bims-proteo Biomed News
on Proteostasis
Issue of 2020‒06‒28
thirty papers selected by
Eric Chevet

  1. J Biol Chem. 2020 Jun 25. pii: jbc.RA120.014590. [Epub ahead of print]
    Hodul M, Ganji R, Dahlberg CL, Raman M, Juo P.
      Ubiquitination is a reversible post-translational modification that has emerged as a critical regulator of synapse development and function. However, the mechanisms that regulate the deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) responsible for the removal of ubiquitin from target proteins are poorly understood. We have previously shown that the DUB ubiquitin-specific peptidase 46 (USP-46) removes ubiquitin from the glutamate receptor GLR-1 and regulates its trafficking and degradation in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that the WD40-repeat proteins WDR-20 and WDR-48 bind and stimulate the catalytic activity of USP-46. Here, we identified another mechanism by which WDR-48 regulates USP-46. We found that increased expression of WDR-48, but not WDR-20, promotes USP-46 abundance in mammalian cells in culture and in C. elegans neurons in vivo Inhibition of the proteasome increased USP-46 abundance, and this effect was non-additive with increased WDR-48 expression. We found that USP-46 is ubiquitinated and that expression of WDR-48 reduces the levels of ubiquitin-USP-46 conjugates and increases the half-life of USP-46. A point mutated WDR-48 variant that disrupts binding to USP-46 was unable to promote USP-46 abundance in vivo. Finally, siRNA-mediated knockdown of wdr48 destabilizes USP46 in mammalian cells. Together, these results support a model in which WDR-48 binds and stabilizes USP-46 protein levels by preventing the ubiquitination and degradation of USP-46 in the proteasome. Given that a large number of USPs interact with WDR proteins, we propose that stabilization of DUBs by their interacting WDR proteins may be a conserved and widely used mechanism that controls DUB availability and function.
    Keywords:  Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans); USP12; WD-40 repeat; WDR48; cell biology; neurobiology; post-translational modification (PTM); proteasome; protein degradation; ubiquitin; ubiquitin-specific peptidase 46 (USP46); usp-46
  2. EMBO J. 2020 Jun 22. e103457
    Pigoni M, Hsia HE, Hartmann J, Rudan Njavro J, Shmueli MD, Müller SA, Güner G, Tüshaus J, Kuhn PH, Kumar R, Gao P, Tran ML, Ramazanov B, Blank B, Hipgrave Ederveen AL, Von Blume J, Mulle C, Gunnersen JM, Wuhrer M, Rammes G, Busche MA, Koeglsperger T, Lichtenthaler SF.
      Seizure protein 6 (SEZ6) is required for the development and maintenance of the nervous system, is a major substrate of the protease BACE1 and is linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and psychiatric disorders, but its molecular functions are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that SEZ6 controls glycosylation and cell surface localization of kainate receptors composed of GluK2/3 subunits. Loss of SEZ6 reduced surface levels of GluK2/3 in primary neurons and reduced kainate-evoked currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons in acute hippocampal slices. Mechanistically, loss of SEZ6 in vitro and in vivo prevented modification of GluK2/3 with the human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) glycan, a modulator of GluK2/3 function. SEZ6 interacted with GluK2 through its ectodomain and promoted post-endoplasmic reticulum transport of GluK2 in the secretory pathway in heterologous cells and primary neurons. Taken together, SEZ6 acts as a new trafficking factor for GluK2/3. This novel function may help to better understand the role of SEZ6 in neurologic and psychiatric diseases.
    Keywords:  BACE1; GluK2/3; HNK-1; SEZ6; protein trafficking
  3. Elife. 2020 Jun 26. pii: e56945. [Epub ahead of print]9
    Schmidt CC, Vasic V, Stein A.
      In endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD), membrane proteins are ubiquitinated, extracted from the membrane, and degraded by the proteasome. The cytosolic ATPase Cdc48 drives extraction by pulling on polyubiquitinated substrates. How hydrophobic transmembrane (TM) segments are moved from the phospholipid bilayer into cytosol, often together with hydrophilic and folded ER luminal protein parts, is not known. Using a reconstituted system with purified proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that the ubiquitin ligase Doa10 (Teb-4/MARCH6 in animals) is a retrotranslocase that facilitates membrane protein extraction. A substrate's TM segment interacts with the membrane-embedded domain of Doa10 and then passively moves into the aqueous phase. Luminal substrate segments cross the membrane in an unfolded state. Their unfolding occurs on the luminal side of the membrane by cytoplasmic Cdc48 action. Our results reveal how a membrane-bound retrotranslocase cooperates with the Cdc48 ATPase in membrane protein extraction.
