bims-proteo Biomed News
on Proteostasis
Issue of 2020‒10‒11
forty-two papers selected by
Eric Chevet

  1. EMBO J. 2020 Oct 05. e104863
      Protein modification with poly-ubiquitin chains is a crucial process involved in a myriad of cellular pathways. Chain synthesis requires two steps: substrate modification with ubiquitin (priming) followed by repetitive ubiquitin-to-ubiquitin attachment (elongation). RING-type E3 ligases catalyze both reactions in collaboration with specific priming and elongating E2 enzymes. We provide kinetic insight into poly-ubiquitylation during protein quality control by showing that priming is the rate-determining step in protein degradation as directed by the yeast ERAD RING E3 ligases, Hrd1 and Doa10. Doa10 cooperates with the dedicated priming E2, Ubc6, while both E3s use Ubc7 for elongation. Here, we provide direct evidence that Hrd1 uses Ubc7 also for priming. We found that Ubc6 has an unusually high basal activity that does not require strong stimulation from an E3. Doa10 exploits this property to pair with Ubc6 over Ubc7 during priming. Our work not only illuminates the mechanisms of specific E2/E3 interplay in ERAD, but also offers a basis to understand how RING E3s may have properties that are tailored to pair with their preferred E2s.
    Keywords:  E2 conjugating enzyme; ER-associated protein degradation; RING E3 ligase; linchpin; ubiquitin
  2. Front Cell Neurosci. 2020 ;14 264
      Cellular protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, is indispensable to the survival and function of all cells. Distinct from other cell types, neurons are long-lived, exhibiting architecturally complex and diverse multipolar projection morphologies that can span great distances. These properties present unique demands on proteostatic machinery to dynamically regulate the neuronal proteome in both space and time. Proteostasis is regulated by a distributed network of cellular processes, the proteostasis network (PN), which ensures precise control of protein synthesis, native conformational folding and maintenance, and protein turnover and degradation, collectively safeguarding proteome integrity both under homeostatic conditions and in the contexts of cellular stress, aging, and disease. Dendrites are equipped with distributed cellular machinery for protein synthesis and turnover, including dendritically trafficked ribosomes, chaperones, and autophagosomes. The PN can be subdivided into an adaptive network of three major functional pathways that synergistically govern protein quality control through the action of (1) protein synthesis machinery; (2) maintenance mechanisms including molecular chaperones involved in protein folding; and (3) degradative pathways (e.g., Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS), endolysosomal pathway, and autophagy. Perturbations in any of the three arms of proteostasis can have dramatic effects on neurons, especially on their dendrites, which require tightly controlled homeostasis for proper development and maintenance. Moreover, the critical importance of the PN as a cell surveillance system against protein dyshomeostasis has been highlighted by extensive work demonstrating that the aggregation and/or failure to clear aggregated proteins figures centrally in many neurological disorders. While these studies demonstrate the relevance of derangements in proteostasis to human neurological disease, here we mainly review recent literature on homeostatic developmental roles the PN machinery plays in the establishment, maintenance, and plasticity of stable and dynamic dendritic arbors. Beyond basic housekeeping functions, we consider roles of PN machinery in protein quality control mechanisms linked to dendritic plasticity (e.g., dendritic spine remodeling during LTP); cell-type specificity; dendritic morphogenesis; and dendritic pruning.
    Keywords:  autophagy; chaperone; dendrite; developmental homeostasis; neurological disease; proteostasis network; ribosome; ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)
  3. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2020 Oct 06. 36 115-139
      Lipid droplets (LDs) are endoplasmic reticulum-derived organelles that consist of a core of neutral lipids encircled by a phospholipid monolayer decorated with proteins. As hubs of cellular lipid and energy metabolism, LDs are inherently involved in the etiology of prevalent metabolic diseases such as obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The functions of LDs are regulated by a unique set of associated proteins, the LD proteome, which includes integral membrane and peripheral proteins. These proteins control key activities of LDs such as triacylglycerol synthesis and breakdown, nutrient sensing and signal integration, and interactions with other organelles. Here we review the mechanisms that regulate the composition of the LD proteome, such as pathways that mediate selective and bulk LD protein degradation and potential connections between LDs and cellular protein quality control.
    Keywords:  chaperone-mediated autophagy; endoplasmic reticulum; lipid droplet; lipophagy; metabolism; proteasome; protein targeting; triacylglycerol; ubiquitin
  4. J Cell Sci. 2020 Oct 08. pii: jcs.248526. [Epub ahead of print]
      Lipid droplets (LDs) are implicated in conditions of lipid and protein dysregulation. The fat storage inducing transmembrane (FIT) family induces LD formation. Here, we establish a model system to study the role of S. cerevisiae FIT homologues (ScFIT), SCS3 and YFT2, in proteostasis and stress response pathways. While LD biogenesis and basal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) remain unaltered in ScFIT mutants, SCS3 was found essential for proper stress-induced UPR activation and for viability in the absence of the sole yeast UPR transducer IRE1 Devoid of a functional UPR, muted SCS3 exhibited accumulation of triacylglycerol within the ER along with aberrant LD morphology, suggesting a UPR-dependent compensatory mechanism. Additionally, SCS3 was necessary to maintain phospholipid homeostasis. Strikingly, global protein ubiquitination and the turnover of both ER and cytoplasmic misfolded proteins is impaired in ScFITΔ cells, while a screen for interacting partners of Scs3 identifies components of the proteostatic machinery as putative targets. Together, our data support a model where ScFITs play an important role in lipid metabolism and proteostasis beyond their defined roles in LD biogenesis.
    Keywords:  Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD); Lipid droplet; Phospholipid metabolism; Proteostasis; Scs3; Unfolded protein response (UPR)
  5. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2020 Sep 30. pii: S0304-4165(20)30265-8. [Epub ahead of print]1865(1): 129754
      BACKGROUND: Ubiquitously eXpressed Transcript isoform 2 (UXTV2) is a prefoldin-like protein involved in NF-κB signaling, apoptosis, and the androgen and estrogen response. UXT-V2 is a cofactor in the NF-κB transcriptional enhanceosome, and its knockdown inhibits TNF-α -induced NF-κB activation. Fbxo7 is an F-box protein that interacts with SKP1, Cullin1 and RBX1 proteins to form an SCF(Fbxo7) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Fbxo7 negatively regulates NF-κB signaling through TRAF2 and cIAP1 ubiquitination.METHODS: We combine co-immunoprecipitation, ubiquitination in vitro and in vivo, cycloheximide chase assay, ubiquitin chain restriction analysis and microscopy to investigate interaction between Fbxo7 and overexpressed UXT-V2-HA.
    RESULTS: The Ubl domain of Fbxo7 contributes to interaction with UXTV2. This substrate is polyubiquitinated by SCF(Fbxo7) with K48 and K63 ubiquitin chain linkages in vitro and in vivo. This post-translational modification decreases UXT-V2 stability and promotes its proteasomal degradation. We further show that UXTV1, an alternatively spliced isoform of UXT, containing 12 additional amino acids at the N-terminus as compared to UXTV2, also interacts with and is ubiquitinated by Fbxo7. Moreover, FBXO7 knockdown promotes UXT-V2 accumulation, and the overexpression of Fbxo7-ΔF-box protects UXT-V2 from proteasomal degradation and enhances the responsiveness of NF-κB reporter. We find that UXT-V2 colocalizes with Fbxo7 in the cell nucleus.
