bims-proteo Biomed News
on Proteostasis
Issue of 2020‒09‒20
thirty papers selected by
Eric Chevet

  1. Glia. 2020 Sep 14.
      The endoplasmic reticulum stress response (ERSR) is activated in various neurodegenerative diseases and/or after CNS traumatic injuries. The ERSR is comprised of three major arms, PERK, IRE-1, and activating transcription factor-6, with the latter two contributing to the unfolded protein response (UPR). PERK activity overlaps with the integrated stress response (ISR) kinases, PKR, HRI, and GCN2 which all signal through, eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, ATF4, and CHOP. All initially attempt to restore endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis, but if ER stress is unresolved, ATF4/CHOP-mediated cell death is initiated. Here, we investigate the contribution of the inositol-requiring protein-1α-X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1)-mediated UPR signaling pathway to the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury (SCI). We demonstrate that deletion of Xbp1 caused an exacerbated ATF4/CHOP signaling in cultured mouse oligodendrocyte (OL) progenitor cells and enhanced their sensitivity to ER stress. Similar effects were also observed with the Xbp1 pathway inhibitor toyocamycin. Furthermore, OL lineage-specific loss of Xbp1 resulted in enhanced ISR in mice that underwent moderate contusive SCI at the T9 level. Consistently, post-injury recovery of hindlimb locomotion and white matter sparing were reduced in OL Xbp1-deficient mice, which correlated with chronically decreased relative density of OPCs and OLs at the injury epicenter at 6 weeks post-SCI. We conclude that the IRE1-XBP1-mediated UPR signaling pathway contributes to restoration of ER homeostasis in OLs and is necessary for enhanced white matter sparing and functional recovery post-SCI.
    Keywords:  ERSR; ISR; SCI; UPR; Xbp1; oligodendrocytes
  2. Cells. 2020 Sep 10. pii: E2066. [Epub ahead of print]9(9):
      Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a result of conditions that imbalance protein homeostasis or proteostasis at the ER, for example ischemia, and is a common event in various human pathologies, including the diseased heart. Cardiac integrity and function depend on the active secretion of mature proteins from a variety of cell types in the heart, a process that requires an intact ER environment for efficient protein folding and trafficking to the secretory pathway. As a consequence of ER stress, most protein secretion by the ER secretory pathway is decreased. Strikingly, there is a select group of proteins that are secreted in greater quantities during ER stress. ER stress resulting from the dysregulation of ER Ca2+ levels, for instance, stimulates the secretion of Ca2+-binding ER chaperones, especially GRP78, GRP94, calreticulin, and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), which play a multitude of roles outside the cell, strongly depending on the cell type and tissue. Here we review current insights in ER stress-induced secretion of proteins, particularly from the heart, and highlight the extracellular functions of these proteins, ranging from the augmentation of cardiac cell viability to the modulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic, oncogenic, and immune-stimulatory cell signaling, cell invasion, extracellular proteostasis, and more. Many of the roles of ER stress-induced protein secretion remain to be explored in the heart. This article is part of a special issue entitled "The Role of Proteostasis Derailment in Cardiac Diseases."
    Keywords:  ER stress; cardiac myocytes; cardiokines; cell signaling; protein secretion; proteostasis; secreted ER chaperones; unfolded protein response (UPR)
  3. Cell Rep. 2020 Sep 15. pii: S2211-1247(20)31143-8. [Epub ahead of print]32(11): 108154
      Phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α is a rapid and vital response to many forms of stress, including protein-misfolding stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress). It is believed to cause a general reduction in protein synthesis while enabling translation of few transcripts. Such a reduction of protein synthesis comes with the threat of depleting essential proteins, a risk thought to be mitigated by its transient nature. Here, we find that translation attenuation is not uniform, with cytosolic and mitochondrial ribosomal subunits being prominently downregulated. Translation attenuation of these targets persists after translation recovery. Surprisingly, this occurs without a measurable decrease in ribosomal proteins. Explaining this conundrum, translation attenuation preferentially targets long-lived proteins, a finding not only demonstrated by ribosomal proteins but also observed at a global level. This shows that protein stability buffers the cost of translational attenuation, establishing an evolutionary principle of cellular robustness.