    Keywords:  ERAD; S. cerevisiae; biochemistry; cell biology; chemical biology; in vitro reconstitution; membrane proteins; protein quality control; protein translocation; ubiquitin proteasome system
  4. Cells. 2020 Jun 22. pii: E1519. [Epub ahead of print]9(6):
    Blount JR, Libohova K, Silva GM, Todi SV.
      Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification that regulates cellular processes by altering the interactions of proteins to which ubiquitin, a small protein adduct, is conjugated. Ubiquitination yields various products, including mono- and poly-ubiquitinated substrates, as well as unanchored poly-ubiquitin chains whose accumulation is considered toxic. We previously showed that transgenic, unanchored poly-ubiquitin is not problematic in Drosophila melanogaster. In the fruit fly, free chains exist in various lengths and topologies and are degraded by the proteasome; they are also conjugated onto other proteins as one unit, eliminating them from the free ubiquitin chain pool. Here, to further explore the notion of unanchored chain toxicity, we examined when free poly-ubiquitin might become problematic. We found that unanchored chains can be highly toxic if they resemble linear poly-ubiquitin that cannot be modified into other topologies. These species upregulate NF-κB signaling, and modulation of the levels of NF-κB components reduces toxicity. In additional studies, we show that toxicity from untethered, linear chains is regulated by isoleucine 44, which anchors a key interaction site for ubiquitin. We conclude that free ubiquitin chains can be toxic, but only in uncommon circumstances, such as when the ability of cells to modify and regulate them is markedly restricted.
    Keywords:  Drosophila melanogaster; NF-κB signaling; innate immunity; ubiquitination; unanchored poly-ubiquitin
  5. PLoS Genet. 2020 Jun 24. 16(6): e1008840
    Alme EB, Stevenson E, Krogan NJ, Swaney DL, Toczyski DP.
      The S. cerevisiae ISR1 gene encodes a putative kinase with no ascribed function. Here, we show that Isr1 acts as a negative regulator of the highly-conserved hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), which converts glucose into uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), the carbohydrate precursor to protein glycosylation, GPI-anchor formation, and chitin biosynthesis. Overexpression of ISR1 is lethal and, at lower levels, causes sensitivity to tunicamycin and resistance to calcofluor white, implying impaired protein glycosylation and reduced chitin deposition. Gfa1 is the first enzyme in the HBP and is conserved from bacteria and yeast to humans. The lethality caused by ISR1 overexpression is rescued by co-overexpression of GFA1 or exogenous glucosamine, which bypasses GFA1's essential function. Gfa1 is phosphorylated in an Isr1-dependent fashion and mutation of Isr1-dependent sites ameliorates the lethality associated with ISR1 overexpression. Isr1 contains a phosphodegron that is phosphorylated by Pho85 and subsequently ubiquitinated by the SCF-Cdc4 complex, largely confining Isr1 protein levels to the time of bud emergence. Mutation of this phosphodegron stabilizes Isr1 and recapitulates the overexpression phenotypes. As Pho85 is a cell cycle and nutrient responsive kinase, this tight regulation of Isr1 may serve to dynamically regulate flux through the HBP and modulate how the cell's energy resources are converted into structural carbohydrates in response to changing cellular needs.
  6. Annu Rev Biochem. 2020 Jun 20. 89 637-666
    Fenech EJ, Ben-Dor S, Schuldiner M.
      The evolution of eukaryotic genomes has been propelled by a series of gene duplication events, leading to an expansion in new functions and pathways. While duplicate genes may retain some functional redundancy, it is clear that to survive selection they cannot simply serve as a backup but rather must acquire distinct functions required for cellular processes to work accurately and efficiently. Understanding these differences and characterizing gene-specific functions is complex. Here we explore different gene pairs and families within the context of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the main cellular hub of lipid biosynthesis and the entry site for the secretory pathway. Focusing on each of the ER functions, we highlight specificities of related proteins and the capabilities conferred to cells through their conservation. More generally, these examples suggest why related genes have been maintained by evolutionary forces and provide a conceptual framework to experimentally determine why they have survived selection.