    CONCLUSIONS: Together, our study reveals that SCF(Fbxo7) mediates the proteasomal degradation of UXT-V2 causing the inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway.
    GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Discovering new substrates of E3 ubiquitin-ligase SCF(Fbxo7) contributes to understand its function in different diseases such as cancer and Parkinson.
    Keywords:  E3 ubiquitin ligase; NF-kappa B (NF-κB); SCF(Fbxo7); UXT-V1; UXT-V2; Ubiquitylation (ubiquitination)
  6. Front Physiol. 2020 ;11 574339
      The luminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein of 29 kDa (ERp29) is a ubiquitously expressed cellular agent with multiple critical roles. ERp29 regulates the biosynthesis and trafficking of several transmembrane and secretory proteins, including the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), thyroglobulin, connexin 43 hemichannels, and proinsulin. ERp29 is hypothesized to promote ER to cis-Golgi cargo protein transport via COP II machinery through its interactions with the KDEL receptor; this interaction may facilitate the loading of ERp29 clients into COP II vesicles. ERp29 also plays a role in ER stress (ERS) and the unfolded protein response (UPR) and is implicated in oncogenesis. Here, we review the vast array of ERp29's clients, its role as an ER to Golgi escort protein, and further suggest ERp29 as a potential target for therapies related to diseases of protein misfolding and mistrafficking.
    Keywords:  COP II; ERp29; Golgi; chaperone; endoplasmic reticulum; escort; secretory pathway; trafficking
  7. Autophagy. 2020 Oct 06. 1-21
      Our previous studies reveal a mechanism for lipid droplet (LD)-mediated proteostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whereby unfolded proteins that accumulate in the ER in response to lipid imbalance-induced ER stress are removed by LDs and degraded by microlipophagy (µLP), autophagosome-independent LD uptake into the vacuole (the yeast lysosome). Here, we show that dithiothreitol- or tunicamycin-induced ER stress also induces µLP and identify an unexpected role for vacuolar membrane dynamics in this process. All stressors studied induce vacuolar fragmentation prior to µLP. Moreover, during µLP, fragmented vacuoles fuse to form cup-shaped structures that encapsulate and ultimately take up LDs. Our studies also indicate that proteins of the endosome sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) are upregulated, required for µLP, and recruited to LDs, vacuolar membranes, and sites of vacuolar membrane scission during µLP. We identify possible target proteins for LD-mediated ER proteostasis. Our live-cell imaging studies reveal that one potential target (Nup159) localizes to punctate structures that colocalizes with LDs 1) during movement from ER membranes to the cytosol, 2) during microautophagic uptake into vacuoles, and 3) within the vacuolar lumen. Finally, we find that mutations that inhibit LD biogenesis, homotypic vacuolar membrane fusion or ESCRT function inhibit stress-induced autophagy of Nup159 and other ER proteins. Thus, we have obtained the first direct evidence that LDs and µLP can mediate ER stress-induced ER proteostasis, and identified direct roles for ESCRT and vacuolar membrane fusion in that process.
    Keywords:  ER stress; erad; escrt; lipid droplet proteome; microautophagy; microlipophagy; unfolded protein response; vacuolar membrane fusion; vacuole
  8. Cells. 2020 Oct 04. pii: E2237. [Epub ahead of print]9(10):
      We have previously discovered that HDAC6 regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) via modulating the homeostasis of a DNA mismatch repair protein, MSH2, through HDAC6's ubiquitin E3 ligase activity. Here, we have reported HDAC6's second potential E3 ligase substrate, a critical cell cycle checkpoint protein, Chk1. We have found that HDAC6 and Chk1 directly interact, and that HDAC6 ubiquitinates Chk1 in vivo and in vitro. Specifically, HDAC6 interacts with Chk1 via the DAC1 domain, which contains its ubiquitin E3 ligase activity. During the cell cycle, Chk1 protein levels fluctuate, peaking at the G2 phase, subsequently resolving via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and thereby allowing cells to progress to the M phase. However, in HDAC6 knockdown non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, Chk1 is constitutively active and fails to resolve post-ionizing radiation (IR), and this enhanced Chk1 activity leads to preferential G2 arrest in HDAC6 knockdown cells accompanied by a reduction in colony formation capacity and viability. Depletion or pharmacological inhibition of Chk1 in HDAC6 knockdown cells reverses this radiosensitive phenotype, suggesting that the radiosensitivity of HDAC6 knockdown cells is dependent on increased Chk1 kinase activity. Overall, our results highlight a novel mechanism of Chk1 regulation at the post-translational level, and a possible strategy for sensitizing NSCLC to radiation via inhibiting HDAC6's E3 ligase activity.
    Keywords:  DNA damage response (DDR); checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1); histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6); ionizing radiation (IR); ubiquitin E3 ligase; ubiquitination
  9. Cells. 2020 Oct 01. pii: E2219. [Epub ahead of print]9(10):
      All eukaryotes rely on the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy to control the abundance of key regulatory proteins and maintain a healthy intracellular environment. In the UPS, damaged or superfluous proteins are ubiquitinated and degraded in the proteasome, mediated by three types of ubiquitin enzymes: E1s (ubiquitin activating enzymes), E2s (ubiquitin conjugating enzymes), and E3s (ubiquitin protein ligases). Conversely, in autophagy, a vesicular autophagosome is formed that transfers damaged proteins and organelles to the vacuole, mediated by a series of ATGs (autophagy related genes). Despite the use of two completely different componential systems, the UPS and autophagy are closely interconnected and mutually regulated. During autophagy, ATG8 proteins, which are autophagosome markers, decorate the autophagosome membrane similarly to ubiquitination of damaged proteins. Ubiquitin is also involved in many selective autophagy processes and is thus a common factor of the UPS and autophagy. Additionally, the components of the UPS, such as the 26S proteasome, can be degraded via autophagy, and conversely, ATGs can be degraded by the UPS, indicating cross regulation between the two pathways. The UPS and autophagy cooperate and jointly regulate homeostasis of cellular components during plant development and stress response.
    Keywords:  autophagy; degradation; plants; the ubiquitin-proteasome system; ubiquitin
  10. Development. 2020 Oct 09. pii: dev.190082. [Epub ahead of print]
      Insulin/IGF signaling in C. elegans is crucial for proper development of the dauer larva and growth control. Mutants disturbing insulin processing, secretion and downstream signaling perturb this process and have helped identify genes that affect progression of type 2 diabetes. Insulin maturation is required for its proper secretion by pancreatic β cells. The role of the ER chaperones in insulin processing and secretion needs further study. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans ER chaperone ENPL-1/GRP94/HSP90B1, acts in dauer development by promoting insulin secretion and signaling. Processing of a proinsulin likely involves binding between the two proteins via a specific domain. We show that in enpl-1 mutants, an unprocessed insulin exits the ER lumen and is found in dense core vesicles, but is not secreted. The high ER stress in enpl-1 mutants does not cause the secretion defect. Importantly, increased ENPL-1 levels result in increased secretion. Taken together, our work indicates that ENPL-1 operates at the level of insulin availability and is an essential modulator of insulin processing and secretion.
