.
    Keywords:   Arabidopsis thaliana CDK5RAP3; ER-phagy; ER-quality control; UFMylation; ribosome stalling; selective autophagy; selective autophagy receptor
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1846304
  2. J Biol Chem. 2020 Nov 09. pii: jbc.RA120.014415. [Epub ahead of print]
    Mukherjee T, Ramaglia V, Abdel-Nour M, Bianchi AA, Tsalikis J, Chau HN, Kalia SK, Kalia LV, Chen JJ, Arnoult D, Gommerman JL, Philpott DJ, Girardin SE.
      Large cytosolic protein aggregates are removed by two main cellular processes, autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), and defective clearance of these protein aggregates results in proteotoxicity and cell death. Recently, we found that the eIF2α kinase heme-regulated inhibitory (HRI) induced a cytosolic unfolded protein response (cUPR) to prevent aggregation of innate immune signalosomes, but whether HRI acts as a general sensor of proteotoxicity in the cytosol remains unclear. Here we show that HRI controls autophagy to clear cytosolic protein aggregates when the UPS is inhibited. We further report that silencing HRI expression resulted in decreased levels of BAG3 and HSPB8, two proteins involved in chaperone-assisted selective autophagy (CASA), suggesting that HRI controls proteostasis in the cytosol at least in part through CASA. Moreover, knocking down the expression of HRI resulted in cytotoxic accumulation of over-expressed α-synuclein, a protein known to aggregate in Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. In agreement with these data, protein aggregate accumulation and microglia activation were observed in the spinal cord white matter of 7-month old Hri-/- mice as compared to Hri+/+ littermates. Moreover, aged Hri-/- mice showed accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein, indicative of misfolded proteins, in the lateral collateral pathway, a region of the sacral spinal cord horn that receives visceral sensory afferents from the bladder and distal colon, a pathological feature common to α-synucleinopathies in humans. Together, these results suggest that HRI contributes to a general cUPR that could be leveraged to bolster the clearance of cytotoxic protein aggregates.
    Keywords:  Integrated Stress Response; Parkinson disease; autophagy; eIF2alpha; synuclein; ubiquitin-dependent protease; unfolded protein response (UPR)
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.014415
  3. J Cell Sci. 2020 Nov 10. pii: jcs240366. [Epub ahead of print]133(21):
    Tempio T, Anelli T.
      Interactions between protein ligands and receptors are the main language of intercellular communication; hence, how cells select proteins to be secreted or presented on the plasma membrane is a central concern in cell biology. A series of checkpoints are located along the secretory pathway, which ensure the fidelity of such protein signals (quality control). Proteins that pass the checkpoints operated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP; also known as HSPA5 and GRP78) and the calnexin-calreticulin systems, must still overcome additional scrutiny in the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and the Golgi. One of the main players of this process in all metazoans is the ER-resident protein 44 (ERp44); by cycling between the ER and the Golgi, ERp44 controls the localization of key enzymes designed to act in the ER but that are devoid of suitable localization motifs. ERp44 also patrols the secretion of correctly assembled disulfide-linked oligomeric proteins. Here, we discuss the mechanisms driving ERp44 substrate recognition, with important consequences on the definition of 'thiol-mediated quality control'. We also describe how pH and zinc gradients regulate the functional cycle of ERp44, coupling quality control and membrane trafficking along the early secretory compartment.
    Keywords:  ERp44; Protein folding; Quality control; Secretory pathway; Zinc
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.240366
  4. Elife. 2020 Nov 13. pii: e62731. [Epub ahead of print]9
    Terrey M, Adamson SI, Gibson AL, Deng T, Ishimura R, Chuang JH, Ackerman SL.
      Ribosome-associated quality control pathways respond to defects in translational elongation to recycle arrested ribosomes and degrade aberrant polypeptides and mRNAs. Loss of a tRNA gene leads to ribosomal pausing that is resolved by the translational GTPase GTPBP2, and in its absence causes neuron death. Here, we show that loss of the homologous protein GTPBP1 during tRNA deficiency in the mouse brain also leads to codon-specific ribosome pausing and neurodegeneration, suggesting that these non-redundant GTPases function in the same pathway to mitigate ribosome pausing. As observed in Gtpbp2-/- mice (Ishimura et al., 2016), GCN2-mediated activation of the integrated stress response (ISR) was apparent in the Gtpbp1-/- brain. We observed decreased mTORC1 signaling which increased neuronal death, whereas ISR activation was neuroprotective. Our data demonstrate that GTPBP1 functions as an important quality control mechanism during translation elongation and suggest that translational signaling pathways intricately interact to regulate neuronal homeostasis during defective elongation.
    Keywords:  cerebellum; chromosomes; gene expression; granule cells; hippocampus; mouse; neuroscience; retina; ribosome stalling; tRNA-Arg-TCT-4-1
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.62731
  5. Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 12. 10(1): 19669
    Matsuki Y, Matsuo Y, Nakano Y, Iwasaki S, Yoko H, Udagawa T, Li S, Saeki Y, Yoshihisa T, Tanaka K, Ingolia NT, Inada T.
      eIF2α phosphorylation-mediated translational regulation is crucial for global translation repression by various stresses, including the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, translational control during UPR has not been demonstrated in yeast. This study investigated ribosome ubiquitination-mediated translational controls during UPR. Tunicamycin-induced ER stress enhanced the levels of ubiquitination of the ribosomal proteins uS10, uS3 and eS7. Not4-mediated monoubiquitination of eS7A was required for resistance to tunicamycin, whereas E3 ligase Hel2-mediated ubiquitination of uS10 was not. Ribosome profiling showed that the monoubiquitination of eS7A was crucial for translational regulation, including the upregulation of the spliced form of HAC1 (HAC1i) mRNA and the downregulation of Histidine triad NucleoTide-binding 1 (HNT1) mRNA. Downregulation of the deubiquitinating enzyme complex Upb3-Bre5 increased the levels of ubiquitinated eS7A during UPR in an Ire1-independent manner. These findings suggest that the monoubiquitination of ribosomal protein eS7A plays a crucial role in translational controls during the ER stress response in yeast.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76239-3
  6. Cell Metab. 2020 Nov 04. pii: S1550-4131(20)30553-2. [Epub ahead of print]
    Wang X, Wang H, Xu B, Huang D, Nie C, Pu L, Zajac GJM, Yan H, Zhao J, Shi F, Emmer BT, Lu J, Wang R, Dong X, Dai J, Zhou W, Wang C, Gao G, Wang Y, Willer C, Lu X, Zhu Y, Chen XW.
      Efficient delivery of specific cargos in vivo poses a major challenge to the secretory pathway, which shuttles products encoded by ∼30% of the genome. Newly synthesized protein and lipid cargos embark on the secretory pathway via COPII-coated vesicles, assembled by the GTPase SAR1 on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but how lipid-carrying lipoproteins are distinguished from the general protein cargos in the ER and selectively secreted has not been clear. Here, we show that this process is quantitatively governed by the GTPase SAR1B and SURF4, a high-efficiency cargo receptor. While both genes are implicated in lipid regulation in humans, hepatic inactivation of either mouse Sar1b or Surf4 selectively depletes plasma lipids to near-zero and protects the mice from atherosclerosis. These findings show that the pairing between SURF4 and SAR1B synergistically operates a specialized, dosage-sensitive transport program for circulating lipids, while further suggesting a potential translation to treat atherosclerosis and related cardio-metabolic diseases.
    Keywords:  COPII; cardio-metabolic disease; human genetics; lipid homeostasis; lipoprotein receptor; secretion
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.10.020
  7. J Cell Biol. 2020 Dec 07. pii: e202003020. [Epub ahead of print]219(12):
    Shinde SR, Nager AR, Nachury MV.
      Regulated trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) controls cilium-based signaling pathways. β-Arrestin, a molecular sensor of activated GPCRs, and the BBSome, a complex of Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) proteins, are required for the signal-dependent exit of ciliary GPCRs, but the functional interplay between β-arrestin and the BBSome remains elusive. Here we find that, upon activation, ciliary GPCRs become tagged with ubiquitin chains comprising K63 linkages (UbK63) in a β-arrestin-dependent manner before BBSome-mediated exit. Removal of ubiquitin acceptor residues from the somatostatin receptor 3 (SSTR3) and from the orphan GPCR GPR161 demonstrates that ubiquitination of ciliary GPCRs is required for their regulated exit from cilia. Furthermore, targeting a UbK63-specific deubiquitinase to cilia blocks the exit of GPR161, SSTR3, and Smoothened (SMO) from cilia. Finally, ubiquitinated proteins accumulate in cilia of mammalian photoreceptors and Chlamydomonas cells when BBSome function is compromised. We conclude that Ub chains mark GPCRs and other unwanted ciliary proteins for recognition by the ciliary exit machinery.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202003020
  8. Elife. 2020 Nov 10. pii: e59426. [Epub ahead of print]9
    Raote I, Chabanon M, Walani N, Arroyo M, Garcia-Parajo MF, Malhotra V, Campelo F.