    Keywords:  endoplasmic reticulum; gene families; homologs; ohnologs; paralogs
  7. Mol Cell. 2020 Jun 18. pii: S1097-2765(20)30391-9. [Epub ahead of print]
    Juszkiewicz S, Speldewinde SH, Wan L, Svejstrup JQ, Hegde RS.
      Translating ribosomes that slow excessively incur collisions with trailing ribosomes. Persistent collisions are detected by ZNF598, a ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates sites on the ribosomal 40S subunit to initiate pathways of mRNA and protein quality control. The collided ribosome complex must be disassembled to initiate downstream quality control, but the mechanistic basis of disassembly is unclear. Here, we reconstitute the disassembly of a collided polysome in a mammalian cell-free system. The widely conserved ASC-1 complex (ASCC) containing the ASCC3 helicase disassembles the leading ribosome in an ATP-dependent reaction. Disassembly, but not ribosome association, requires 40S ubiquitination by ZNF598, but not GTP-dependent factors, including the Pelo-Hbs1L ribosome rescue complex. Trailing ribosomes can elongate once the roadblock has been removed and only become targets if they subsequently stall and incur collisions. These findings define the specific role of ASCC during ribosome-associated quality control and identify the molecular target of its activity.
    Keywords:  ASCC3; RQC; helicase; quality control; ribosome; translation
  8. Autophagy. 2020 Jun 23. 1-18
    Almacellas E, Pelletier J, Day C, Ambrosio S, Tauler A, Mauvezin C.
      Lysosomes, as primary degradative organelles, are the endpoint of different converging pathways, including macroautophagy. To date, lysosome degradative function has been mainly studied in interphase cells, while their role during mitosis remains controversial. Mitosis dictates the faithful transmission of genetic material among generations, and perturbations of mitotic division lead to chromosomal instability, a hallmark of cancer. Heretofore, correct mitotic progression relies on the orchestrated degradation of mitotic factors, which was mainly attributed to ubiquitin-triggered proteasome-dependent degradation. Here, we show that mitotic transition also relies on lysosome-dependent degradation, as impairment of lysosomes increases mitotic timing and leads to mitotic errors, thus promoting chromosomal instability. Furthermore, we identified several putative lysosomal targets in mitotic cells. Among them, WAPL, a cohesin regulatory protein, emerged as a novel SQSTM1-interacting protein for targeted lysosomal degradation. Finally, we characterized an atypical nuclear phenotype, the toroidal nucleus, as a novel biomarker for genotoxic screenings. Our results establish lysosome-dependent degradation as an essential event to prevent chromosomal instability.ABBREVIATIONS: 3D: three-dimensional; APC/C: anaphase-promoting complex; ARL8B: ADP ribosylation factor like GTPase 8B; ATG: autophagy-related; BORC: BLOC-one-related complex; CDK: cyclin-dependent kinase; CENPE: centromere protein E; CIN: chromosomal instability; ConcA: concanamycin A; CQ: chloroquine; DAPI: 4,6-diamidino-2-penylinole; FTI: farnesyltransferase inhibitors; GFP: green fluorescent protein; H2B: histone 2B; KIF: kinesin family member; LAMP2: lysosomal associated membrane protein 2; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MEF: mouse embryonic fibroblast; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; PDS5B: PDS5 cohesin associated factor B; SAC: spindle assembly checkpoint; PLEKHM2: pleckstrin homology and RUN domain containing M2; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; UPS: ubiquitin-proteasome system; v-ATPase: vacuolar-type H+-translocating ATPase; WAPL: WAPL cohesion release factor.
    Keywords:  Chromosomal instability; chromosomes segregation; lysosome; mitosis; selective autophagy; toroidal nucleus
  9. Annu Rev Biochem. 2020 Jun 20. 89 417-442
    Sitron CS, Brandman O.
      Stalled protein synthesis produces defective nascent chains that can harm cells. In response, cells degrade these nascent chains via a process called ribosome-associated quality control (RQC). Here, we review the irregularities in the translation process that cause ribosomes to stall as well as how cells use RQC to detect stalled ribosomes, ubiquitylate their tethered nascent chains, and deliver the ubiquitylated nascent chains to the proteasome. We additionally summarize how cells respond to RQC failure.
    Keywords:  CAT tails; RQC; protein degradation; ribosome stalling; translation; ubiquitin
  10. Cancer Cell. 2020 Jun 09. pii: S1535-6108(20)30268-3. [Epub ahead of print]
    Kudo Y, Sugimoto M, Arias E, Kasashima H, Cordes T, Linares JF, Duran A, Nakanishi Y, Nakanishi N, L'Hermitte A, Campos A, Senni N, Rooslid T, Roberts LR, Cuervo AM, Metallo CM, Karin M, Diaz-Meco MT, Moscat J.