    Keywords:  Dauer; Dense core vesicles; ER chaperone; Endoplasmic reticulum; Insulin secretion
  11. J Biol Chem. 2020 Oct 08. pii: jbc.AC120.016191. [Epub ahead of print]
      Translocation of proteins across biological membranes is essential for life. Proteins that clog the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) translocon prevent the movement of other proteins into the ER. Eukaryotes have multiple translocon quality control (TQC) mechanisms to detect and destroy proteins that persistently engage the translocon. TQC mechanisms have been defined using a limited panel of substrates that aberrantly occupy the channel. The extent of substrate overlap among TQC pathways is unknown. In this study, we found that two TQC enzymes, the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) ubiquitin ligase Hrd1 and zinc metalloprotease Ste24, promote degradation of characterized translocon-associated substrates of the other enzyme in Saccharomyces cerevisiae While both enzymes contribute to substrate turnover, our results suggest a prominent role for Hrd1 in TQC. Yeast lacking both Hrd1 and Ste24 exhibit a profound growth defect, consistent with overlapping function. Remarkably, two mutations that mildly perturb post-translational translocation and reduce the extent of aberrant translocon engagement by a model substrate diminish cellular dependence on TQC enzymes. Our data reveal previously unappreciated mechanistic complexity in TQC substrate detection and suggest that a robust translocon surveillance infrastructure maintains functional and efficient translocation machinery.
    Keywords:  E3 ubiquitin ligase; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD); protein translocation; yeast genetics
  12. Biochem J. 2020 Oct 05. pii: BCJ20200699. [Epub ahead of print]
      Renal epithelial cells regulate the destructive activity of macrophages and participate in the progression of kidney diseases. Critically, the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), which is activated in renal epithelial cells in the course of kidney injury, is required for the optimal differentiation and activation of macrophages. Given that macrophages are key regulators of renal inflammation and fibrosis, we suppose that the identification of mediators that are released by renal epithelial cells under Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress and transmitted to macrophages is a critical issue to address. Signals leading to a paracrine transmission of ER stress (TERS) from a donor cell to a recipient cells could be of paramount importance to understand how ER-stressed cells shape the immune microenvironment. Critically, the vast majority of studies that have examined TERS used thaspigargin as an inducer of ER stress in donor cells in cellular models. By using multiple sources of ER stress, we evaluated if human renal epithelial cells undergoing ER stress can transmit the UPR to human monocyte-derived macrophages and if such TERS can modulate the inflammatory profiles of these cells. Our results indicate that carry-over of thapsigargin is a confounding factor in chemically based TERS protocols classically used to induce ER Stress in donor cells. Hence, such protocols are not suitable to study the TERS phenomenon and to identify its mediators. In addition, the absence of TERS transmission in more physiological models of ER stress indicates that cell-to-cell UPR transmission is not a universal feature in cultured cells.
    Keywords:  Transmission; endoplasmic reticulum stress; paracrine; renal physiology; unfolded protein response
  13. J Cell Physiol. 2020 Oct 09.
      Transient receptor potential melastatin member 8 (TRPM8), a Ca2+ -permeable nonselective cation channel activated by cold and cooling agents, mediates allodynia. Dysfunction or abnormal expression of TRPM8 has been found in several human cancers. The role of ubiquitination in the regulation of TRPM8 function remains poorly understood. Here, we identified the ubiquitin (Ub)-ligase E3, tripartite motif-containing 4 (TRIM4), as a novel interaction partner of TRPM8 and confirmed that the TRIM4-TRPM8 interaction was mediated through the SPRY domain of TRIM4. Patch-clamp assays showed that TRIM4 negatively regulates TRPM8-mediated currents in HEK293 cells. Moreover, TRIM4 reduced the expression of TRPM8 on the cell surface by promoting the K63-linked ubiquitination of TRPM8. Further analyses revealed that the TRPM8 N-terminal lysine residue at 423 was the major ubiquitination site that mediates its functional regulation by TRIM4. A Ub-activating enzyme E1, Ub-like modifier-activating enzyme 1 (UBA1), was also found to interact with TRPM8, thereby regulating its channel function and ubiquitination. In addition, knockdown of UBA1 impaired the regulation of TRPM8 ubiquitination and function by TRIM4. Thus, this study demonstrates that TRIM4 downregulates TRPM8 via K423-mediated TRPM8 ubiquitination and requires UBA1 to regulate TRPM8.
    Keywords:  TRIM4; TRPM8; UBA1; patch clamp; ubiquitination
  14. Aging Dis. 2020 Oct;11(5): 1091-1102
      Aging is a major risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis (OA). One hallmark of aging is loss of proteostasis resulting in increased cellular stress and cell death. However, its effect on the development of OA is not clear. Here, using knee articular cartilage tissue from young and old cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), we demonstrate that with aging there is loss of molecular chaperone expression resulting in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cell death. Chondrocytes from aged articular cartilage showed decreased expression of molecular chaperones, including protein disulfide isomerase, calnexin, and Ero1-like protein alpha, and increased immunohistochemical staining for ER stress markers (phosphorylated IRE1 alpha, spliced X-box binding protein-1, activating transcription factor 4 and C/EBP homologous protein), and apoptotic markers [cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase], suggesting that decreased expression of molecular chaperone during aging induces ER stress and chondrocyte apoptosis in monkey articular cartilage. Apoptosis induced by aging-associated ER stress was further confirmed by TUNEL staining. Aged monkey cartilage also showed increased expression of nuclear protein 1 (Nupr1) and tribbles related protein-3 (TRB3), known regulators of apoptosis and cell survival pathways. Treatment of cultured monkey chondrocytes with a small molecule chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA, a general ER stress inhibitor) or PERK Inhibitor I (an ER stress inhibitor specifically targeting the PERK branch of the unfolded protein response pathway), decreased the expression of ER stress and apoptotic markers and reduced the expression of Nupr1 and TRB3. Consistent with the above finding, knockdown of calnexin expression induces ER stress and apoptotic markers in normal human chondrocytes in vitro. Taken together, our study clearly demonstrates that aging promotes loss of proteostasis and induces ER stress and chondrocyte apoptosis in articular cartilage. Thus, restoring proteostasis using chemical/molecular chaperone or ER stress inhibitor could be a therapeutic option to treat aged-linked OA.