    Keywords:  eIF2α; evolution; integrated stress response; phosphorylation; ribosomal proteins; stress responses; translation; unfolded protein response
  4. FEMS Yeast Res. 2020 Sep 14. pii: foaa053. [Epub ahead of print]
      Dysfunction or capacity shortage of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is cumulatively called ER stress and provokes the unfolded protein response (UPR). In various yeast species, the ER-located transmembrane protein Ire1 is activated upon ER stress and performs the splicing reaction of HAC1 mRNA, the mature form of which is translated into a transcription factor protein that is responsible for the transcriptome change on the UPR. Here we carefully assessed the splicing of HAC1 mRNA in Pichia pastoris (Komagataella phaffii) cells. We found that, inconsistent with previous reports by others, the HAC1 mRNA was substantially, but partially, spliced even without ER-stressing stimuli. Unlike Saccharomyces cerevisiae, growth of P. pastoris was significantly retarded by the IRE1-gene knockout mutation. Moreover, P. pastoris cells seemed to push more abundant proteins into the secretory pathway than S. cerevisiae cells. We also suggest that P. pastoris Ire1 has the ability to control its activity stringently in an ER stress-dependent manner. We thus propose that P. pastoris cells are highly ER-stressed possibly because of the high load of endogenous proteins into the ER.
    Keywords:  endoplasmic reticulum; pichia pastoris; protein folding; protein secretion; unfolded protein response
  5. Glia. 2020 Sep 16.
      The integrated unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) is the principle mechanisms that maintain endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. Schwann cells (SCs) must produce an enormous amount of myelin proteins via the ER to assemble and maintain myelin structure; however, it is unclear how SCs maintain ER homeostasis. It is known that Suppressor/Enhancer of Lin-12-like (Sel1L) is necessary for the ERAD activity of the Sel1L- hydroxymethylglutaryl reductase degradation protein 1(Hrd1) complex. Herein, we showed that Sel1L deficiency in SCs impaired the ERAD activity of the Sel1L-Hrd1 complex and led to ER stress and activation of the UPR. Interestingly, Sel1L deficiency had no effect on actively myelinating SCs during development, but led to later-onset mature SC apoptosis and demyelination in the adult PNS. Moreover, inactivation of the pancreatic ER kinase (PERK) branch of the UPR did not influence the viability and function of actively myelinating SCs, but resulted in exacerbation of ER stress and apoptosis of mature SCs in SC-specific Sel1L deficient mice. These findings suggest that the integrated UPR and ERAD is dispensable to actively myelinating SCs during development, but is necessary for maintaining ER homeostasis and the viability and function of mature SCs in adults.
    Keywords:  ERAD; PERK; Schwann cells; Sel1L; UPR; myelin
  6. Sci Adv. 2020 Jul;pii: eabb8725. [Epub ahead of print]6(31):
      Autophagy is involved in the occurrence and development of tumors. Here, a pH-responsive polymersome codelivering hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and tunicamycin (Tuni) drugs is developed to simultaneously induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagic flux blockade for achieving an antitumor effect and inhibiting tumor metastasis. The pH response of poly(β-amino ester) and HCQ synergistically deacidifies the lysosomes, thereby blocking the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes and lastly blocking autophagic flux. The function mechanism of regulating autophagy was systematically investigated on orthotopic luciferase gene-transfected, 4T1 tumor-bearing BALB/c mice through Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses. The Tuni triggers ER stress to regulate the PERK/Akt signaling pathway to increase the autophagic level. The "autophagic stress" generated by triggering ER stress-induced autophagy and blocking autophagic flux is effective against tumors. The reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 due to ER stress and reduced focal adhesions turnover due to the blockade of autophagic flux synergistically inhibit tumor metastasis.
  7. Cell. 2020 Sep 10. pii: S0092-8674(20)31076-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      Metazoan organisms rely on conserved stress response pathways to alleviate adverse conditions and preserve cellular integrity. Stress responses are particularly important in stem cells that provide lifetime support for tissue formation and repair, but how these protective systems are integrated into developmental programs is poorly understood. Here we used myoblast differentiation to identify the E3 ligase CUL2FEM1B and its substrate FNIP1 as core components of the reductive stress response. Reductive stress, as caused by prolonged antioxidant signaling or mitochondrial inactivity, reverts the oxidation of invariant Cys residues in FNIP1 and allows CUL2FEM1B to recognize its target. The ensuing proteasomal degradation of FNIP1 restores mitochondrial activity to preserve redox homeostasis and stem cell integrity. The reductive stress response is therefore built around a ubiquitin-dependent rheostat that tunes mitochondrial activity to redox needs and implicates metabolic control in coordination of stress and developmental signaling.