      Oxidative stress plays a critical role in liver tissue damage and in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) initiation and progression. However, the mechanisms that regulate autophagy and metabolic reprogramming during reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and how ROS promote tumorigenesis, still need to be fully understood. We show that protein kinase C (PKC) λ/ι loss in hepatocytes promotes autophagy and oxidative phosphorylation. This results in ROS generation, which through NRF2 drives HCC through cell-autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms. Although PKCλ/ι promotes tumorigenesis in oncogene-driven cancer models, emerging evidence demonstrate that it is a tumor suppressor in more complex carcinogenic processes. Consistently, PKCλ/ι levels negatively correlate with HCC histological tumor grade, establishing this kinase as a tumor suppressor in liver cancer.
    Keywords:  NRF2; PKCζ; PKCι; PKCλ; atypical PKC; autophagy; hepatocellular carcinoma; metabolic reprogramming; oxidative phosphorylation; reactive oxygen species
  11. Annu Rev Biochem. 2020 Jun 20. 89 389-415
    Cassaignau AME, Cabrita LD, Christodoulou J.
      Folding of polypeptides begins during their synthesis on ribosomes. This process has evolved as a means for the cell to maintain proteostasis, by mitigating the risk of protein misfolding and aggregation. The capacity to now depict this cellular feat at increasingly higher resolution is providing insight into the mechanistic determinants that promote successful folding. Emerging from these studies is the intimate interplay between protein translation and folding, and within this the ribosome particle is the key player. Its unique structural properties provide a specialized scaffold against which nascent polypeptides can begin to form structure in a highly coordinated, co-translational manner. Here, we examine how, as a macromolecular machine, the ribosome modulates the intrinsic dynamic properties of emerging nascent polypeptide chains and guides them toward their biologically active structures.
    Keywords:  NMR spectroscopy; co-translational folding; protein folding; protein misfolding; protein synthesis; ribosome-bound nascent chain; structural biology
  12. Elife. 2020 Jun 23. pii: e53889. [Epub ahead of print]9
    Zavortink M, Rutt LN, Dzitoyeva S, Henriksen JC, Barrington C, Bilodeau DY, Wang M, Chen LXX, Rissland OS.
      The maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is a conserved step in animal development, where control is passed from the maternal to the zygotic genome. Although the MZT is typically considered from its impact on the transcriptome, we previously found that three maternally deposited Drosophila RNA binding proteins (ME31B, Trailer Hitch [TRAL], and Cup) are also cleared during the MZT by unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that these proteins are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Marie Kondo, an E2 conjugating enzyme, and the E3 CTLH ligase are required for the destruction of ME31B, TRAL, and Cup. Structure modeling of the Drosophila CTLH complex suggests that substrate recognition is different than orthologous complexes. Despite occurring hours earlier, egg activation mediates clearance of these proteins through the Pan Gu kinase, which stimulates translation of Kondo mRNA. Clearance of the maternal protein dowry thus appears to be a coordinated, but as-yet underappreciated, aspect of the MZT.
    Keywords:  D. melanogaster; chromosomes; developmental biology; gene expression
  13. Virus Res. 2020 Jun 20. pii: S0168-1702(20)30101-5. [Epub ahead of print] 198065
    Nambala P, Yu WY, Lo YC, Lin CW, Su WC.
      Zika virus (ZIKV) is an important human pathogen associated with severe neurological disorders. Ubiquitination of viral proteins has diverse roles in viral life cycle and pathogenesis. Here, we found that perturbation of ubiquitin-proteasome system significantly suppressed production of infectious viral particles. Moreover, we demonstrated that ZIKV precursor membrane (prM) protein underwent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, we showed that co-expression of E protein with ubiquitination-deficient prM-6 K/6R mutant protein did not affect translocation of viral proteins into endoplasmic reticulum and trans-Golgi networks. Intriguingly, the co-expression of E and prM-6 K/6R mutant proteins led to formation of relatively aggregated viral protein complexes and resulted in diminishing secretion of viral proteins as compared to wild-type prM. Collectively, these results suggest that ubiquitinated ZIKV prM protein contributes to the release of viral proteins and provide a new insight into the mechanism involved in ZIKV replication biology.