      The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein TANGO1 assembles into a ring around ER exit sites (ERES), and links procollagens in the ER lumen to COPII machinery, tethers, and ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) in the cytoplasm (Raote et al., 2018). Here we present a theoretical approach to investigate the physical mechanisms of TANGO1 ring assembly and how COPII polymerization, membrane tension, and force facilitate the formation of a transport intermediate for procollagen export. Our results indicate that a TANGO1 ring, by acting as a linactant, stabilizes the open neck of a nascent COPII bud. Elongation of such a bud into a transport intermediate commensurate with bulky procollagens is then facilitated by two complementary mechanisms: (i) by relieving membrane tension, possibly by TANGO1-mediated fusion of retrograde ERGIC membranes; and (ii) by force application. Altogether, our theoretical approach identifies key biophysical events in TANGO1-driven procollagen export.
    Keywords:  cell biology; none; physics of living systems
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.59426
  9. Mol Cell Biol. 2020 Nov 09. pii: MCB.00269-20. [Epub ahead of print]
    Mills CA, Wang X, Bhatt DP, Grimsrud PA, Matson JP, Lahiri D, Burke DJ, Cook JG, Hirschey MD, Emanuele MJ.
      The ubiquitin-proteasome system is essential for cell cycle progression. Cyclin F is a cell cycle regulated substrate adapter F-box protein for the SKP1/CUL1/F-box (SCF) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Despite its importance in cell cycle progression, identifying SCFCyclin F substrates has remained challenging. Since Cyclin F overexpression rescues a yeast mutant in the cdc4 gene, we considered the possibility that other genes that genetically modify cdc4 mutant lethality could also encode Cyclin F substrates. We identified the mitochondrial and cytosolic deacylating enzyme Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) as a novel Cyclin F substrate. SIRT5 has been implicated in metabolic processes, but its connection to the cell cycle is not known. We show that Cyclin F interacts with, and controls the ubiquitination, abundance, and stability of SIRT5. We show SIRT5 knockout results in a diminished G1 population, and subsequent increase in both S and G2/M. Global proteomic analyses reveal CDK signaling changes congruent with the cell cycle changes in SIRT5 knockout cells. Together these data demonstrate that SIRT5 is regulated by Cyclin F and suggest a connection between SIRT5, cell cycle regulation, and metabolism.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1128/MCB.00269-20
  10. J Cell Physiol. 2020 Nov 10.
    Yu F, Li Y, Ye Q, Miao J, Taleb SJ, Zhao Y, Zhao J.
      Protein ubiquitination regulates protein stability, cellular localization, and enzyme activity. Deubiquitinases catalyze the removal of ubiquitin from target proteins and reverse ubiquitination. USP13, a deubiquitinase, has been shown to regulate a variety of cellular responses including inflammation; however, the molecular regulation of USP13 has not been demonstrated. In this study, we revealed that USP13 is degraded in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Kupffer cells. USP13 levels are significantly decreased in inflamed organs, including liver tissues from septic mice. LPS reduces USP13 protein stability, not transcription, in Kupffer cells. Furthermore, LPS increases USP13 polyubiquitination. Inhibition of proteasome, but not lysosome or immunoproteasome, attenuates LPS-induced USP13 degradation, suggesting USP13 degradation is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. A catalytically inactive form of USP13 exhibits similar degree of degradation compared with USP13 wild-type, suggesting that USP13 degradation is not dependent on its activity. Furthermore, USP13 degradation is dependent on new protein synthesis. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuates USP13 degradation, indicating that JNK-dependent new protein synthesis is necessary for USP13 degradation. This study reveals a molecular mechanism of regulation of USP13 degradation in Kupffer cells in response to bacterial endotoxin.
    Keywords:  Kupffer cells; USP13; proteasomal degradation; transcription; ubiquitination
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30153
  11. Cell Regen. 2020 Nov 12. 9(1): 22
    Yan P, Ren J, Zhang W, Qu J, Liu GH.
      Protein quality control (PQC) systems play essential roles in the recognition, refolding and clearance of aberrant proteins, thus ensuring cellular protein homeostasis, or proteostasis. Especially, continued proliferation and differentiation of stem cells require a high rate of translation; therefore, accurate PQC systems are essential to maintain stem cell function. Growing evidence suggested crucial roles of PQC systems in regulating the stemness and differentiation of stem cells. This review focuses on current knowledge regarding the components of the proteostasis network in stem cells, and the importance of proteostasis in maintaining stem cell identity and regenerative functions. A complete understanding of this process might uncover potential applications in aging intervention and aging-related diseases.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Chaperones; Protein quality control; Stem cells; Stemness; Ubiquitin-proteasome system; Unfolded protein response
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13619-020-00064-2
  12. Cell Rep. 2020 Nov 10. pii: S2211-1247(20)31352-8. [Epub ahead of print]33(6): 108363
    Qin Q, Zhao T, Zou W, Shen K, Wang X.
      Stringent targeting of membrane proteins to corresponding organelles is essential for organelle identity and functions. In addition to molecular pathways that target proteins to appropriate organelles, surveillance mechanisms clear mistargeted proteins from undesired destinations. Although Msp1 functions on the mitochondrial membrane to remove mistargeted proteins, the surveillance mechanism for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is not well understood. Here, we show that a conserved P5A-type ATPase CATP-8, which localizes to ER, removes ectopic mitochondrial tail-anchored (TA) and signal-anchored (SA) proteins from the ER. In catp-8 mutant, mitochondria fission protein FIS-1 mislocalizes to the ER membrane. Together with another mitochondria fission protein MFF-2, FIS-1 causes ER fragmentation in a Dynamin-related protein (DRP-1)-dependent manner. In addition, CATP-8 is essential for dendrite development. catp-8 mutant dramatically reduces the level of the dendrite guidance receptor DMA-1, leading to diminished dendritic arbors. Hence, P5A ATPase safeguards ER morphology and functions by preventing mitochondrial proteins mislocalization.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108363
  13. J Biol Chem. 2020 Nov 12. pii: jbc.RA120.015910. [Epub ahead of print]
    Wangeline MA, Hampton RY.
      HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) undergoes feedback-regulated degradation as part of sterol pathway control. Degradation of the yeast HMGR isozyme Hmg2 is controlled by the sterol pathway intermediate GGPP, which causes misfolding of Hmg2, leading to degradation by the HRD pathway; we call this process mallostery. We evaluated the role of the Hmg2 sterol sensing domain (SSD) in mallostery, as well as the involvement of the highly conserved INSIG proteins. We show that the Hmg2 SSD is critical for regulated degradation of Hmg2 and required for mallosteric misfolding of GGPP as studied by in vitro limited proteolysis. The Hmg2 SSD functions independently of conserved yeast INSIG proteins, but its function was modulated by INSIG, thus imposing a second layer of control on Hmg2 regulation. Mutant analyses indicated that SSD-mediated mallostery occurred prior to and independent of HRD-dependent ubiquitination. GGPP-dependent misfolding was still extant but occurred at a much slower rate in the absence of a functional SSD, indicating that the SSD facilitates a physiologically useful rate of GGPP response, and implying that the SSD is not a binding site for GGPP. Non-functional SSD mutants allowed us to test the importance of Hmg2 quaternary structure in mallostery:  a non-responsive Hmg2 SSD mutant strongly suppressed regulation of a co-expressed, normal Hmg2. Finally, we have found that GGPP-regulated misfolding occurred in detergent-solubilized Hmg2, a feature that will allow next-level analysis of the mechanism of this novel tactic of ligand-regulated misfolding.
    Keywords:  ER quality control; HMG-CoA Reductase; HRD pathway; Mallostery; Sterol Sensing Domain (SSD); Ubiquitin-proteasome system; cholesterol regulation; endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD); protein misfolding; ubiquitin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.015910
  14. Front Genet. 2020 ;11 570355
    Oommen D, Kizhakkedath P, Jawabri AA, Varghese DS, Ali BR.
      Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal genetic disease characterized by high serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) content leading to premature coronary artery disease. The main genetic and molecular causes of FH are mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor gene (LDLR) resulting in the non-clearance of LDL from the blood by hepatocytes and consequently the formation of plaques. LDLR is synthesized and glycosylated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and then transported to the plasma membrane via Golgi. It is estimated that more than 50% of reported FH-causing mutations in LDLR result in misfolded proteins that are transport-defective and hence retained in ER. ER accumulation of misfolded proteins causes ER-stress and activates unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR aids protein folding, blocks further protein synthesis, and eliminates misfolded proteins via ER-associated degradation (ERAD) to alleviate ER stress. Various studies demonstrated that ER-retained LDLR mutants are subjected to ERAD. Interestingly, chemical chaperones and genetic or pharmacological inhibition of ERAD have been reported to rescue the transport defective mutant LDLR alleles from ERAD and restore their ER-Golgi transport resulting in the expression of functional plasma membrane LDLR. This suggests the possibility of pharmacological modulation of proteostasis in the ER as a therapeutic strategy for FH. In this review, we picture a detailed analysis of UPR and the ERAD processes activated by ER-retained LDLR mutants associated with FH. In addition, we discuss and critically evaluate the potential role of chemical chaperones and ERAD modulators in the therapeutic management of FH.
    Keywords:  Class II mutations; ER stress; ERAD pathway; LDLR; cholesterol; familial hypercholesterolemia; lipid metabolism; unfolded protein response
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.570355
  15. Autophagy. 2020 Nov 13. 1-17
    Siva Sankar D, Dengjel J.
      Autophagy summarizes evolutionarily conserved, intracellular degradation processes targeting cytoplasmic material for lysosomal degradation. These encompass constitutive processes as well as stress responses, which are often found dysregulated in diseases. Autophagy pathways help in the clearance of damaged organelles, protein aggregates and macromolecules, mediating their recycling and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Protein-protein interaction networks contribute to autophagosome biogenesis, substrate loading, vesicular trafficking and fusion, protein translocations across membranes and degradation in lysosomes. Hypothesis-free proteomic approaches tremendously helped in the functional characterization of protein-protein interactions to uncover molecular mechanisms regulating autophagy. In this review, we elaborate on the importance of understanding protein-protein-interactions of varying affinities and on the strengths of mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches to study these, generating new mechanistic insights into autophagy regulation. We discuss in detail affinity purification approaches and recent developments in proximity labeling coupled to mass spectrometry, which uncovered molecular principles of autophagy mechanisms. Abbreviations: AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; AP-MS: affinity purification-mass spectrometry; APEX2: ascorbate peroxidase-2; ATG: autophagy related; BioID: proximity-dependent biotin identification; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; GFP: green fluorescent protein; iTRAQ: isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification; MS: mass spectrometry; PCA: protein-fragment complementation assay; PL-MS: proximity labeling-mass spectrometry; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; PTM: posttranslational modification; PUP-IT: pupylation-based interaction tagging; RFP: red fluorescent protein; SILAC: stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture; TAP: tandem affinity purification; TMT: tandem mass tag.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; affinity purification; mass spectrometry; protein-protein interactions; proximity labeling; quantitative proteomics
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1847461
  16. Cell Rep. 2020 Nov 10. pii: S2211-1247(20)31367-X. [Epub ahead of print]33(6): 108378
    Christiano R, Arlt H, Kabatnik S, Mejhert N, Lai ZW, Farese RV, Walther TC.
      Protein degradation is mediated by an expansive and complex network of protein modification and degradation enzymes. Matching degradation enzymes with their targets and determining globally which proteins are degraded by the proteasome or lysosome/vacuole have been a major challenge. Furthermore, an integrated view of protein degradation for cellular pathways has been lacking. Here, we present an analytical platform that combines systematic gene deletions with quantitative measures of protein turnover to deconvolve protein degradation pathways for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The resulting turnover map (T-MAP) reveals target candidates of nearly all E2 and E3 ubiquitin ligases and identifies the primary degradation routes for most proteins. We further mined this T-MAP to identify new substrates of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) involved in sterol biosynthesis and to uncover regulatory nodes for sphingolipid biosynthesis. The T-MAP approach should be broadly applicable to the study of other cellular processes, including mammalian systems.
    Keywords:  E2; E3 ligases; ERAD; SILAC; mass spectrometry; proteasome; protein turnover; proteomics; ubiquitin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108378
  17. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Nov 09. pii: 202019604. [Epub ahead of print]
    Kravtsova-Ivantsiv Y, Goldhirsh G, Ivantsiv A, Ben Itzhak O, Kwon YT, Pikarsky E, Ciechanover A.
      Nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-ĸB) transcription factor is a family of essential regulators of the immune response and cell proliferation and transformation. A typical factor is a heterodimer made of either p50 or p52, which are limited processing products of either p105 or p100, respectively, and a member of the Rel family of proteins, typically p65. The transcriptional program of NF-ĸB is tightly regulated by the composition of the dimers. In our previous work, we demonstrated that the ubiquitin ligase KPC1 is involved in ubiquitination and proteasomal processing of p105 to generate p50. Its overexpression and the resulting high level of p50 stimulates transcription of a broad array of tumor suppressors. Here we demonstrate that additional mechanisms are involved in the p50-mediated tumor-suppressive effect. p50 down-regulates expression of a major immune checkpoint inhibitor, the programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), both in cells and in tumors. Importantly, the suppression is abrogated by overexpression of p65. This highlights the importance of the cellular quantities of the two different subunits of NF-ĸB which determine the composition of the dimer. While the putative p50 homodimer is tumor-suppressive, the "canonical" p50p65 heterodimer is oncogenic. We found that an additional mechanism is involved in the tumor-suppressive phenomenon: p50 up-regulates expression of the proinflammatory chemokines CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5, which in turn recruit into the tumors active natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages. Overall, p50 acts as a strong tumor suppressor via multiple mechanisms, including overexpression of tumor suppressors and modulation of the tumor microenvironment by recruiting active immune cells.
    Keywords:  NF-ĸB p50; PD-L1; chemokines; tumor suppression; ubiquitin ligase KPC1
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2019604117
  18. J Biol Chem. 2020 Nov 13. pii: jbc.RA120.015839. [Epub ahead of print]
    Kerek EM, Yoon KH, Luo SY, Chen J, Valencia R, Julien O, Waskiewicz AJ, Hubbard BP.
      Tubby-like proteins (TULPs) are characterized by a conserved C-terminal domain that binds phosphoinositides. Collectively, mammalian TULP1-4 proteins play essential roles in intracellular transport, cell differentiation, signaling, and motility. Yet, little is known about how the function of these proteins is regulated in cells. Here, we present the protein-protein interaction network of TULP3, a protein that is responsible for the trafficking of G-protein coupled receptors to cilia, and whose aberrant expression is associated with severe developmental disorders and polycystic kidney disease. We identify several protein interaction nodes linked to TULP3 that include enzymes involved in acetylation and ubiquitination. We show that acetylation of two key lysine residues on TULP3 by p300 increases TULP3 protein abundance, and that deacetylation of these sites by HDAC1 decreases protein levels. Furthermore, we show that one of these sites is ubiquitinated in the absence of acetylation, and that acetylation inversely correlates with ubiquitination of TULP3. This mechanism is evidently conserved across species and is active in zebrafish during development. Finally, we identify this same regulatory module in TULP1, TULP2, and TULP4, and demonstrate that the stability of these proteins is similarly modulated by an acetylation switch. This study unveils a signaling pathway that links nuclear enzymes to ciliary membrane receptors via TULP3, describes a dynamic mechanism for the regulation of all tubby-like proteins, and explores how to exploit it pharmacologically using drugs.
    Keywords:  Cullin-3; E1A binding protein p300 (P300); E3 ubiquitin ligase; Histone deacetylases (HDACs); TULP3; Tubby-like proteins (TULPs); acetylation; histone acetyltransferases (HATs); histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1); post-translational modification (PTM)
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.015839
  19. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020 Nov 10. e017751
    Zhang DH, Zhang JL, Huang Z, Wu LM, Wang ZM, Li YP, Tian XY, Kong LY, Yao R, Zhang YZ.