    Keywords:  aging; apoptosis; cartilage; chaperones; endoplasmic reticulum stress; osteoarthritis
  15. Nature. 2020 Oct 07.
      An important tenet of learning and memory is the notion of a molecular switch that promotes the formation of long-term memory1-4. The regulation of proteostasis is a critical and rate-limiting step in the consolidation of new memories5-10. One of the most effective and prevalent ways to enhance memory is by regulating the synthesis of proteins controlled by the translation initiation factor eIF211. Phosphorylation of the α-subunit of eIF2 (p-eIF2α), the central component of the integrated stress response (ISR), impairs long-term memory formation in rodents and birds11-13. By contrast, inhibiting the ISR by mutating the eIF2α phosphorylation site, genetically11 and pharmacologically inhibiting the ISR kinases14-17, or mimicking reduced p-eIF2α with the ISR inhibitor ISRIB11, enhances long-term memory in health and disease18. Here we used molecular genetics to dissect the neuronal circuits by which the ISR gates cognitive processing. We found that learning reduces eIF2α phosphorylation in hippocampal excitatory neurons and a subset of hippocampal inhibitory neurons (those that express somatostatin, but not parvalbumin). Moreover, ablation of p-eIF2α in either excitatory or somatostatin-expressing (but not parvalbumin-expressing) inhibitory neurons increased general mRNA translation, bolstered synaptic plasticity and enhanced long-term memory. Thus, eIF2α-dependent mRNA translation controls memory consolidation via autonomous mechanisms in excitatory and somatostatin-expressing inhibitory neurons.
  16. EMBO J. 2020 Oct 06. e101767
      Changes in cell metabolism and plasma membrane potential have been linked to shifts between tissue growth and differentiation, and to developmental patterning. How such changes mediate these effects is poorly understood. Here, we use the developing wing of Drosophila to investigate the interplay between cell metabolism and a key developmental regulator-the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway. We show that reducing glycolysis both lowers steady-state levels of ATP and stabilizes Smoothened (Smo), the 7-pass transmembrane protein that transduces the Hh signal. As a result, the transcription factor Cubitus interruptus accumulates in its full-length, transcription activating form. We show that glycolysis is required to maintain the plasma membrane potential and that plasma membrane depolarization blocks cellular uptake of N-acylethanolamides-lipoprotein-borne Hh pathway inhibitors required for Smo destabilization. Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis in mammalian cells induces ciliary translocation of Smo-a key step in pathway activation-in the absence of Hh. Thus, changes in cell metabolism alter Hh signalling through their effects on plasma membrane potential.
    Keywords:  endocannabinoids; glycolysis; hedgehog signalling; metabolism; plasma membrane potential
  17. Trends Biochem Sci. 2020 Oct 01. pii: S0968-0004(20)30229-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      Lysosomes are in the center of the cellular control of catabolic and anabolic processes. These membrane-surrounded acidic organelles contain around 70 hydrolases, 200 membrane proteins, and numerous accessory proteins associated with the cytosolic surface of lysosomes. Accessory and transmembrane proteins assemble in signaling complexes that sense and integrate multiple signals and transmit the information to the nucleus. This communication allows cells to respond to changes in multiple environmental conditions, including nutrient levels, pathogens, energy availability, and lysosomal damage, with the goal of restoring cellular homeostasis. This review summarizes our current understanding of the major molecular players and known pathways that are involved in control of metabolic and stress responses that either originate from lysosomes or regulate lysosomal functions.
    Keywords:  TFEB; autophagy; lysosomes; mTOR; nutrient sensing; transcription factors
  18. Elife. 2020 10 06. pii: e59614. [Epub ahead of print]9
      Sex-specific synaptic connectivity is beginning to emerge as a remarkable, but little explored feature of animal brains. We describe here a novel mechanism that promotes sexually dimorphic neuronal function and synaptic connectivity in the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate that a phylogenetically conserved, but previously uncharacterized Doublesex/Mab-3 related transcription factor (DMRT), dmd-4, is expressed in two classes of sex-shared phasmid neurons specifically in hermaphrodites but not in males. We find dmd-4 to promote hermaphrodite-specific synaptic connectivity and neuronal function of phasmid sensory neurons. Sex-specificity of DMD-4 function is conferred by a novel mode of posttranslational regulation that involves sex-specific protein stabilization through ubiquitin binding to a phylogenetically conserved but previously unstudied protein domain, the DMA domain. A human DMRT homolog of DMD-4 is controlled in a similar manner, indicating that our findings may have implications for the control of sexual differentiation in other animals as well.
    Keywords:  C. elegans; neuroscience; sexual dimorphism; synapse pruning; transcription factor
  19. Trends Cell Biol. 2020 Oct 06. pii: S0962-8924(20)30171-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      Sustaining both proteome and genome integrity (GI) requires the integration of a wide range of mechanisms and signaling pathways. These comprise, in particular, the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the DNA damage response (DDR). These adaptive mechanisms take place respectively in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the nucleus. UPR and DDR alterations are associated with aging and with pathologies such as degenerative diseases, metabolic and inflammatory disorders, and cancer. We discuss the emerging signaling crosstalk between UPR stress sensors and the DDR, as well as their involvement in cancer biology.
    Keywords:  ATM; DNA damage response; IRE1α; PERK; proteostasis; unfolded protein response
  20. Cell Rep. 2020 Oct 06. pii: S2211-1247(20)31180-3. [Epub ahead of print]33(1): 108191
      Despite the important roles of protein kinase Cε (PKCε) and transient receptor potential vanilloind 1 (TRPV1) in inflammatory hypersensitivity, how PKCε is involved in the regulation of thermal hyperalgesia is not fully understood. We report here that PKCε is SUMOylated at a C-terminal lysine residue (K534), which enhances the sensitivity of the TRPV1 channel. We demonstrate that PKCε phosphorylation promotes its SUMOylation, which in turn regulates the phosphorylation level of TRPV1 serine 800 residue via controlling the binding of PKCε and TRPV1 and increased PKCε kinase activity. More importantly, the reduced ability of PKCε knockdown mice to develop inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia was rescued by viral infection of lumbar 4/5 dorsal root ganglia neurons of wild-type PKCε, but not the SUMOylation-deficient PKCε mutant. Therefore, the SUMOylation of PKCε potentiates inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia through stabilizing the interaction with TRPV1 to enhance its function by phosphorylation.
  21. Autophagy. 2020 Oct 04.
      The tumor suppressor CDKN1B/p27Kip1 binds to and inhibits cyclin-CDK complexes in the nucleus, inducing cell cycle arrest. However, when in the cytoplasm, CDKN1B may promote tumorigenesis. Notably, cytoplasmic CDKN1B was reported to promote macroautophagy/autophagy in response to nutrient shortage by a previously unknown mechanism. In our recent work, we found that during prolonged amino acid starvation, CDKN1B promotes autophagy via an MTORC1-dependent pathway. A fraction of CDKN1B translocates to lysosomes, where it interacts with the Ragulator subunit LAMTOR1, preventing Ragulator assembly, which is required for MTORC1 activation in response to amino acids. Therefore, CDKN1B represses MTORC1 activity, leading to nuclear translocation of the transcription factor TFEB and activation of lysosomal function, enhancing starvation-induced autophagy flux and apoptosis. In contrast, cells lacking CDKN1B survive starvation despite reduced autophagy, due to elevated MTORC1 activation. These findings reveal that, by directly repressing MTORC1 activity, CDKN1B couples the cell cycle and cell growth machineries during metabolic stress.