    Keywords:  FEM1B; FNIP1; KEAP1; mitochondria; oxidative stress; proteasome; reactive oxygen; reductive stress; ubiquitin
  8. Free Radic Biol Med. 2020 Sep 13. pii: S0891-5849(20)31250-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      Multiple myeloma (MM) cells have high rates of secretion of proteins rich in disulfide bonds and depend upon compartmentalized redox balance for accurate protein folding. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Btz) is a successful frontline treatment for the disease, but its long-term efficacy is restricted by the acquisition of resistance. We found that MM cell lines resistant to Btz maintain high levels of oxidative stress and are cross resistant to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducing agents thapsigargin (ThG), and tunicamycin (TuM). Moreover, cells expressing high/wild type levels of glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP) are more resistant than Gstp1/p2 knockout cells. In agreement, basal levels of S-glutathionylated proteins and redox regulation enzymes, including GSTP are elevated at mRNA and protein levels in resistant cells. GSTP mediated S-glutathionylation (SSG) regulates the activities of a number of redox active ER proteins. Here we demonstrated that the post-translational modification determines the balance between foldase and ATPase activities of the binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), with Cys41-SSG important for ATPase, and Cys420-SSG for foldase. BiP expression and S-glutathionylation are increased in clinical specimens of bone marrow from MM patients compared to non-cancerous samples. Preventing S-glutathionylation in MM cells with a GSTP specific inhibitor restored BiP activities and reversed resistance to Btz. Therefore, S-glutathionylation of BiP confreres pro-survival advantages and represents a novel mechanism of drug resistance in MM cells. We conclude that altered GSTP expression leads to S-glutathionylation of BiP, and contributes to acquired resistance to Btz in MM.
    Keywords:  BiP; S-glutathionylation; bortezomib; endoplasmic reticulum; glutathione; glutathione S-transferase; multiple myeloma; reactive oxygen species; redox; unfolded protein response
  9. Nat Commun. 2020 09 16. 11(1): 4677
      The Integrated Stress Response (ISR) helps metazoan cells adapt to cellular stress by limiting the availability of initiator methionyl-tRNA for translation. Such limiting conditions paradoxically stimulate the translation of ATF4 mRNA through a regulatory 5' leader sequence with multiple upstream Open Reading Frames (uORFs), thereby activating stress-responsive gene expression. Here, we report the identification of two critical regulators of such ATF4 induction, the noncanonical initiation factors eIF2D and DENR. Loss of eIF2D and DENR in Drosophila results in increased vulnerability to amino acid deprivation, susceptibility to retinal degeneration caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and developmental defects similar to ATF4 mutants. eIF2D requires its RNA-binding motif for regulation of 5' leader-mediated ATF4 translation. Consistently, eIF2D and DENR deficient human cells show impaired ATF4 protein induction in response to ER stress. Altogether, our findings indicate that eIF2D and DENR are critical mediators of ATF4 translational induction and stress responses in vivo.
  10. Nat Commun. 2020 09 15. 11(1): 4639
      The ability to detect, respond and adapt to mitochondrial stress ensures the development and survival of organisms. Caenorhabditis elegans responds to mitochondrial stress by activating the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) to buffer the mitochondrial folding environment, rewire the metabolic state, and promote innate immunity and lifespan extension. Here we show that HDA-1, the C. elegans ortholog of mammalian histone deacetylase (HDAC) is required for mitochondrial stress-mediated activation of UPRmt. HDA-1 interacts and coordinates with the genome organizer DVE-1 to induce the transcription of a broad spectrum of UPRmt, innate immune response and metabolic reprogramming genes. In rhesus monkey and human tissues, HDAC1/2 transcript levels correlate with the expression of UPRmt genes. Knocking down or pharmacological inhibition of HDAC1/2 disrupts the activation of the UPRmt and the mitochondrial network in mammalian cells. Our results underscore an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of HDAC1/2 in modulating mitochondrial homeostasis and regulating longevity.
  11. Sci Rep. 2020 Sep 17. 10(1): 15299
      Upon ER stress cells activate the unfolded protein response through PERK, IRE1 and ATF6. Remarkable effort has been made to delineate the downstream signaling of these three ER stress sensors after activation, but upstream regulation at the ER luminal site still remains mostly undefined. Here we report that the thiol oxidoreductase PDI is mandatory for activation of the PERK pathway in HEK293T as well as in human pancreatic, lung and colon cancer cells. Under ER stress, depletion of PDI selectively abrogated eIF2α phosphorylation, induction of ATF4, CHOP and even BiP. Furthermore, we could demonstrate that PDI prevented degradation of activated PERK by the 26S proteasome and therefore contributes to maintained PERK signaling. As a result of decreased PERK activity, PDI depleted cells showed an increased vulnerability to ER stress induced by chemicals or ionizing radiation in 2D as well as in 3D culture models. We conclude that PDI is an obligatory regulator of the PERK pathway with future therapy implications.