    Keywords:  E protein; ZIKV; prM protein; ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS); ubiquitination
  14. Sci Rep. 2020 Jun 23. 10(1): 10188
    Tavernier Q, Legras A, Didelot A, Normand C, Gibault L, Badoual C, Le Pimpec-Barthes F, Puig PL, Blons H, Pallet N.
      Proteostasis imbalance is emerging as a major hallmark of cancer, driving tumor growth and aggressiveness. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress has been documented in most major cancers, and the ability to tolerate persistent ER stress through an effective unfolded protein response enhances cancer cell survival, angiogenesis, metastasis, drug resistance and immunosuppression. The ER stress sensor IRE1α contributes to tumor progression through XBP1 mRNA splicing and regulated IRE1α-dependent decay of mRNA and miRNA. The aim of this study was to perform a molecular characterization of series of tumor samples to explore the impact of intratumoral IRE1 signaling in non-small cell lung cancer characteristics. To monitor IRE1 splicing activity, we adopted a fragment length analysis to detect changes in the length of the XBP1 mRNA before and after splicing as a method for measuring sXBP1 mRNA levels in tumors because sXBP1 mRNA is not probed by standard transcriptomic analyses. We demonstrate for the first time that XBP1 splicing is a valuable marker of lung cancer aggressiveness, and our results support a model in which IRE1 downstream signaling could act as a regulator of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Our findings study highlights the role of IRE1α downstream signaling in non-small cell lung cancer and opens a conceptual framework to determine how IRE1α endoribonuclease activity shapes the EMT program.
  15. Acta Med Okayama. 2020 Jun;74(3): 199-208
    Fujita H, Bando T, Oyadomari S, Ochiai K, Watanabe M, Kumon H, Ohuchi H.
      Dickkopf 3 (Dkk3) is a secreted protein belonging to the Dkk family and encoded by the orthologous gene of REIC. Dkk3/REIC is expressed by mouse and human adrenal glands, but the understanding of its roles in this organ is still limited. To determine the functions of Dkk3 in the mouse adrenal gland, we first identified that the mouse Dkk3 protein is N-glycosylated in the adrenal gland as well as in the brain. We performed proteome analysis on adrenal glands from Dkk3-null mice, in which exons 5 and 6 of the Dkk3 gene are deleted. Twodimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of adrenal proteins from wild-type and Dkk3-null mice revealed 5 protein spots whose intensities were altered between the 2 genotypes. Mass spectrometry analysis of these spots identified binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone. To determine whether mouse Dkk3 is involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR), we carried out a reporter assay using ER-stress responsive elements. Forced expression of Dkk3 resulted in the induction of distinct levels of reporter expression, showing the UPR initiated by the ER membrane proteins of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and inositol-requring enzyme 1 (IRE1). Thus, it is possible that Dkk3 is a physiological ER stressor in the mouse adrenal gland.
    Keywords:  Dkk3 knockout mouse; adrenal gland; endoplasmic reticulum stress; glucose-regulated protein 78; proteome
  16. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Jun 22. pii: 201914323. [Epub ahead of print]
    Wang W, Li W, Ge X, Yan K, Mandava CS, Sanyal S, Gao N.
      Ribosome biogenesis is a complex process, and dozens of factors are required to facilitate and regulate the subunit assembly in bacteria. The 2'-O-methylation of U2552 in 23S rRNA by methyltransferase RrmJ is a crucial step in late-stage assembly of the 50S subunit. Its absence results in severe growth defect and marked accumulation of pre50S assembly intermediates. In the present work, we employed cryoelectron microscopy to characterize a set of late-stage pre50S particles isolated from an Escherichia coli ΔrrmJ strain. These assembly intermediates (solved at 3.2 to 3.8 Å resolution) define a collection of late-stage particles on a progressive assembly pathway. Apart from the absence of L16, L35, and L36, major structural differences between these intermediates and the mature 50S subunit are clustered near the peptidyl transferase center, such as H38, H68-71, and H89-93. In addition, the ribosomal A-loop of the mature 50S subunit from ΔrrmJ strain displays large local flexibility on nucleotides next to unmethylated U2552. Fast kinetics-based biochemical assays demonstrate that the ΔrrmJ 50S subunit is only 50% active and two times slower than the WT 50S subunit in rapid subunit association. While the ΔrrmJ 70S ribosomes show no defect in peptide bond formation, peptide release, and ribosome recycling, they translocate with 20% slower rate than the WT ribosomes in each round of elongation. These defects amplify during synthesis of the full-length proteins and cause overall defect in protein synthesis. In conclusion, our data reveal the molecular roles of U2552 methylation in both ribosome biogenesis and protein translation.