  22. EMBO Rep. 2020 Oct 07. e50733
      The mechanism and regulation of fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes/vacuoles are still only partially understood in both yeast and mammals. In yeast, this fusion step requires SNARE proteins, the homotypic vacuole fusion and protein sorting (HOPS) tethering complex, the RAB7 GTPase Ypt7, and its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Mon1-Ccz1. We and others recently identified Ykt6 as the autophagosomal SNARE protein. However, it has not been resolved when and how lipid-anchored Ykt6 is recruited onto autophagosomes. Here, we show that Ykt6 is recruited at an early stage of the formation of these carriers through a mechanism that depends on endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident Dsl1 complex and COPII-coated vesicles. Importantly, Ykt6 activity on autophagosomes is regulated by the Atg1 kinase complex, which inhibits Ykt6 through direct phosphorylation. Thus, our findings indicate that the Ykt6 pool on autophagosomal membranes is kept inactive by Atg1 phosphorylation, and once an autophagosome is ready to fuse with vacuole, Ykt6 dephosphorylation allows its engagement in the fusion event.
    Keywords:   SNARE ; COPII vesicles; Dsl1 complex; Ykt6; autophagy
  23. Autophagy. 2020 Oct 05. 1-18
      Nuclear protein HMGB1 is secreted in response to various stimuli and functions as a danger-associated molecular pattern. Extracellular HMGB1 induces inflammation, cytokine production, and immune cell recruitment via activation of various receptors. As HMGB1 does not contain an endoplasmic reticulum-targeting signal peptide, HMGB1 is secreted via the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi independently via an unconventional secretion pathway. However, the mechanism underlying HMGB1 secretion remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of secretory autophagy machinery and vesicular trafficking in HMGB1 secretion. We observed that HSP90AA1 (heat shock protein 90 alpha family class A member 1), a stress-inducible protein, regulates the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and its secretion through direct interaction. Additionally, geldanamycin, an HSP90AA1 inhibitor, reduced HMGB1 secretion. GORASP2/GRASP55 (golgi reassembly stacking protein 2), ARF1Q71L (ADP ribosylation factor 1), and SAR1AT39N (secretion associated Ras related GTPase 1A), which promoted unconventional protein secretion, increased HMGB1 secretion. HMGB1 secretion was inhibited by an early autophagy inhibitor and diminished in ATG5-deficient cells even when GORASP2 was overexpressed. In contrast, a late autophagy inhibitor increased HMGB1 secretion under the same conditions. The multivesicular body formation inhibitor GW4869 dramatically decreased HMGB1 secretion under HMGB1 secretion-inducing conditions. Thus, we demonstrated that secretory autophagy and multivesicular body formation mediate HMGB1 secretion.
    Keywords:  GORASP2; HMGB1; HSP90AA1; MVB formation; autophagy; unconventional protein secretion
  24. Autophagy. 2020 Oct 09.
      Mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) are essential communication subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that interact with mitochondria. We previously demonstrated that, upon macroautophagy/autophagy induction, AMBRA1 is recruited to the BECN1 complex and relocalizes to MAMs, where it regulates autophagy by interacting with raft-like components. ERLIN1 is an endoplasmic reticulum lipid raft protein of the prohibitin family. However, little is known about its association with the MAM interface and its involvement in autophagic initiation. In this study, we investigated ERLIN1 association with MAM raft-like microdomains and its interaction with AMBRA1 in the regulation of the autophagic process. We show that ERLIN1 interacts with AMBRA1 at MAM raft-like microdomains, which represents an essential condition for autophagosome formation upon nutrient starvation, as demonstrated by knocking down ERLIN1 gene expression. Moreover, this interaction depends on the "integrity" of key molecules, such as ganglioside GD3 and MFN2. Indeed, knocking down ST8SIA1/GD3-synthase or MFN2 expression impairs AMBRA1-ERLIN1 interaction at the MAM level and hinders autophagy. In conclusion, AMBRA1-ERLIN1 interaction within MAM raft-like microdomains appears to be pivotal in promoting the formation of autophagosomes.
    Keywords:  AMBRA1; ERLIN1; autophagy; lipid rafts; mitochondria associated membranes
  25. Cell. 2020 Sep 24. pii: S0092-8674(20)31091-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mg2+ is the most abundant divalent cation in metazoans and an essential cofactor for ATP, nucleic acids, and countless metabolic enzymes. To understand how the spatio-temporal dynamics of intracellular Mg2+ (iMg2+) are integrated into cellular signaling, we implemented a comprehensive screen to discover regulators of iMg2+ dynamics. Lactate emerged as an activator of rapid release of Mg2+ from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores, which facilitates mitochondrial Mg2+ (mMg2+) uptake in multiple cell types. We demonstrate that this process is remarkably temperature sensitive and mediated through intracellular but not extracellular signals. The ER-mitochondrial Mg2+ dynamics is selectively stimulated by L-lactate. Further, we show that lactate-mediated mMg2+ entry is facilitated by Mrs2, and point mutations in the intermembrane space loop limits mMg2+ uptake. Intriguingly, suppression of mMg2+ surge alleviates inflammation-induced multi-organ failure. Together, these findings reveal that lactate mobilizes iMg2+ and links the mMg2+ transport machinery with major metabolic feedback circuits and mitochondrial bioenergetics.
    Keywords:  Mrs2; calcium; cancer; channel; endoplasmic reticulum; inflammation; lactate; magnesium; metabolism; mitochondria
  26. mBio. 2020 Oct 06. pii: e00852-20. [Epub ahead of print]11(5):
      The intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is capable of infecting most nucleated cells, where it survives in a specially modified compartment called the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is the major cytokine involved in activating cell-autonomous immune responses to inhibit parasite growth within this intracellular niche. In HeLa cells, IFN-γ treatment leads to ubiquitination of susceptible parasite strains, recruitment of the adaptors p62 and NDP52, and engulfment in microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-positive membranes that restrict parasite growth. IFN-γ-mediated growth restriction depends on core members of the autophagy (ATG) pathway but not the initiation or degradative steps in the process. To explore the connection between these different pathways, we used permissive biotin ligation to identify proteins that interact with ATG5 in an IFN-γ-dependent fashion. Network analysis of the ATG5 interactome identified interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), which is highly upregulated by IFN treatment, as a hub connecting the ATG complex with other IFN-γ-induced genes, suggesting that it forms a functional link between the pathways. Deletion of ISG15 resulted in impaired recruitment of p62, NDP52, and LC3 to the PV and loss of IFN-γ-restricted parasite growth. The function of ISG15 required conjugation, and a number of ISGylated targets overlapped with the IFN-γ-dependent ATG5 interactome, including the adapter p62. Collectively, our findings establish a role for ISG15 in connecting the ATG pathway with IFN-γ-dependent restriction of T. gondii in human cells.IMPORTANCE Interferon(s) provide the primary defense against intracellular pathogens, a property ascribed to their ability to upregulate interferon-stimulated genes. Due to the sequestered niche occupied by Toxoplasma gondii, the host has elaborated intricate ways to target the parasite within its vacuole. One such mechanism is the recognition by a noncanonical autophagy pathway that envelops the parasite-containing vacuole and stunts growth in human cells. Remarkably, autophagy-dependent growth restriction requires interferon-γ, yet none of the classical components of autophagy are induced by interferon. Our studies draw a connection between these pathways by demonstrating that the antiviral protein ISG15, which is normally upregulated by interferons, links the autophagy-mediated control to ubiquitination of the vacuole. These findings suggest a similar link between interferon-γ signaling and autophagy that may underlie defense against other intracellular pathogens.