  12. J Biol Chem. 2020 Sep 16. pii: jbc.RA120.015013. [Epub ahead of print]
      Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) is responsible for the first step in the N-linked glycosylation, transferring an oligosaccharide chain onto asparagine residues to create glycoproteins. In the absence of an acceptor asparagine, OST hydrolyzes the oligosaccharide donor, releasing free N-glycans (FNGs) into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we established a purification method for mutated OSTs using a high-affinity epitope tag attached to the catalytic subunit Stt3, from yeast cells co-expressing the wild-type OST to support growth. The purified OST protein with mutations is useful for wide-ranging biochemical experiments. We assessed the effects of mutations in the Stt3 subunit on the two enzymatic activities in vitro, as well as their effects on the N-glycan attachment and FNG content levels in yeast cells. We found that mutations in the first DXD motif increased the FNG generation activity relative to the oligosaccharyl transfer activity, both in vitro and in vivo, while mutations in the DK motif had the opposite effect; the decoupling of the two activities may facilitate future deconvolution of the reaction mechanism. The isolation of the mutated OSTs also enabled us to identify different enzymatic properties in OST complexes containing either the Ost3 or Ost6 subunit and to find a 15-residue peptide as a better quality substrate than shorter peptides. This toolbox of mutants, substrates, and methods will be useful for investigations of the molecular basis and physiological roles of the OST enzymes in yeast and other organisms.
    Keywords:  N-linked glycosylation; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; endoplasmic reticulum (ER); epitope tag; free N-glycan (FNG); free oligosaccharide (fOS); glycoprotein biosynthesis; membrane enzyme; oligosaccharyltransferase; site-directed mutagenesis; substrate specificity
  13. Sci Adv. 2020 Sep;pii: eabc0418. [Epub ahead of print]6(38):
      Cellular cross-talk between ubiquitination and other posttranslational modifications contributes to the regulation of numerous processes. One example is ADP-ribosylation of the carboxyl terminus of ubiquitin by the E3 DTX3L/ADP-ribosyltransferase PARP9 heterodimer, but the mechanism remains elusive. Here, we show that independently of PARP9, the conserved carboxyl-terminal RING and DTC (Deltex carboxyl-terminal) domains of DTX3L and other human Deltex proteins (DTX1 to DTX4) catalyze ADP-ribosylation of ubiquitin's Gly76 Structural studies reveal a hitherto unknown function of the DTC domain in binding NAD+ Deltex RING domain recruits E2 thioesterified with ubiquitin and juxtaposes it with NAD+ bound to the DTC domain to facilitate ADP-ribosylation of ubiquitin. This ubiquitin modification prevents its activation but is reversed by the linkage nonspecific deubiquitinases. Our study provides mechanistic insights into ADP-ribosylation of ubiquitin by Deltex E3s and will enable future studies directed at understanding the increasingly complex network of ubiquitin cross-talk.
  14. Metallomics. 2020 Sep 14.
      Excessive zinc ion (Zn2+) release is induced in pathological situations and causes neuronal cell death. Previously, we have reported that copper ions (Cu2+) markedly exacerbated Zn2+-induced neuronal cell death by potentiating oxidative stress, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, and the activation of the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. In contrast, selenium (Se), an essential trace element, and amino acids containing selenium (such as seleno-l-methionine) have been reported to inhibit stress-induced neuronal cell death and oxidative stress. Thus, we investigated the effect of seleno-l-methionine on Cu2+/Zn2+-induced neuronal cell death in GT1-7 cells. Seleno-l-methionine treatment clearly restored the Cu2+/Zn2+-induced decrease in the viable cell number and attenuated the Cu2+/Zn2+-induced cytotoxicity. Accordingly, the levels of ER stress-related factors (especially, CHOP and GADD34) and of phosphorylated JNK increased upon CuCl2 and ZnCl2 co-treatment, whereas pre-treatment with seleno-l-methionine significantly suppressed these upregulations. Analysis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as upstream factors of these pathways revealed that Cu2+/Zn2+-induced ROS production was clearly suppressed by seleno-l-methionine treatment. Finally, we found that seleno-l-methionine induced the antioxidative protein, glutathione peroxidase. Taken together, our findings suggest that seleno-l-methionine suppresses Cu2+/Zn2+-induced neuronal cell death and oxidative stress via induction of glutathione peroxidase. Thus, we think that seleno-l-methionine may help prevent refractory neurological diseases.