      Background Cardiac hypertrophy (CH) is a physiological response that compensates for blood pressure overload. Under pathological conditions, hypertrophy can progress to heart failure as a consequence of the disorganized growth of cardiomyocytes and cardiac tissue. USP10 (ubiquitin-specific protease 10) is a member of the ubiquitin-specific protease family of cysteine proteases, which are involved in viral infection, oxidative stress, lipid drop formation, and heat shock. However, the role of USP10 in CH remains largely unclear. Here, we investigated the roles of USP10 in CH. Methods and Results Cardiac-specific USP10 knockout (USP10-CKO) mice and USP10-transgenic (USP10-TG) mice were used to examined the role of USP10 in CH following aortic banding. The specific functions of USP10 were further examined in isolated cardiomyocytes. USP10 expression was increased in murine hypertrophic hearts following aortic banding and in isolated cardiomyocytes in response to hypertrophic agonist. Mice deficient in USP10 in the heart exhibited exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis following pressure overload stress, which resulted in worsening of cardiac contractile function. In contrast, cardiac overexpression of USP10 protected against pressure overload-induced maladaptive CH. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that USP10 activation and interaction with Sirt6 in response to angiotensin II led to a marked increase in the ubiquitination of Sirt6 and resulted in Akt signaling downregulation and attenuation of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Accordingly, inactivation of USP10 reduced Sirt6 abundance and stability and diminished Sirt6-induced downstream signaling in cardiomyocytes. Conclusions USP10 functions as a Sirt6 deubiquitinase that induces cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and triggers maladaptive CH.
    Keywords:  Akt; Sirt6; cardiac hypertrophy; ubiquitin‐specific protease 10
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017751
  20. J Cell Sci. 2020 Nov 10. pii: jcs.252551. [Epub ahead of print]
    Mathew V, Kumar A, Jiang YK, West K, Tam AS, Stirling PC.
      Cdc48/VCP is a highly conserved ATPase chaperone that plays an essential role in the assembly or disassembly of protein-DNA complexes and in degradation of misfolded proteins. We find that Cdc48 accumulates during cellular stress at intranuclear protein quality control (INQ) sites. Cdc48 function is required to suppress INQ formation under non-stress conditions and to promote recovery following genotoxic stress. Cdc48 physically associates with the INQ substrate and splicing factor Hsh155 and regulates its assembly with partner proteins. Accordingly, cdc48 mutants have defects in splicing and show spontaneous distribution of Hsh155 to INQ aggregates where it is stabilized. Overall, this study shows that Cdc48 regulates deposition of proteins at INQ and suggests a previously unknown role for Cdc48 in the regulation or stability of splicing subcomplexes.
    Keywords:  Cdc48; Hsh155; INQ; Protein quality control; Splicing; Yeast
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.252551
  21. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2020 Nov 05. pii: S0959-440X(20)30174-3. [Epub ahead of print]67 101-109
    Baek K, Scott DC, Schulman BA.
      RING E3s comprise the largest family of ubiquitin (UB) and ubiquitin-like protein (UBL) ligases. RING E3s typically promote UB or UBL transfer from the active site of an associated E2 enzyme to a distally-recruited substrate. Many RING E3s - including the cullin-RING ligase family - are multifunctional, interacting with various E2s (or other E3s) to target distinct proteins, transfer different UBLs, or to initially modify substrates with UB or subsequently elongate UB chains. Here we consider recent structures of cullin-RING ligases, and their partner E2 enzymes, representing ligation reactions. The studies collectively reveal multimodal mechanisms - interactions between ancillary E2 or E3 domains, post-translational modifications, or auxiliary binding partners - directing cullin-RING E3-E2 enzyme active sites to modify their specific targets.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbi.2020.10.007
  22. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2020 Nov 08.
    Yap KN, Yamada K, Zikeli S, Kiaris H, Hood WR.
      Considerable progress has been made in understanding the physiological basis for variation in the life-history patterns of animals, particularly with regard to the roles of oxidative stress and hormonal regulation. However, an underappreciated and understudied area that could play a role in mediating inter- and intraspecific variation of life history is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and the resulting unfolded protein response (UPRER ). ER stress response and the UPRER maintain proteostasis in cells by reducing the intracellular load of secretory proteins and enhancing protein folding capacity or initiating apoptosis in cells that cannot recover. Proper modulation of the ER stress response and execution of the UPRER allow animals to respond to intracellular and extracellular stressors and adapt to constantly changing environments. ER stress responses are heritable and there is considerable individual variation in UPRER phenotype in animals, suggesting that ER stress and UPRER phenotype can be subjected to natural selection. The variation in UPRER phenotype presumably reflects the way animals respond to ER stress and environmental challenges. Most of what we know about ER stress and the UPRER in animals has either come from biomedical studies using cell culture or from experiments involving conventional laboratory or agriculturally important models that exhibit limited genetic diversity. Furthermore, these studies involve the assessment of experimentally induced qualitative changes in gene expression as opposed to the quantitative variations that occur in naturally existing populations. Almost all of these studies were conducted in controlled settings that are often quite different from the conditions animals experience in nature. Herein, we review studies that investigated ER stress and the UPRER in relation to key life-history traits including growth and development, reproduction, bioenergetics and physical performance, and ageing and senescence. We then ask if these studies can inform us about the role of ER stress and the UPRER in mediating the aforementioned life-history traits in free-living animals. We propose that there is a need to conduct experiments pertaining to ER stress and the UPRER in ecologically relevant settings, to characterize variation in ER stress and the UPRER in free-living animals, and to relate the observed variation to key life-history traits. We urge others to integrate multiple physiological systems and investigate how interactions between ER stress and oxidative stress shape life-history trade-offs in free-living animals.
    Keywords:  ageing; development; endoplasmic reticulum stress; life history; oxidative stress; performance; protein folding; reproduction; unfolded protein response
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12667
  23. Exp Neurol. 2020 Nov 04. pii: S0014-4886(20)30355-1. [Epub ahead of print] 113524
    Mi Z, Liu H, Rose ME, Ma X, Reay DP, Ma J, Henchir J, Dixon CE, Graham SH.
      Ubiquitin (Ub) C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) is a multifunctional protein that is expressed in neurons throughout brain at high levels. UCHL1 deletion is associated with axonal degeneration, progressive sensory motor ataxia, and premature death in mice. UCHL1 has been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and recovery after neuronal injury. UCHL1 hydrolyzes Ub from polyubiquitinated (poly-Ub) proteins, but also may ligate Ub to select neuronal proteins, and interacts with cytoskeletal proteins. These and other mechanisms have been hypothesized to underlie UCHL1's role in neurodegeneration and response to brain injury. A UCHL1 knockin mouse containing a C90A mutation (C90A) devoid of hydrolase activity was constructed. The C90A mouse did not develop the sensory and motor deficits, degeneration of the gracile nucleus and tract, or premature death as seen in UCHL1 deficient mice. C90A and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and cell death, axonal injury and behavioral outcome were assessed. C90A mice exhibited decreased spared tissue volume, greater loss of CA1 hippocampal neurons and greater axonal injury as detected using anti-amyloid precursor protein (APP) antibody and anti- non-phosphorylated neurofilament H (SMI-32) antibody immunohistochemistry after CCI than WT controls. Poly-Ub proteins and Beclin-1 were elevated after CCI in C90A mice compared to WT controls. Vestibular motor deficits assessed using the beam balance test resolved by day 5 after CCI in WT mice but not in C90A mice. These results suggest that the hydrolase activity of UCHL1 does not account for the progressive neurodegeneration and premature death seen in mice that do not express full length UCHL1. The hydrolase activity of UCHL1 contributes to the function of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP), ameliorates activation of autophagy, and improves motor recovery after CCI. Thus, UCHL1 hydrolase activity plays an important role in acute injury response after TBI.
    Keywords:  Aging; Axonal injury; Neurodegeneration; Traumatic brain injury; Ubiquitin carboxy terminal hydrolase L1; Ubiquitin proteasome pathway
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2020.113524
  24. Cells. 2020 Nov 10. pii: E2455. [Epub ahead of print]9(11):
    Ambrozkiewicz MC, Cuthill KJ, Harnett D, Kawabe H, Tarabykin V.