    Keywords:  ATG5; BioID; ISGylation; LC3; autophagy; autophagy adaptors; intracellular parasites; parasite; parasitophorous vacuole; ubiquitin; ubiquitination
  27. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2020 Oct 07.
      The native-state structure and folding pathways of a protein are encoded in its amino acid sequence. Ubiquitin, a post-translational modifier, primarily noted for its role in intracellular protein degradation, has two salt bridges: one relatively exposed (SB1:K11-E34) and the other relatively buried (SB2:K27-D52). Here, we study the role of hydrophobic interactions and sequence specificity in protein folding, by mutating the salt-bridge residues in ubiquitin with hydrophobic residues. Equilibrium chemical denaturation using GdnHCl shows that the SB1 null variant is thermodynamically stabilised whereas the SB2 null variant is destabilised only slightly. The thermodynamic stability of the double salt-bridge (DB) null variant is an additive effect of the individual salt bridges. Kinetic experiments show that all the salt-bridge null variants fold through a more stable intermediate with relatively faster folding rates than the wild-type. The SB2 null variant has a highly stabilised unfolding transition state (TS) and a slightly destabilised native state, leading to its kinetic instability, whereas the kinetic stability of the SB1 null variant is not compromised as its TS and native state are stabilized to a similar extent. The TS stabilisation is also additive for the DB null variant, which has the most stabilised TS and high kinetic instability. Our results underscore the importance of kinetic stability in optimising the protein energy landscape. Our study establishes the fact that the TSs can be stabilized by hydrophobic residues in the place of buried charged residues. It further highlights the role of charged residues in the protein interior in dictating the folding pathway.
  28. FEBS J. 2020 Oct 06.
      β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP), one of the well-characterized F-box proteins, acts as a substrate receptor and constitutes an active SCFβ-TrCP E3 ligase with a scaffold protein CUL1, a RING protein RBX1, and an adaptor protein SKP1. β-TrCP plays a critical role in the regulation of various physiological and pathological processes, including signal transduction, cell cycle progression, cell migration, DNA damage response, and tumorigenesis, by governing burgeoning amounts of key regulators for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Given that a variety of β-TrCP substrates are well-known oncoproteins and tumor suppressors, and dysregulation of β-TrCP is frequently identified in human cancers, β-TrCP plays a vital role in carcinogenesis. In this review, we first briefly introduce the characteristics of β-TrCP1, β-TrCP2, and SCFβ-TrCP ubiquitin ligase, and then discuss SCFβ-TrCP ubiquitin ligase regulated biological processes by targeting its substrates for degradation. Moreover, we summarize the regulation of β-TrCP1 and β-TrCP2 at multiple layers and further discuss the various roles of β-TrCP1 and β-TrCP2 in human cancer, functioning as either an oncoprotein or a tumor suppressor in a manner dependent of cellular context. Finally, we provide novel insights for future perspectives on the potential of targeting β-TrCP1 and β-TrCP2 for cancer therapy.
    Keywords:  CRL; Cullin-RING ligase; F-box protein; SCF; tumorigenesis; β-TrCP
  29. Cell Host Microbe. 2020 Sep 30. pii: S1931-3128(20)30505-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      Phagosomes must maintain membrane integrity to exert their microbicidal function. Some microorganisms, however, survive and grow within phagosomes. In such instances, phagosomes must expand to avoid rupture and microbial escape. We studied whether phagosomes regulate their size to preserve integrity during infection with the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Phagosomes release calcium as C. albicans hyphae elongate, inducing lysosome recruitment and insertion, thereby increasing the phagosomal surface area. As hyphae grow, the expanding phagosome consumes the majority of free lysosomes. Simultaneously, lysosome biosynthesis is stimulated by activation of TFEB, a transcriptional regulator of lysosomal biogenesis. Preventing lysosomal insertion causes phagosomal rupture, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1β secretion and host-cell death. Whole-genome transcriptomic analysis demonstrate that stress responses elicited in C. albicans upon engulfment are reversed if phagosome expansion is prevented. Our findings reveal a mechanism whereby phagosomes maintain integrity while expanding, ensuring that growing pathogens remain entrapped within this microbicidal compartment.
    Keywords:  Candida albicans; NLRP3; calcium; fungi; hypha; inflammasome; lysosome; macrophage; phagocytosis; phagosome
  30. Mol Autism. 2020 Oct 05. 11(1): 74
      BACKGROUND: Chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8 (Chd8) is a high-confidence risk gene for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, how Chd8 haploinsufficiency impairs gene expression in the brain and impacts behavior at different stages of life is unknown.METHODS: We generated a mutant mouse line with an ASD-linked loss-of-function mutation in Chd8 (V986*; stop codon mutation). We examined the behavior of Chd8 mutant mice along with transcriptional changes in the cerebral cortex as a function of age, with a focus on one embryonic (E14.5) and three postnatal ages (1, 6, and 12 months).
    RESULTS: Chd8V986*/+ mutant mice displayed macrocephaly, reduced rearing responses and reduced center time in the open field, and enhanced social novelty preference. Behavioral phenotypes were more evident in Chd8V986*/+ mutant mice at 1 year of age. Pup survival was reduced in wild-type x Chd8V986*/+ crosses when the mutant parent was female. Transcriptomic analyses indicated that pathways associated with synaptic and neuronal projections and sodium channel activity were reduced in the cortex of embryonic Chd8V986*/+ mice and then equalized relative to wild-type mice in the postnatal period. At 12 months of age, expression of genes associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, chaperone-mediated protein folding, and the unfolded protein response (UPR) were reduced in Chd8V986*/+ mice, whereas genes associated with the c-MET signaling pathway were increased in expression.
    LIMITATIONS: It is unclear whether the transcriptional changes observed with age in Chd8V986*/+ mice reflect a direct effect of CHD8-regulated gene expression, or if CHD8 indirectly affects the expression of UPR/ER stress genes in adult mice as a consequence of neurodevelopmental abnormalities.
    CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data suggest that UPR/ER stress pathways are reduced in the cerebral cortex of aged Chd8V986*/+ mice. Our study uncovers neurodevelopmental and age-related phenotypes in Chd8V986*/+ mice and highlights the importance of controlling for age when studying Chd8 haploinsufficient mice.
    Keywords:  Autism spectrum disorder; Brain overgrowth; CHD8; Endoplasmic reticulum stress; Macrocephaly; Unfolded protein response
  31. Nature. 2020 Oct 07.
      To survive in a dynamic environment, animals need to identify and appropriately respond to stimuli that signal danger1. Survival also depends on suppressing the threat-response during a stimulus that predicts the absence of threat (safety)2-5. An understanding of the biological substrates of emotional memories during a task in which animals learn to flexibly execute defensive responses to a threat-predictive cue and a safety cue is critical for developing treatments for memory disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder5. The centrolateral amygdala is an important node in the neuronal circuit that mediates defensive responses6-9, and a key brain area for processing and storing threat memories. Here we applied intersectional chemogenetic strategies to inhibitory neurons in the centrolateral amygdala of mice to block cell-type-specific translation programs that are sensitive to depletion of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α). We show that de novo translation in somatostatin-expressing inhibitory neurons in the centrolateral amygdala is necessary for the long-term storage of conditioned-threat responses, whereas de novo translation in protein kinase Cδ-expressing inhibitory neurons in the centrolateral amygdala is necessary for the inhibition of a conditioned response to a safety cue. Our results provide insight into the role of de novo protein synthesis in distinct inhibitory neuron populations in the centrolateral amygdala during the consolidation of long-term memories.