  15. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2020 Sep 12. pii: S0006-291X(20)31690-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      The NF-κB transcription factor is involved in inflammation and cell proliferation, survival, and transformation. It is a heterodimer made of p50 or p52 and a member of the Rel family of proteins. p50 and p52 are derived from limited ubiquitin- and proteasome-mediated proteolytic processing of the larger precursors p105 and p100, respectively. Both precursors can be either processed or completely degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Previous work in our laboratory identified KPC1 as a ubiquitin ligase that mediates processing of p105 to the p50 subunit. Overexpression of the ligase leads to increased level of p50 with a resultant marked tumor-suppressive effect. In the present study, we identify FBXO7, a known ubiquitin ligase that binds to p105 and ubiquitinates it, but surprisingly, leads to its accumulation and to that of p65 - the Rel partner of p50 - and to increased cell proliferation. Importantly, a ΔF-Box mutant of FBXO7 which is inactive has similar effects on accumulation of p105 and cell proliferation, strongly suggesting that p105 is a pseudo substrate of FBXO7.
    Keywords:  FBXO7; NF-κB; Protein degradation; Ubiquitin-proteasome system; p105
  16. EMBO J. 2020 Sep 16. e105139
      NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) is a key regulatory protein that functions during NF-κB- and interferon-mediated signaling in response to extracellular stimuli and pathogen infections. Tight regulation of NEMO is essential for host innate immune responses and for maintenance of homeostasis. Here, we report that the E3 ligase MARCH2 is a novel negative regulator of NEMO-mediated signaling upon bacterial or viral infection. MARCH2 interacted directly with NEMO during the late phase of infection and catalyzed K-48-linked ubiquitination of Lys326 on NEMO, which resulted in its degradation. Deletion of MARCH2 resulted in marked resistance to bacterial/viral infection, along with increased innate immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, MARCH2-/- mice were more susceptible to LPS challenge due to massive production of cytokines. Taken together, these findings provide new insight into the molecular regulation of NEMO and suggest an important role for MARCH2 in homeostatic control of innate immune responses.
    Keywords:  MARCH2; NEMO; innate immunity; ubiquitination
  17. Nat Commun. 2020 09 15. 11(1): 4625
      A hallmark of neurodegeneration is defective protein quality control. The E3 ligase Listerin (LTN1/Ltn1) acts in a specialized protein quality control pathway-Ribosome-associated Quality Control (RQC)-by mediating proteolytic targeting of incomplete polypeptides produced by ribosome stalling, and Ltn1 mutation leads to neurodegeneration in mice. Whether neurodegeneration results from defective RQC and whether defective RQC contributes to human disease have remained unknown. Here we show that three independently-generated mouse models with mutations in a different component of the RQC complex, NEMF/Rqc2, develop progressive motor neuron degeneration. Equivalent mutations in yeast Rqc2 selectively interfere with its ability to modify aberrant translation products with C-terminal tails which assist with RQC-mediated protein degradation, suggesting a pathomechanism. Finally, we identify NEMF mutations expected to interfere with function in patients from seven families presenting juvenile neuromuscular disease. These uncover NEMF's role in translational homeostasis in the nervous system and implicate RQC dysfunction in causing neurodegeneration.
  18. Cell Signal. 2020 Sep 09. pii: S0898-6568(20)30254-0. [Epub ahead of print] 109777
      Emerging evidence suggests that ubiquitin mediated post translational modification is a critical regulatory process involved in diverse cellular pathways including cell death. During ubiquitination, E3 ligases recognize target proteins and determine the topology of ubiquitin chains. Recruitment of E3 ligases to targets proteins under stress conditions including oxidative stress and their implication in cell death have not been systemically explored. In the present study, we characterized the role of TRIM32 as an E3 ligase in regulation of oxidative stress induced cell death. TRIM32 is ubiquitously expressed in cell lines of different origin and form cytoplasmic speckle like structures that transiently interact with mitochondria under oxidative stress conditions. The ectopic expression of TRIM32 sensitizes cell death induced by oxidative stress whereas TRIM32 knockdown shows a protective effect. The turnover of TRIM32 is enhanced during oxidative stress and its expression induces ROS generation, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and decrease in complex-I activity. The pro-apoptotic effect was rescued by pan-caspase inhibitor or antioxidant treatment. E3 ligase activity of TRIM32 is essential for oxidative stress induced apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, TRIM32 decreases X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) level and overexpression of XIAP rescued cells from TRIM32 mediated oxidative stress and cell death. Overall, the results of this study provide the first evidence supporting the role of TRIM32 in regulating oxidative stress induced cell death, which has implications in numerous pathological conditions including cancer and neurodegeneration.