      Protein ubiquitination belongs to the best characterized pathways of protein degradation in the cell; however, our current knowledge on its physiological consequences is just the tip of an iceberg. The divergence of enzymatic executors of ubiquitination led to some 600-700 E3 ubiquitin ligases embedded in the human genome. Notably, mutations in around 13% of these genes are causative of severe neurological diseases. Despite this, molecular and cellular context of ubiquitination remains poorly characterized, especially in the developing brain. In this review article, we summarize recent findings on brain-expressed HECT-type E3 UBE3 ligases and their murine orthologues, comprising Angelman syndrome UBE3A, Kaufman oculocerebrofacial syndrome UBE3B and autism spectrum disorder-associated UBE3C. We summarize evolutionary emergence of three UBE3 genes, the biochemistry of UBE3 enzymes, their biology and clinical relevance in brain disorders. Particularly, we highlight that uninterrupted action of UBE3 ligases is a sine qua non for cortical circuit assembly and higher cognitive functions of the neocortex.
    Keywords:  Angelman syndrome; E3 ubiquitin ligase; Kaufman oculocerebrofacial syndrome; UBE3A; UBE3B; UBE3C; autism spectrum disorder; ubiquitin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112455
  25. J Clin Invest. 2020 Nov 09. pii: 141455. [Epub ahead of print]
    De Franco E, Lytrivi M, Ibrahim H, Montaser H, Wakeling MN, Fantuzzi F, Patel K, Demarez C, Cai Y, Igoillo-Esteve M, Cosentino C, Lithovius V, Vihinen H, Jokitalo E, Laver TW, Johnson MB, Sawatani T, Shakeri H, Pachera N, Haliloglu B, Ozbek MN, Unal E, Yıldırım R, Godbole T, Yildiz M, Aydin B, Bilheu A, Suzuki I, Flanagan SE, Vanderhaeghen P, Senée V, Julier C, Marchetti P, Eizirik DL, Ellard S, Saarimäki-Vire J, Otonkoski T, Cnop M, Hattersley AT.
      Neonatal diabetes is caused by single gene mutations reducing pancreatic β cell number or impairing β cell function. Understanding the genetic basis of rare diabetes subtypes highlights fundamental biological processes in β cells. We identified 6 patients from 5 families with homozygous mutations in the YIPF5 gene, which is involved in trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi. All patients had neonatal/early-onset diabetes, severe microcephaly, and epilepsy. YIPF5 is expressed during human brain development, in adult brain and pancreatic islets. We used 3 human β cell models (YIPF5 silencing in EndoC-βH1 cells, YIPF5 knockout and mutation knockin in embryonic stem cells, and patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells) to investigate the mechanism through which YIPF5 loss of function affects β cells. Loss of YIPF5 function in stem cell-derived islet cells resulted in proinsulin retention in the ER, marked ER stress, and β cell failure. Partial YIPF5 silencing in EndoC-βH1 cells and a patient mutation in stem cells increased the β cell sensitivity to ER stress-induced apoptosis. We report recessive YIPF5 mutations as the genetic cause of a congenital syndrome of microcephaly, epilepsy, and neonatal/early-onset diabetes, highlighting a critical role of YIPF5 in β cells and neurons. We believe this is the first report of mutations disrupting the ER-to-Golgi trafficking, resulting in diabetes.
    Keywords:  Cell Biology; Cell stress; Diabetes; Genetics; Human stem cells
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI141455
  26. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2020 Oct;10(10): 1866-1879
    Wang J, Zhou H.
      Mitochondrial damage is a critical contributor to cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Mitochondrial quality control (MQC) mechanisms, a series of adaptive responses that preserve mitochondrial structure and function, ensure cardiomyocyte survival and cardiac function after I/R injury. MQC includes mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial fusion, mitophagy and mitochondria-dependent cell death. The interplay among these responses is linked to pathological changes such as redox imbalance, calcium overload, energy metabolism disorder, signal transduction arrest, the mitochondrial unfolded protein response and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Excessive mitochondrial fission is an early marker of mitochondrial damage and cardiomyocyte death. Reduced mitochondrial fusion has been observed in stressed cardiomyocytes and correlates with mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiac depression. Mitophagy allows autophagosomes to selectively degrade poorly structured mitochondria, thus maintaining mitochondrial network fitness. Nevertheless, abnormal mitophagy is maladaptive and has been linked to cell death. Although mitochondria serve as the fuel source of the heart by continuously producing adenosine triphosphate, they also stimulate cardiomyocyte death by inducing apoptosis or necroptosis in the reperfused myocardium. Therefore, defects in MQC may determine the fate of cardiomyocytes. In this review, we summarize the regulatory mechanisms and pathological effects of MQC in myocardial I/R injury, highlighting potential targets for the clinical management of reperfusion.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Cardiomyocyte I/R injury; Fusion; Mitochondrial death; Mitochondrial fission; Mitochondrial quality control; Mitophagy; Necroptosis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2020.03.004
  27. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2020 Nov 08. pii: S0959-440X(20)30171-8. [Epub ahead of print]66 49-57
    Okumura M, Noi K, Inaba K.
      Time-resolved single-molecule observations by high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM), have greatly advanced our understanding of how proteins operate to fulfill their unique functions. Using this device, we succeeded in visualizing two members of the protein disulfide isomerase family (PDIs) that act to catalyze oxidative folding and reductive unfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ERdj5, an ER-resident disulfide reductase that promotes ER-associated degradation, reduces nonnative disulfide bonds of misfolded proteins utilizing the dynamics of its N-terminal and C-terminal clusters. With unfolded substrates, canonical PDI assembles to form a face-to-face dimer with a central hydrophobic cavity and multiple redox-active sites to accelerate oxidative folding inside the cavity. Altogether, PDIs exert highly dynamic mechanisms to ensure the protein quality control in the ER.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbi.2020.10.004
  28. Cell Chem Biol. 2020 Nov 03. pii: S2451-9456(20)30424-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    Hatstat AK, Ahrendt HD, Foster MW, Mayne L, Moseley MA, Englander SW, McCafferty DG.
      The benzdiimidazole NAB2 rescues α-synuclein-associated trafficking defects associated with early onset Parkinson's disease in a Nedd4-dependent manner. Despite identification of E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 as a putative target of NAB2, its molecular mechanism of action has not been elucidated. As such, the effect of NAB2 on Nedd4 activity and specificity was interrogated through biochemical, biophysical, and proteomic analyses. NAB2 was found to bind Nedd4 (KDapp = 42 nM), but this binding is side chain mediated and does not alter its conformation or ubiquitination kinetics in vitro. Nedd4 co-localizes with trafficking organelles, and NAB2 exposure did not alter its co-localization. Ubiquitin enrichment coupled proteomics revealed that NAB2 stimulates ubiquitination of trafficking-associated proteins, most likely through modulating the substrate specificity of Nedd4, providing a putative protein network involved in the NAB2 mechanism and revealing trafficking scaffold protein TFG as a Nedd4 substrate.
    Keywords:  E3 ubiquitin ligase; NAB2; Nedd4; Parkinson's disease; enzyme; neurodegeneration; α-synuclein-associated toxicity
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2020.10.008
  29. Sci Adv. 2020 Nov;pii: eaba5130. [Epub ahead of print]6(46):
    Prasad R, Sliwa-Gonzalez A, Barral Y.
      In the plasma membrane and in synthetic membranes, resident lipids may laterally unmix to form domains of distinct biophysical properties. Whether lipids also drive the lateral organization of intracellular membranes is largely unknown. Here, we describe genetically encoded fluorescent reporters visualizing local variations in bilayer thickness. Using them, we demonstrate that long-chained ceramides promote the formation of discrete domains of increased bilayer thickness in the yeast ER, particularly in the future plane of cleavage and at ER-trans-Golgi contact sites. Thickening of the ER membrane in the cleavage plane contributed to the formation of lateral diffusion barriers, which restricted the passage of short, but not long, protein transmembrane domains between the mother and bud ER compartments. Together, our data establish that the ER membrane is laterally organized and that ceramides drive this process, and provide insights into the physical nature and biophysical mechanisms of the lateral diffusion barriers that compartmentalize the ER.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aba5130
  30. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2020 Nov 09. pii: S1388-1981(20)30247-X. [Epub ahead of print] 158855
    Dichlberger A, Zhou K, Bäck N, Nyholm T, Backman A, Mattjus P, Ikonen E, Blom T.
      Lysosome Associated Protein Transmembrane 4B (LAPTM4B) is a four-membrane spanning ceramide interacting protein that regulates mTORC1 signaling. Here, we show that LAPTM4B is sorted into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular endosomes (MVEs) and released in small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) into conditioned cell culture medium and human urine. Efficient sorting of LAPTM4B into ILV membranes depends on its third transmembrane domain containing a sphingolipid interaction motif (SLim). Unbiased lipidomic analysis reveals a strong enrichment of glycosphingolipids in sEVs secreted from LAPTM4B knockout cells and from cells expressing a SLim-deficient LAPTM4B mutant. The altered sphingolipid profile is accompanied by a distinct SLim-dependent co-modulation of ether lipid species. The changes in the lipid composition of sEVs derived from LAPTM4B knockout cells is reflected by an increased stability of membrane nanodomains of sEVs. These results identify LAPTM4B as a determinant of the glycosphingolipid profile and membrane properties of sEVs.