  32. Nat Commun. 2020 10 07. 11(1): 5052
      The mechanism and function of autophagy as a highly-conserved bulk degradation pathway are well studied, but the physiological role of autophagy remains poorly understood. We show that autophagy is involved in the adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to respiratory growth through its recycling of serine. On respiratory media, growth onset, mitochondrial initiator tRNA modification and mitochondrial protein expression are delayed in autophagy defective cells, suggesting that mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism is perturbed in these cells. The supplementation of serine, which is a key one-carbon metabolite, is able to restore mitochondrial protein expression and alleviate delayed respiratory growth. These results indicate that autophagy-derived serine feeds into mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism, supporting the initiation of mitochondrial protein synthesis and allowing rapid adaptation to respiratory growth.
  33. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Oct 05. pii: E2864. [Epub ahead of print]12(10):
      Due to increased immunoglobulin production and uncontrolled proliferation, multiple myeloma (MM) plasma cells develop a phenotype of deregulated unfolded protein response (UPR). The eIF2-alpha kinase 3 [EIF2αK3, protein kinase R (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK)], the third known sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, is a serine-threonine kinase and, like the other two UPR-related proteins, i.e., IRE1 and ATF6, it is bound to the ER membrane. MM, like other tumors showing uncontrolled protein secretion, is highly dependent to UPR for survival; thus, inhibition of PERK can be an effective strategy to suppress growth of malignant plasma cells. Here, we have used GSK2606414, an ATP-competitive potent PERK inhibitor, and found significant anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in a panel of MM cell lines. These effects were accompanied by the downregulation of key components of the PERK pathway as well as of other UPR elements. Consistently, PERK gene expression silencing significantly increased cell death in MM cells, highlighting the importance of PERK signaling in MM biology. Moreover, GSK2606414, in combination with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, exerted an additive toxic effect in MM cells. Overall, our data suggest that PERK inhibition could represent a novel combinatorial therapeutic approach in MM.
    Keywords:  PERK; UPR; apoptosis; bortezomib; cell survival; multiple myeloma
  34. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Oct 05. pii: 202016954. [Epub ahead of print]
      The yeast prion [PSI+] is a self-propagating amyloid of the translation termination factor, Sup35p. For known pathogenic prions, such as [PSI+], a single protein can form an array of different amyloid structures (prion variants) each stably inherited and with differing biological properties. The ribosome-associated chaperones, Ssb1/2p (Hsp70s), and RAC (Zuo1p (Hsp40) and Ssz1p (Hsp70)), enhance de novo protein folding by protecting nascent polypeptide chains from misfolding and maintain translational fidelity by involvement in translation termination. Ssb1/2p and RAC chaperones were previously found to inhibit [PSI+] prion generation. We find that most [PSI+] variants arising in the absence of each chaperone were cured by restoring normal levels of that protein. [PSI+] variants hypersensitive to Ssb1/2p have distinguishable biological properties from those hypersensitive to Zuo1p or Ssz1p. The elevated [PSI+] generation frequency in each deletion strain is not due to an altered [PIN+], another prion that primes [PSI+] generation. [PSI+] prion generation/propagation may be inhibited by Ssb1/2/RAC chaperones by ensuring proper folding of nascent Sup35p, thus preventing its joining amyloid fibers. Alternatively, the effect of RAC/Ssb mutations on translation termination and the absence of an effect on the [URE3] prion suggest an effect on the mature Sup35p such that it does not readily join amyloid filaments. Ssz1p is degraded in zuo1Δ [psi-] cells, but not if the cells carry any of several [PSI+] variants. Our results imply that prions arise more frequently than had been thought but the cell has evolved exquisite antiprion systems that rapidly eliminate most variants.
    Keywords:  Ssb; [PSI+]; antiprion system; prion; ribosome-associated complex
  35. Commun Biol. 2020 Oct 09. 3(1): 562
      Myocardial inflammation has recently been recognized as a distinct feature of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. HectD3, a HECT domain containing E3 ubiquitin ligase has previously been investigated in the host defense against infections as well as neuroinflammation; its cardiac function however is still unknown. Here we show that HectD3 simultaneously attenuates Calcineurin-NFAT driven cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the pro-inflammatory actions of LPS/interferon-γ via its cardiac substrates SUMO2 and Stat1, respectively. AAV9-mediated overexpression of HectD3 in mice in vivo not only reduced cardiac SUMO2/Stat1 levels and pathological hypertrophy but also largely abolished macrophage infiltration and fibrosis induced by pressure overload. Taken together, we describe a novel cardioprotective mechanism involving the ubiquitin ligase HectD3, which links anti-hypertrophic and anti-inflammatory effects via dual regulation of SUMO2 and Stat1. In a broader perspective, these findings support the notion that cardiomyocyte growth and inflammation are more intertwined than previously anticipated.
  36. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2020 Oct 06. 36 165-189
      As the world's population ages, neurodegenerative disorders are poised to become the commonest cause of death. Despite this, they remain essentially untreatable. Characterized pathologically both by the aggregation of disease-specific misfolded proteins and by changes in cellular stress responses, to date, therapeutic approaches have focused almost exclusively on reducing misfolded protein load-notably amyloid beta (Aβ) in Alzheimer's disease. The repeated failure of clinical trials has led to despondency over the possibility that these disorders will ever be treated. We argue that this is in fact a time for optimism: Targeting various generic stress responses is emerging as an increasingly promising means of modifying disease progression across these disorders. New treatments are approaching clinical trials, while novel means of targeting aggregates could eventually act preventively in early disease.
    Keywords:  autophagy; integrated stress response; neurodegenerative disease; neuroprotection; protein aggregation; therapy; unfolded protein response
  37. Mol Cell. 2020 Sep 29. pii: S1097-2765(20)30647-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      The ubiquitin system regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) by modifying histone H2A at Lys15 (H2AK15ub) and triggering downstream signaling events. Here, we find that phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Thr12 (pUbT12) controls the DDR by inhibiting the function of 53BP1, a key factor for DNA double-strand break repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Detectable as a chromatin modification on H2AK15ub, pUbT12 accumulates in nuclear foci and is increased upon DNA damage. Mutating Thr12 prevents the removal of ubiquitin from H2AK15ub by USP51 deubiquitinating enzyme, leading to a pronounced accumulation of ubiquitinated chromatin. Chromatin modified by pUbT12 is inaccessible to 53BP1 but permissive to the homologous recombination (HR) proteins RNF169, RAD51, and the BRCA1/BARD1 complex. Phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Thr12 in the chromatin context is a new histone mark, H2AK15pUbT12, that regulates the DDR by hampering the activity of 53BP1 at damaged chromosomes.