    Keywords:  Cell death; Mitochondria; Oxidative stress, ubiquitination; TRIM32; XIAP
  19. Mol Biol Cell. 2020 Sep 15. 31(20): 2158-2163
      The ability to sense proteasome insufficiency and respond by directing the transcriptional synthesis of de novo proteasomes is a trait that is conserved in evolution and is found in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. This homeostatic mechanism in mammalian cells is driven by the transcription factor NRF1. Interestingly, NRF1 is synthesized as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein and when cellular proteasome activity is sufficient, it is retrotranslocated into the cytosol and targeted for destruction by the ER--associated degradation pathway (ERAD). However, when proteasome capacity is diminished, retrotranslocated NRF1 escapes ERAD and is activated into a mature transcription factor that traverses to the nucleus to induce proteasome genes. In this Perspective, we track the journey of NRF1 from the ER to the nucleus, with a special focus on the various molecular regulators it encounters along its way. Also, using human pathologies such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases as examples, we explore the notion that modulating the NRF1-proteasome axis could provide the basis for a viable therapeutic strategy in these cases.
  20. Nucleic Acids Res. 2020 Sep 17. pii: gkaa757. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cells rely on stress response pathways to uphold cellular homeostasis and limit the negative effects of harmful environmental stimuli. The stress- and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, p38 and JNK, are at the nexus of numerous stress responses, among these the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). Ribosomal impairment is detrimental to cell function as it disrupts protein synthesis, increase inflammatory signaling and, if unresolved, lead to cell death. In this review, we offer a general overview of the three main translation surveillance pathways; the RSR, Ribosome-associated Quality Control (RQC) and the Integrated Stress Response (ISR). We highlight recent advances made in defining activation mechanisms for these pathways and discuss their commonalities and differences. Finally, we reflect on the physiological role of the RSR and consider the therapeutic potential of targeting the sensing kinase ZAKα for treatment of ribotoxin exposure.
  21. Cell Rep. 2020 Sep 15. pii: S2211-1247(20)31129-3. [Epub ahead of print]32(11): 108140
      FBXL21 is a clock-controlled E3 ligase modulating circadian periodicity via subcellular-specific CRYPTOCHROME degradation. How FBXL21 regulates tissue-specific circadian physiology and what mechanism operates upstream is poorly understood. Here we report the sarcomere component TCAP as a cytoplasmic substrate of FBXL21. FBXL21 interacts with TCAP in a circadian manner antiphasic to TCAP accumulation in skeletal muscle, and circadian TCAP oscillation is disrupted in Psttm mice with an Fbxl21 hypomorph mutation. GSK-3β phosphorylates FBXL21 and TCAP to activate FBXL21-mediated, phosphodegron-dependent TCAP degradation. GSK-3β inhibition or knockdown diminishes FBXL21-Cul1 complex formation and delays FBXL21-mediated TCAP degradation. Finally, Psttm mice show significant skeletal muscle defects, including impaired fiber size, exercise tolerance, grip strength, and response to glucocorticoid-induced atrophy, in conjunction with cardiac dysfunction. These data highlight a circadian regulatory pathway where a GSK-3β-FBXL21 functional axis controls TCAP degradation via SCF complex formation and regulates skeletal muscle function.
    Keywords:  E3 ligase; Fbxl21; GSK-3β; TCAP; circadian clock; skeletal muscle
  22. Front Genet. 2020 ;11 930
      Accumulating evidence show that Poly C Binding Protein 1 (PCBP1) is deleted in distinct types of tumors as a novel tumor suppressor, but its tumor suppression mechanism remains elusive. Here, we firstly describe that downregulation of PCBP1 is significantly associated with clinical ovarian tumor progression. Mechanistically, PCBP1 overexpression affects various autophagy-related genes expression at various expression levels to attenuate the intrinsic cell autophagy, including the autophagy-initiating ULK, ATG12, ATG7 as well as the bona fide marker of autophagosome, LC3B. Accordingly, knockdown of the endogenous PCBP1 in turn enhances autophagy and less cell death. Meanwhile, PCBP1 upregulates p62/SQSTM1 via inhibition p62/SQSTM1 autophagolysome and proteasome degradation as well as its mRNA stability, consequently accompanying with the caspase 3 or 8 activation for tumor cell apoptosis. Importantly, clinical ovary cancer sample analysis consistently validates the relevance of PCBP1 expression to both p62/SQSTM1 and caspase-8 to overall survival, and indicates PCBP1 may be a master player to repress tumor initiation. Taken together, our results uncover the tumorigenic mechanism of PCBP1 depletion and suggest that inhibition of tumor cell autophagy with autophagic inhibitors could be an effective therapeutical strategy for PCBP1-deficient tumor.