    Keywords:  ether lipids; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; glycosphingolipids; membrane nanodomains; sphingolipids
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2020.158855
  31. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. 2020 ;96(9): 431-439
    Ikeda F.
      Ubiquitin is a small protein used for posttranslational modification and it regulates every aspect of biological functions. Through a three-step cascade of enzymatic action, ubiquitin is conjugated to a substrate. Because ubiquitin itself can be post-translationally modified, this small protein generates various ubiquitin codes and triggers differing regulation of biological functions. For example, ubiquitin itself can be ubiquitinated, phosphorylated, acetylated, or SUMOylated. Via the type three secretion system, some bacterial effectors also modify the ubiquitin system in host cells. This review describes the general concept of the ubiquitin system as well as the fundamental functions of ubiquitin in the regulation of cellular responses during inflammation and bacterial infection.
    Keywords:  TNF; autophagy; bacterial effectors; inflammation; ubiquitin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2183/pjab.96.032
  32. Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 12. 10(1): 19730
    Kawaguchi Y, Hagiwara D, Miyata T, Hodai Y, Kurimoto J, Takagi H, Suga H, Kobayashi T, Sugiyama M, Onoue T, Ito Y, Iwama S, Banno R, Grinevich V, Arima H.
      The immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP), also referred to as 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), is a pivotal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone which modulates the unfolded protein response under ER stress. Our previous studies showed that BiP is expressed in arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons under non-stress conditions and that BiP expression is upregulated in proportion to the increased AVP expression under dehydration. To clarify the role of BiP in AVP neurons, we used a viral approach in combination with shRNA interference for BiP knockdown in mouse AVP neurons. Injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus equipped with a mouse AVP promoter and BiP shRNA cassette provided specific BiP knockdown in AVP neurons of the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in mice. AVP neuron-specific BiP knockdown led to ER stress and AVP neuronal loss in the SON and PVN, resulting in increased urine volume due to lack of AVP secretion. Immunoelectron microscopy of AVP neurons revealed that autophagy was activated through the process of AVP neuronal loss, whereas no obvious features characteristic of apoptosis were observed. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine exacerbated the AVP neuronal loss due to BiP knockdown, indicating a protective role of autophagy in AVP neurons under ER stress. In summary, our results demonstrate that BiP is essential for the AVP neuron system.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76839-z
  33. Molecules. 2020 Nov 09. pii: E5200. [Epub ahead of print]25(21):
    Wang YS, Wu KP, Jiang HK, Kurkute P, Chen RH.
      Ubiquitination is a versatile posttranslational modification that elicits signaling roles to impact on various cellular processes and disease states. The versatility is a result of the complexity of ubiquitin conjugates, ranging from a single ubiquitin monomer to polymers with different length and linkage types. Recent studies have revealed the abundant existence of branched ubiquitin chains in which one ubiquitin molecule is connected to two or more ubiquitin moieties in the same ubiquitin polymer. Compared to the homotypic ubiquitin chain, the branched chain is recognized or processed differently by readers and erasers of the ubiquitin system, respectively, resulting in a qualitative or quantitative alteration of the functional output. Furthermore, certain types of branched ubiquitination are induced by cellular stresses, implicating their important physiological role in stress adaption. In addition, the current chemical methodologies of solid phase peptide synthesis and expanding genetic code approach have been developed to synthesize different architectures of branched ubiquitin chains. The synthesized branched ubiquitin chains have shown their significance in understanding the topologies and binding partners of the branched chains. Here, we discuss the recent progresses on the detection, functional characterization and synthesis of branched ubiquitin chains as well as the future perspectives of this emerging field.
    Keywords:  branched ubiquitin polymer synthesis; branched ubiquitination; protein ubiquitination; ubiquitin proteasome system
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215200
  34. Nature. 2020 Nov 11.
    Wentink AS, Nillegoda NB, Feufel J, Ubartaitė G, Schneider CP, De Los Rios P, Hennig J, Barducci A, Bukau B.
      The deposition of highly ordered fibrillar-type aggregates into inclusion bodies is a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. The high stability of such amyloid fibril aggregates makes them challenging substrates for the cellular protein quality-control machinery1,2. However, the human HSP70 chaperone and its co-chaperones DNAJB1 and HSP110 can dissolve preformed fibrils of the Parkinson's disease-linked presynaptic protein α-synuclein in vitro3,4. The underlying mechanisms of this unique activity remain poorly understood. Here we use biochemical tools and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the crucial steps of the disaggregation process of amyloid fibrils. We find that DNAJB1 specifically recognizes the oligomeric form of α-synuclein via multivalent interactions, and selectively targets HSP70 to fibrils. HSP70 and DNAJB1 interact with the fibril through exposed, flexible amino and carboxy termini of α-synuclein rather than the amyloid core itself. The synergistic action of DNAJB1 and HSP110 strongly accelerates disaggregation by facilitating the loading of several HSP70 molecules in a densely packed arrangement at the fibril surface, which is ideal for the generation of 'entropic pulling' forces. The cooperation of DNAJB1 and HSP110 in amyloid disaggregation goes beyond the classical substrate targeting and recycling functions that are attributed to these HSP70 co-chaperones and constitutes an active and essential contribution to the remodelling of the amyloid substrate. These mechanistic insights into the essential prerequisites for amyloid disaggregation may provide a basis for new therapeutic interventions in neurodegeneration.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2904-6
  35. J Clin Invest. 2020 Nov 10. pii: 134565. [Epub ahead of print]
    Pluciennik A, Liu Y, Molotsky E, Marsh GB, Ranxhi B, Arnold FJ, St-Cyr S, Davidson BL, Pourshafie N, Lieberman AP, Gu W, Todi SV, Merry DE.
      Polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases are devastating, slowly progressing neurodegenerative conditions caused by expansion of polyQ-encoding CAG repeats within the coding regions of distinct, unrelated genes. In spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), polyQ expansion within the androgen receptor (AR) causes progressive neuromuscular toxicity, the molecular basis of which is unclear. Using quantitative proteomics, we identified changes in the AR interactome caused by polyQ expansion. We found that the deubiquitinase USP7 preferentially interacts with polyQ-expanded AR, and that lowering USP7 levels reduced mutant AR aggregation and cytotoxicity in cell models of SBMA. Moreover, USP7 knockdown suppressed disease phenotypes in SBMA and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) fly models, and monoallelic knockout of Usp7 ameliorated several motor deficiencies in transgenic SBMA mice. USP7 overexpression resulted in reduced AR ubiquitination, indicating the direct action of USP7 on AR. Using quantitative proteomics, we identified the ubiquitinated lysine residues on mutant AR that are regulated by USP7. Finally, we found that USP7 also differentially interacts with mutant Huntingtin (HTT) protein in striatum and frontal cortex of a knock-in mouse model of Huntington's disease. Taken together, our findings reveal a critical role for USP7 in the pathophysiology of SBMA and suggest a similar role in SCA3 and Huntington's disease.
    Keywords:  Neurodegeneration; Neuromuscular disease; Neuroscience; Ubiquitin-proteosome system
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI134565
  36. Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 12. 10(1): 19704
    Sakai W, Yuasa-Sunagawa M, Kusakabe M, Kishimoto A, Matsui T, Kaneko Y, Akagi JI, Huyghe N, Ikura M, Ikura T, Hanaoka F, Yokoi M, Sugasawa K.