    Keywords:  53BP1; BRCA1/BARD1; DDR; DNA damage response; DNA repair; H2AK15pUbT12; RAD51; RNF168; RNF169; RNF8; USP51; chromatin ubiquitination; genome stability; histone mark H2AK15ub; pUbT12; phospho-ubiquitin Thr12; ubiquitin phosphorylation
  38. J Cell Sci. 2020 Oct 08. pii: jcs.249862. [Epub ahead of print]
      The core protease (CP) sub-complex of the 26S proteasome houses the proteolytic active sites and assumes a barrel-shape comprised of four co-axially stacked heptameric rings formed by structurally related α- and β-subunits. CP biogenesis typically begins with the assembly of the α-ring, which then provides a template for β-subunit integration. In eukaryotes, α-ring assembly is partially mediated by two hetero-dimeric chaperones, termed Pba1-Pba2 and Pba3-Pba4 in yeast. Pba1-Pba2 initially promotes orderly recruitment of the α-subunits through interactions between their C-terminal HbYX/HbF motifs and pockets at the α5-α6 and α6-α7 interfaces. Here, we identified PBAC5 as a fifth α-ring assembly chaperone in Arabidopsis that directly binds the Pba1 homolog PBAC1 to form a trimeric PBAC5-PBAC1-PBAC2 complex. PBAC5 harbors a HbYX motif that docks with a pocket between the α4 and α5 subunits during α-ring construction. Arabidopsis lacking PBAC5, PBAC1, and/or PBAC2 are hypersensitive to proteotoxic, salt, and osmotic stresses, and display proteasome assembly defects. Remarkably, while PBAC5 is evolutionarily conserved among plants, sequence relatives are also dispersed within other kingdoms, including a scattered array of fungal, metazoan, and oomycete species.
    Keywords:  Arabidopsis; Chaperone; Core protease; Degradation; Evolution; Proteasome; Proteolysis; Proteostasis; Regulatory particle; Ubiquitin
  39. J Cell Sci. 2020 Oct 09. pii: jcs250100. [Epub ahead of print]133(19):
      Protein localisation in the cell is controlled through the function of trafficking receptors, which recognise specific signal sequences and direct cargo proteins to different locations. The KDEL receptor (KDELR) was one of the first intracellular trafficking receptors identified and plays an essential role in maintaining the integrity of the early secretory pathway. The receptor recognises variants of a canonical C-terminal Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) signal sequence on ER-resident proteins when these escape to the Golgi, and targets these proteins to COPI- coated vesicles for retrograde transport back to the ER. The empty receptor is then recycled from the ER back to the Golgi by COPII-coated vesicles. Crystal structures of the KDELR show that it is structurally related to the PQ-loop family of transporters that are found in both pro- and eukaryotes, and shuttle sugars, amino acids and vitamins across cellular membranes. Furthermore, analogous to PQ-loop transporters, the KDELR undergoes a pH-dependent and ligand-regulated conformational cycle. Here, we propose that the striking structural similarity between the KDELR and PQ-loop transporters reveals a connection between transport and trafficking in the cell, with important implications for understanding trafficking receptor evolution and function.
    Keywords:  Membrane transport; Structural Biology; Trafficking receptors
  40. Biol Chem. 2020 Oct 08. pii: /j/bchm.ahead-of-print/hsz-2020-0237/hsz-2020-0237.xml. [Epub ahead of print]
      The physiological roles of the intracellular iron and redox regulatory systems are intimately linked. Iron is an essential trace element for most organisms, yet elevated cellular iron levels are a potent generator and amplifier of reactive oxygen species and redox stress. Proteins binding iron or iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters, are particularly sensitive to oxidative damage and require protection from the cellular oxidative stress protection systems. In addition, key components of these systems, most prominently glutathione and monothiol glutaredoxins are involved in the biogenesis of cellular Fe/S proteins. In this review, we address the biochemical role of glutathione and glutaredoxins in cellular Fe/S protein assembly in eukaryotic cells. We also summarize the recent developments in the role of cytosolic glutaredoxins in iron metabolism, in particular the regulation of fungal iron homeostasis. Finally, we discuss recent insights into the interplay of the cellular thiol redox balance and oxygen with that of Fe/S protein biogenesis in eukaryotes.
    Keywords:  CIA machinery; ISC machinery; glutathione; thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems; transcriptional regulation
  41. Cell Signal. 2020 Oct 03. pii: S0898-6568(20)30278-3. [Epub ahead of print] 109801
      Deregulated DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications are majorly associated with cancer progression. Histone modification regulates the gene expression patterns that contribute to the emergence of sporadic cancers. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) act as erasers of acetylation marks, and their functions are often deregulated in cancer. Since non-histone proteins can also act as substrates for HDACs, identifying their involvement in vital regulatory molecules contributing to cancer progression is essential. Hsp90 is a cancer chaperone that contributes to kinase evolution and, thus, cellular adaptations. Acetylated Hsp90 loses its chaperoning functions and client protein interactions. Robust cell proliferation is one of the hallmarks of cancer. However, Hsp90 involvement in cancer promoting gene transcription is less understood. Using human breast cancer cells, we demonstrate that nuclear Hsp90 functions are regulated by HDAC3, while Hsp90 regulates HDAC3 nuclear translocation. Pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 decreased the HDAC3 nuclear translocation and increased the gene expression relevant to epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Further, inhibition of HDAC3 resulted in the nuclear accumulation of acetylated Hsp90. Additionally, Hsp90 inhibition affected the global histone acetylation and methylation patterns, whereas HDAC3 inhibition exhibited no impact. Our results display a novel regulatory mechanism mediated by Hsp90 and HDAC3 in tumor cells. Considering that Hsp90 and histone deacetylase inhibitors are emerging as novel anticancer agents, our findings may have clinical relevance.
    Keywords:  Acetylation; Cancer; Chromatin; HDAC3; Hsp90
  42. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Oct 07. pii: E2877. [Epub ahead of print]12(10):
      Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, with over 600,000 cases per year. The primary causes for HNSCC include smoking and alcohol consumption, with an increasing number of cases attributed to infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV). The treatment options for HNSCC currently include surgery, radiotherapy, and/or platinum-based chemotherapeutics. Cetuximab (targeting EGFR) and Pembrolizumab (targeting PD-1) have been approved for advanced stage, recurrent, and/or metastatic HNSCC. Despite these advances, whilst HPV+ HNSCC has a 3-year overall survival (OS) rate of around 80%, the 3-year OS for HPV- HNSCC is still around 55%. Aberrant signal activation of transcription factor NFκB plays an important role in the pathogenesis and therapeutic resistance of HNSCC. As an important mediator of inflammatory signalling and the immune response to pathogens, the NFκB pathway is tightly regulated to prevent chronic inflammation, a key driver of tumorigenesis. Here, we discuss how NFκB signalling is regulated by the ubiquitin pathway and how this pathway is deregulated in HNSCC. Finally, we discuss the current strategies available to target the ubiquitin pathway and how this may offer a potential therapeutic benefit in HNSCC.
    Keywords:  E3 ligases; NFκB; deubiquitinases; head and neck cancer; ubiquitin