    Keywords:  PCBP1; apoptosis; autophagy; caspase-8; colon cancer; ovary cancer; p62/SQSTM1
  23. JCI Insight. 2020 Sep 15. pii: 136676. [Epub ahead of print]
      A critical response to lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) is the clearance of damaged lysosomes through a selective form of macroautophagy known as lysophagy. Although regulators of this process are emerging, whether organ and cell specific components contribute to the control of lysophagy remains incompletely understood. Here, we examine LMP and lysophagy in Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol within late endosomes and lysosomes, leading to neurodegeneration and early death. We demonstrate that NPC patient fibroblasts show enhanced sensitivity to lysosomal damage as a consequence of lipid storage. Moreover, we describe a role for the glycan binding F-box protein Fbxo2 in CNS lysophagy. Fbxo2 functions as a component of the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. Loss of Fbxo2 in mouse primary cortical cultures delays clearance of damaged lysosomes and decreases viability following lysosomal damage. Moreover, Fbxo2 deficiency in a mouse model of NPC exacerbates deficits in motor function, enhances neurodegeneration, and reduces survival. Collectively, our data identify a role for Fbxo2 in CNS lysophagy and establish its functional importance in NPC.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Lysosomes; Neurodegeneration; Neuroscience
  24. J Immunol. 2020 Sep 18. pii: ji2000048. [Epub ahead of print]
      Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative bacterium that induces cell death of macrophages as a key virulence strategy. We have previously demonstrated that the induction of macrophage death is dependent on the host's type I IFN (IFN-I) response. IFN-I signaling has been shown to induce tripartite motif (TRIM) 21, an E3 ubiquitin ligase with critical functions in autoimmune disease and antiviral immunity. However, the importance and regulation of TRIM21 during bacterial infection remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of TRIM21 upon S Typhimurium infection of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Although Trim21 expression was induced in an IFN-I-dependent manner, we found that TRIM21 levels were mainly regulated posttranscriptionally. Following TLR4 activation, TRIM21 was transiently degraded via the lysosomal pathway by chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). However, S Typhimurium-induced mTORC2 signaling led to phosphorylation of Akt at S473, which subsequently impaired TRIM21 degradation by attenuating CMA. Elevated TRIM21 levels promoted macrophage death associated with reduced transcription of NF erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-dependent antioxidative genes. Collectively, our results identify IFN-I-inducible TRIM21 as a negative regulator of innate immune responses to S Typhimurium and a previously unrecognized substrate of CMA. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting that a member of the TRIM family is degraded by the lysosomal pathway.
  25. Mol Cell Oncol. 2020 ;7(5): 1776570
      Different intrinsic and extrinsic stress pathways including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress converge on the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A (EIF2A, best known as eIF2α), which characterizes the so-called "integrated stress response". This phosphorylation event is important for the induction of autophagy in response to multiple distinct stressors, as well as for the exposure of calreticulin (CALR) as an "eat me" signal on the surface of the plasma membrane of stressed cells. Both autophagy and CALR exposure are required for immunogenic cell death, a modality of cellular demise that ignites anticancer and antiviral immune responses. In several different cancer types, eIF2α phosphorylation indicates favorable prognosis, correlating with an enhanced antitumor immune response.
    Keywords:  Integrated stress response; antitumor immune response; autophagosome; calreticulin; endoplasmic reticulum stress
  26. EMBO J. 2020 Sep 14. e104106
      STING (STimulator of INterferon Genes) mediates protective cellular response to microbial infection and tissue damage, but its aberrant activation can lead to autoinflammatory diseases. Upon ligand stimulation, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein STING translocates to endosomes for induction of interferon production, while an alternate trafficking route delivers it directly to the autophagosomes. Here, we report that phosphorylation of a specific tyrosine residue in STING by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is required for directing STING to endosomes, where it interacts with its downstream effector IRF3. In the absence of EGFR-mediated phosphorylation, STING rapidly transits into autophagosomes, and IRF3 activation, interferon production, and antiviral activity are compromised in cell cultures and mice, while autophagic activity is enhanced. Our observations illuminate a new connection between the tyrosine kinase activity of EGFR and innate immune functions of STING and suggest new experimental and therapeutic approaches for selective regulation of STING functions.