      The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays crucial roles in regulation of various biological processes, including DNA repair. In mammalian global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER), activation of the DDB2-associated ubiquitin ligase upon UV-induced DNA damage is necessary for efficient recognition of lesions. To date, however, the precise roles of UPS in GG-NER remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that the proteasome subunit PSMD14 and the UPS shuttle factor RAD23B can be recruited to sites with UV-induced photolesions even in the absence of XPC, suggesting that proteolysis occurs at DNA damage sites. Unexpectedly, sustained inhibition of proteasome activity results in aggregation of PSMD14 (presumably with other proteasome components) at the periphery of nucleoli, by which DDB2 is immobilized and sequestered from its lesion recognition functions. Although depletion of PSMD14 alleviates such DDB2 immobilization induced by proteasome inhibitors, recruitment of DDB2 to DNA damage sites is then severely compromised in the absence of PSMD14. Because all of these proteasome dysfunctions selectively impair removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, but not (6-4) photoproducts, our results indicate that the functional integrity of the proteasome is essential for the DDB2-mediated lesion recognition sub-pathway, but not for GG-NER initiated through direct lesion recognition by XPC.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76898-2
  37. Sci Adv. 2020 Nov;pii: eaba6290. [Epub ahead of print]6(46):
    Sun Y, Miller Jenkins LM, Su YP, Nitiss KC, Nitiss JL, Pommier Y.
      Topoisomerases form transient covalent DNA cleavage complexes to perform their reactions. Topoisomerase I cleavage complexes (TOP1ccs) are trapped by camptothecin and TOP2ccs by etoposide. Proteolysis of the trapped topoisomerase DNA-protein cross-links (TOP-DPCs) is a key step for some pathways to repair these lesions. We describe a pathway that features a prominent role of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification for both TOP1- and TOP2-DPC repair. Both undergo rapid and sequential SUMO-2/3 and SUMO-1 modifications in human cells. The SUMO ligase PIAS4 is required for these modifications. RNF4, a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL), then ubiquitylates the TOP-DPCs for their subsequent degradation by the proteasome. This pathway is conserved in yeast with Siz1 and Slx5-Slx8, the orthologs of human PIAS4 and RNF4.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aba6290
  38. Cancer Lett. 2020 Nov 10. pii: S0304-3835(20)30588-7. [Epub ahead of print]
    Che N, Ng KY, Wong TL, Tong M, Kau PW, Chan LH, Lee TK, Huen MS, Yun JP, Ma S.
      Autophagy is a critical survival factor for cancer cells, whereby it maintains cellular homeostasis by degrading damaged organelles and unwanted proteins and supports cellular biosynthesis in response to stress. Cancer cells, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are often situated in a hypoxic, nutrient-deprived and stressful microenvironment where tumor cells are yet still able to adapt and survive. However, the mechanism underlying this adaptation and survival is not well-defined. We report deficiency of the post-translational modification enzyme protein arginine N-methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) in HCC to promote the induction of autophagy under oxygen/nutrient-derived and sorafenib drug-induced stress conditions. Enhanced autophagic flux in HCC cells negatively correlated with PRMT6 expression, with the catalytic domain of PRMT6 critically important in mediating these autophagic activities. Mechanistically, PRMT6 physically interacts and methylates BAG5 to enhance the degradation of its interacting partner HSC70, a well-known autophagy player. The therapeutic potential of targeting BAG5 using genetic approach to reverse tumorigenicity and sorafenib resistance mediated by PRMT6 deficiency in HCC is also demonstrated in an in vivo model. The clinical implications of these findings are highlighted by the inverse correlative expressions of PRMT6 and HSC70 in HCC tissues. Collectively, deficiency of PRMT6 induces autophagy to promote tumorigenicity and cell survival in hostile microenvironments of HCC tumors by regulating BAG5-associated HSC70 stability through post-translational methylation of BAG5. Targeting BAG5 may therefore be an attractive strategy in HCC treatment by suppressing autophagy and inducing HCC cell sensitivity to sorafenib for treatment.
    Keywords:  Arginine methylation; Hypoxia; Liver cancer; Nutrient deprivation; Protein arginine methyltransferase 6; Sorafenib
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2020.11.002
  39. EMBO Rep. 2020 Nov 13. e50615
    Hernandez-Monge J, Martínez-Sánchez M, Rousset-Roman A, Medina-Medina I, Olivares-Illana V.
      The retinoblastoma tumour suppressor protein (RB) regulates a number of diverse cellular functions including differentiation, angiogenesis, chromatin remodelling, senescence and apoptosis. The best-characterised function of RB is cell cycle regulation, and it has been considered a phosphoprotein regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases. In its hypophosphorylated form, RB binds the transcription factor E2F1, arresting the cell cycle in the G1 phase. Here, we show that MDM2 controls the cell cycle through synthesis and degradation of RB protein in a cell cycle condition-dependent fashion. MDM2 induces G1 cell cycle arrest by enhancing the translation of the RB mRNA under genotoxic stress. Translation requires direct interaction between the RB mRNA and the MDM2 protein that accompanies the RB mRNA to the polysomes. However, MDM2 ubiquitinates and degrades RB protein at the G2/M phase under genotoxic stress. The ATM phosphomimetic mutant MDM2(S395D) corroborates that the effect on the RB levels is dependent on the DNA damage. These results provide the basis of a dual regulatory mechanism by which MDM2 controls cell cycle progression during DNA damage.
    Keywords:  MDM2; RB; RB mRNA; cell cycle; protein translation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.15252/embr.202050615
  40. Pharmacol Rev. 2021 Jan;73(1): 1-56
    Barghout SH, Schimmer AD.
      Post-translational modifications of cellular substrates with ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs), including ubiquitin, SUMOs, and neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated protein 8, play a central role in regulating many aspects of cell biology. The UBL conjugation cascade is initiated by a family of ATP-dependent enzymes termed E1 activating enzymes and executed by the downstream E2-conjugating enzymes and E3 ligases. Despite their druggability and their key position at the apex of the cascade, pharmacologic modulation of E1s with potent and selective drugs has remained elusive until 2009. Among the eight E1 enzymes identified so far, those initiating ubiquitylation (UBA1), SUMOylation (SAE), and neddylation (NAE) are the most characterized and are implicated in various aspects of cancer biology. To date, over 40 inhibitors have been reported to target UBA1, SAE, and NAE, including the NAE inhibitor pevonedistat, evaluated in more than 30 clinical trials. In this Review, we discuss E1 enzymes, the rationale for their therapeutic targeting in cancer, and their different inhibitors, with emphasis on the pharmacologic properties of adenosine sulfamates and their unique mechanism of action, termed substrate-assisted inhibition. Moreover, we highlight other less-characterized E1s-UBA6, UBA7, UBA4, UBA5, and autophagy-related protein 7-and the opportunities for targeting these enzymes in cancer. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The clinical successes of proteasome inhibitors in cancer therapy and the emerging resistance to these agents have prompted the exploration of other signaling nodes in the ubiquitin-proteasome system including E1 enzymes. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the biology of different E1 enzymes, their roles in cancer, and how to translate this knowledge into novel therapeutic strategies with potential implications in cancer treatment.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1124/pharmrev.120.000053
  41. Sci Adv. 2020 Nov;pii: eabc6871. [Epub ahead of print]6(46):
    Tang Z, Su KH, Xu M, Dai C.
      The role of proteomic instability in cancer, particularly amyloidogenesis, remains obscure. Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) transcriptionally governs the proteotoxic stress response to suppress proteomic instability and enhance survival. Paradoxically, HSF1 promotes oncogenesis. Here, we report that AKT activates HSF1 via Ser230 phosphorylation. In vivo, HSF1 enables megalencephaly and hepatomegaly, which are driven by hyperactive phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling. Hsf1 deficiency exacerbates amyloidogenesis and elicits apoptosis, thereby countering tissue overgrowth. Unexpectedly, HSF1 physically neutralizes soluble amyloid oligomers (AOs). Beyond impeding amyloidogenesis, HSF1 shields HSP60 from direct assault by AOs, averting HSP60 destabilization, collapse of the mitochondrial proteome, and, ultimately, mitophagy and apoptosis. The very same mechanism occurs in Alzheimer's disease. These findings suggest that amyloidogenesis may be a checkpoint mechanism that constrains uncontrolled growth and safeguards tissue homeostasis, congruent with its emerging tumor-suppressive function. HSF1, by acting as an anti-amyloid factor, promotes overgrowth syndromes and cancer but may suppress neurodegenerative disorders.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abc6871
  42. EMBO Mol Med. 2020 Nov 12. e12025
    Chastagner P, Loria F, Vargas JY, Tois J, I Diamond M, Okafo G, Brou C, Zurzolo C.