    Keywords:   EGFR ; IRF3; STING signaling; endosomes; tyrosine phosphorylation
  27. Biochem J. 2020 Sep 14. pii: BCJ20200359. [Epub ahead of print]
      hTERT, the catalytic component of human telomerase enzyme, is regulated by post-translational modifications, like phosphorylation and ubiquitination by multiple proteins which remarkably affects the overall activity of the enzyme. Here we report that hTERT gets SUMOylated by SUMO1 and polycomb protein CBX4 acts as the SUMO E3 ligase of hTERT. hTERT SUMOylation positively regulates its telomerase activity which can be inhibited by SENP3-mediated deSUMOylation. Interestingly, we have established a new role of hTERT SUMOylation in repression of E-cadherin gene expression and consequent triggering on the epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) program in breast cancer cells. We also observed that catalytically active CBX4, leads to retention of hTERT/ZEB1 complex onto E-cadherin promoter leading to its repression through hTERT-SUMOylation. Further through wound healing and invasion assays in breast cancer cells, we showed the tumour promoting ability of hTERT was significantly compromised upon overexpression of SUMO-defective mutant of hTERT. Thus our findings establish a new post-translational modification of hTERT which on one hand is involved in telomerase activity maintenance and on the other hand plays a crucial role in regulation of gene expression thereby promoting migration and invasion of breast cancer cells.
    Keywords:  E-cadherin; Polycomb repressive complex 1; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; point mutation; sumoylation; telomerase
  28. Nat Chem. 2020 Sep 14.
      Enzymes are powerful tools for protein labelling due to their specificity and mild reaction conditions. Many protocols, however, are restricted to modifications at protein termini, rely on non-peptidic metabolites or require large recognition domains. Here we report a chemoenzymatic method, which we call lysine acylation using conjugating enzymes (LACE), to site-specifically modify folded proteins at internal lysine residues. LACE relies on a minimal genetically encoded tag (four residues) recognized by the E2 small ubiquitin-like modifier-conjugating enzyme Ubc9, and peptide or protein thioesters. Together, this approach obviates the need for E1 and E3 enzymes, enabling isopeptide formation with just Ubc9 in a programmable manner. We demonstrate the utility of LACE by the site-specific attachment of biochemical probes, one-pot dual-labelling in combination with sortase, and the conjugation of wild-type ubiquitin and ISG15 to recombinant proteins.
  29. Genes Dev. 2020 Sep 17.
      SNAI2/SLUG, a metastasis-promoting transcription factor, is a labile protein that is degraded through the ubiquitin proteasome degradation system. Here, we conducted comprehensive gain- and loss-of-function screens using a human DUB cDNA library of 65 genes and an siRNA library of 98 genes, and identified USP20 as a deubiquitinase (DUB) that regulates SNAI2 ubiquitination and stability. Further investigation of USP20 demonstrated its function in promoting migration, invasion, and metastasis of breast cancer. USP20 positively correlates with SNAI2 protein level in breast tumor samples, and higher USP20 expression is associated with poor prognosis in ER- breast cancer patients.
    Keywords:  SLUG; SNAI2; USP20; deubiquitinase; invasion; metastasis; migration
  30. Oncogene. 2020 Sep 18.
      Sumoylation is an essential posttranslational modification in eukaryotes that has emerged as an important pathway in oncogenic processes. Most human cancers display hyperactivated sumoylation and many cancer cells are remarkably sensitive to its inhibition, thus supporting application of chemical sumoylation inhibitors in cancer treatment. Here we show, first, that transformed embryonic fibroblasts derived from mice haploinsufficient for Ubc9, the essential and unique gene encoding the SUMO E2 conjugating enzyme, exhibit enhanced proliferation and transformed phenotypes in vitro and as xenografts ex vivo. To then evaluate the possible impact of loss of one Ubc9 allele in vivo, we used a mouse model of intestinal tumorigenesis. We crossed Ubc9+/- mice with mice harboring a conditional ablation of Apc either all along the crypt-villus axis or only in Lgr5+ crypt-based columnar (CBC) cells, the cell compartment that includes the intestinal stem cells proposed as cells-of-origin of intestinal cancer. While Ubc9+/- mice display no overt phenotypes and no globally visible hyposumoylation in cells of the small intestine, we found, strikingly, that, upon loss of Apc in both models, Ubc9+/- mice develop more (>2-fold) intestinal adenomas and show significantly shortened survival. This is accompanied by reduced global sumoylation levels in the polyps, indicating that Ubc9 levels become critical upon oncogenic stress. Moreover, we found that, in normal conditions, Ubc9+/- mice show a moderate but robust (15%) increase in the number of Lgr5+ CBC cells when compared to their wild-type littermates, and further, that these cells display higher degree of stemness and cancer-related and inflammatory gene expression signatures that, altogether, may contribute to enhanced intestinal tumorigenesis. The phenotypes of Ubc9 haploinsufficiency discovered here indicate an unanticipated tumor-suppressive role of sumoylation, one that may have important implications for optimal use of sumoylation inhibitors in the clinic.