      Tau accumulation in the form of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain is a hallmark of tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau aggregates accumulate in brain regions in a defined spatiotemporal pattern and may induce the aggregation of native Tau in a prion-like manner. However, the underlying mechanisms of cell-to-cell spreading of Tau pathology are unknown and could involve encapsulation within exosomes, trans-synaptic passage, and tunneling nanotubes (TNTs). We have established a neuronal cell model to monitor both internalization of externally added fibrils, synthetic (K18) or Tau from AD brain extracts, and real-time conversion of microtubule-binding domain of Tau fused to a fluorescent marker into aggregates. We found that these endogenously formed deposits colabel with ubiquitin and p62 but are not recruited to macroautophagosomes, eventually escaping clearance. Furthermore, endogenous K18-seeded Tau aggregates spread to neighboring cells where they seed new deposits. Transfer of Tau aggregates depends on direct cell contact, and they are found inside TNTs connecting neuronal cells. We further demonstrate that contact-dependent transfer occurs in primary neurons and between neurons and astrocytes in organotypic cultures.
    Keywords:  Intercellular spreading; Tau aggregates; autophagy; prion-like seeding; tunneling nanotubes
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.15252/emmm.202012025
  43. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Nov 09. pii: E8400. [Epub ahead of print]21(21):
    Shen Y, Zou Y, Li J, Chen F, Li H, Cai Y.
      CDK5RAP3 was regarded as the most significant regulator of cellular responses against heat stress, which is associated with dysfunctions of the immune system and animal susceptibility to disease. Despite this, little known about how CDK5RAP3 regulates heat stress response. In this study, CDK5RAP3 conditional Knockout (CKO) mice, CDK5RAP3-/- mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) were used as an in vitro and in vivo model, respectively to reveal the role of CDK5RAP3 in regulating the heat stress response. The deletion of CDK5RAP3 unexpectedly caused animal lethality after 1.5-h heat stimulations. Furthermore, BMECs were re-cultured for eight hours after heat stress and was found that the expression of CDK5RAP3 and HSPs showed a similar fluctuating pattern of increase (0-2, 4-6 h) and decrease (2-4, 6-8 h). In addition to the remarkably enhanced expression of heat shock protein, apoptosis rate and endoplasmic reticulum stress, the deletion of CDK5RAP3 also affected nucleoplasmic translocation and trimer formation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). These programs were further confirmed in the mammary gland of CDK5RAP3 CKO mice and CDK5RAP3-/- MEFs as well. Interestingly, genetic silencing of HSF1 downregulated CDK5RAP3 expression in BMECs. Immunostaining and immunoprecipitation studies suggested a physical interaction between CDK5RAP3 and HSF1 being co-localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Besides, CDK5RAP3 also interacted with HSP90, suggesting an operative machinery at both transcriptional level and protein functionality of HSP90 per se. Together, our findings suggested that CDK5RAP3 works like a novel nucleoplasmic shuttle or molecular chaperone, deeply participating in HSF1-mediated heat stress response and protecting cells from heat injury.
    Keywords:  CDK5RAP3; HSF1; HSP90; heat stress response; nucleoplasmic shuttle
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218400
  44. Trends Immunol. 2020 Nov 04. pii: S1471-4906(20)30232-5. [Epub ahead of print]
    Hynes-Smith RW, Wittorf KJ, Buckley SM.
      Hematopoiesis is responsible for numerous functions, ranging from oxygen transportation to host defense, to injury repair. This process of hematopoiesis is maintained throughout life by hematopoietic stem cells and requires a controlled balance between self-renewal, differentiation, and quiescence. Disrupting this balance can result in hematopoietic malignancies, including anemia, immune deficiency, leukemia, and lymphoma. Recent work has shown that FBOX E3 ligases, a substrate recognition component of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), have an integral role in maintaining this balance. In this review, we detail how FBOX proteins target specific proteins for degradation to regulate hematopoiesis through cell processes, such as cell cycle, development, and apoptosis.
    Keywords:  FBOX proteins; hematopoiesis; ubiquitin E3 ligases; ubiquitin proteasome system
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2020.10.003
  45. Science. 2020 Nov 13. 370(6518): 853-856
    Lamper AM, Fleming RH, Ladd KM, Lee ASY.
      Shutoff of global protein synthesis is a conserved response to cellular stresses. This general phenomenon is accompanied by the induction of distinct gene programs tailored to each stress. Although the mechanisms driving repression of general protein synthesis are well characterized, how cells reprogram the translation machinery for selective gene expression remains poorly understood. Here, we found that the noncanonical 5' cap-binding protein eIF3d was activated in response to metabolic stress in human cells. Activation required reduced CK2-mediated phosphorylation near the eIF3d cap-binding pocket. eIF3d controls a gene program enriched in factors important for glucose homeostasis, including members of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. eIF3d-directed translation adaptation was essential for cell survival during chronic glucose deprivation. Thus, this mechanism of translation reprogramming regulates the cellular response to metabolic stress.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb0993
  46. iScience. 2020 Nov 20. 23(11): 101691
    Contreras PS, Tapia PJ, González-Hódar L, Peluso I, Soldati C, Napolitano G, Matarese M, Heras ML, Valls C, Martinez A, Balboa E, Castro J, Leal N, Platt FM, Sobota A, Winter D, Klein AD, Medina DL, Ballabio A, Alvarez AR, Zanlungo S.
      The transcription factor EB (TFEB) has emerged as a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, exocytosis, and autophagy, promoting the clearance of substrates stored in cells. c-Abl is a tyrosine kinase that participates in cellular signaling in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this study, we explored the connection between c-Abl and TFEB. Here, we show that under pharmacological and genetic c-Abl inhibition, TFEB translocates into the nucleus promoting the expression of its target genes independently of its well-known regulator, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1. Active c-Abl induces TFEB phosphorylation on tyrosine and the inhibition of this kinase promotes lysosomal biogenesis, autophagy, and exocytosis. c-Abl inhibition in Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) models, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cholesterol accumulation in lysosomes, promotes a cholesterol-lowering effect in a TFEB-dependent manner. Thus, c-Abl is a TFEB regulator that mediates its tyrosine phosphorylation, and the inhibition of c-Abl activates TFEB promoting cholesterol clearance in NPC models.
    Keywords:  Biological Sciences; Cell Biology; Molecular Biology
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101691
  47. Sci Adv. 2020 Nov;pii: eabb2454. [Epub ahead of print]6(46):
    Bonet-Ponce L, Beilina A, Williamson CD, Lindberg E, Kluss JH, Saez-Atienzar S, Landeck N, Kumaran R, Mamais A, Bleck CKE, Li Y, Cookson MR.
      Genetic variation around the LRRK2 gene affects risk of both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the biological functions of LRRK2 remain incompletely understood. Here, we report that LRRK2 is recruited to lysosomes after exposure of cells to the lysosome membrane-rupturing agent LLOME. Using an unbiased proteomic screen, we identified the motor adaptor protein JIP4 as an LRRK2 partner at the lysosomal membrane. LRRK2 can recruit JIP4 to lysosomes in a kinase-dependent manner via the phosphorylation of RAB35 and RAB10. Using super-resolution live-cell imaging microscopy and FIB-SEM, we demonstrate that JIP4 promotes the formation of LAMP1-negative tubules that release membranous content from lysosomes. Thus, we describe a new process orchestrated by LRRK2, which we name LYTL (LYsosomal Tubulation/sorting driven by LRRK2), by which lysosomal tubulation is used to release vesicles from lysosomes. Given the central role of the lysosome in PD, LYTL is likely to be disease relevant.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abb2454
  48. Mol Cells. 2020 Nov 10.
    Kim SA, Jo SH, Cho JH, Yu MY, Shin HC, Kim JA, Park SG, Park BC, Kim S, Kim JH.
      Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) plays an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis in response to environmental stress. Under conditions of hypoxia or xenobiotic exposure, ARNT regulates the subset of genes involved in adaptive responses, by forming heterodimers with hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF1α and HIF2α) or aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Here, we have shown that ARNT interacts with DDB1 and CUL4-associated factor 15 (DCAF15), and the aryl sulfonamides, indisulam and E7820, induce its proteasomal degradation through Cullin-RING finger ligase 4 containing DCAF15 (CRL4DCAF15) E3 ligase. Moreover, the two known neo-substrates of aryl sulfonamide, RNA-binding motif protein 39 (RBM39) and RNA-binding motif protein 23 (RBM23), are not required for ARNT degradation. In line with this finding, aryl sulfonamides inhibited the transcriptional activities of HIFs and AhR associated with ARNT. Our results collectively support novel regulatory roles of aryl sulfonamides in both hypoxic and xenobiotic responses.
    Keywords:  DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 15; E7820; aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator; aryl sulfonamide; cullin ring ubiquitin ligase; indisulam
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2020.0122