    Keywords:  RrmJ; cryoelectron microscopy; fast kinetics; rRNA methylation; ribosome assembly
  17. Matrix Biol. 2020 Jun 17. pii: S0945-053X(20)30067-6. [Epub ahead of print]
    Omari S, Makareeva E, Gorrell L, Jarnik M, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Leikin S.
      Efficient quality control and export of procollagen from the cell is crucial for extracellular matrix homeostasis, yet it is still incompletely understood. One of the debated questions is the role of a collagen-specific ER chaperone HSP47 in these processes. Most ER chaperones preferentially bind to unfolded polypeptide chains, enabling selective export of natively folded proteins from the ER after chaperone release. In contrast, HSP47 preferentially binds to the natively folded procollagen and is believed to be released only in the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) or cis-Golgi. HSP47 colocalization with procollagen in punctate structures observed by immunofluorescence imaging of fixed cells has thus been interpreted as evidence for HSP47 export from the ER together with procollagen in transport vesicles destined for ERGIC or Golgi. To understand the mechanism of this co-trafficking and its physiological significance, we imaged the dynamics of fluorescently tagged type I procollagen and HSP47 punctate structures in live MC3T3 murine osteoblasts with up to 120 nm spatial and 500 ms time resolution. Contrary to the prevailing model, we discovered that most bona fide carriers delivering procollagen from ER exit sites (ERESs) to Golgi contained no HSP47, unless the RDEL signal for ER retention in HSP47 was deleted or mutated. These transport intermediates exhibited characteristic rapid, directional motion along microtubules, while puncta with colocalized HSP47 and procollagen similar to the ones described before had only limited, stochastic motion. Live cell imaging and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that the latter puncta (including the ones induced by ARF1 inhibition) were dilated regions of ER lumen, ERESs, or autophagic structures surrounded by lysosomal membranes. Procollagen was colocalized with HSP47 and ERGIC53 at ERESs. It was colocalized with ERGIC53 but not HSP47 in Golgi-bound transport intermediates. Our results suggest that procollagen and HSP47 sorting occurs at ERES before procollagen is exported from the ER in Golgi-bound transport intermediates, providing new insights into mechanisms of procollagen trafficking.
    Keywords:  Collagen; ER exit sites; HSP47; live cell imaging; trafficking
  18. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2020 Jun 21. pii: S0955-0674(20)30056-9. [Epub ahead of print]65 103-111
    van den Boomen DJH, Volkmar N, Lehner PJ.
      Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian membranes, and its homeostasis is strictly regulated, with imbalances causing atherosclerosis, Niemann Pick disease, and familial hypercholesterolemia. Cellular cholesterol supply is mediated by LDL-cholesterol import and de novo cholesterol biosynthesis, and both pathways are adjusted to cellular demand by the cholesterol-sensitive SREBP2 transcription factor. Cholesterol homeostasis is modulated by a wide variety of metabolic pathways and the ubiquitination machinery, in particular E3 ubiquitin ligases. In this article, we review recent progress in understanding the role of E3 ubiquitin ligases in the metabolic control of cellular sterol homeostasis.
    Keywords:  Cholesterol; E3 ubiquitin ligases; ER associated degradation (ERAD); HMG-CoA reductase; LDL-cholesterol import; RNF145; SCAP; SREBP2; Sterol-induced HMGCR degradation; Ubiquitin-mediated cholesterol homeostasis; gp78
  19. Elife. 2020 Jun 23. pii: e56185. [Epub ahead of print]9
    Ahel J, Lehner A, Vogel A, Schleiffer A, Meinhart A, Haselbach D, Clausen T.
      RNF213 is the major susceptibility factor for Moyamoya disease, a progressive cerebrovascular disorder that often leads to brain stroke in adults and children. Characterization of disease-associated mutations has been complicated by the enormous size of RNF213. Here, we present the cryo-EM structure of mouse RNF213. The structure reveals the intricate fold of the 584 kDa protein, comprising an N-terminal stalk, a dynein-like core with six ATPase units, and a multidomain E3 module. Collaboration with UbcH7, a cysteine-reactive E2, points to an unexplored ubiquitin-transfer mechanism that proceeds in a RING-independent manner. Moreover, we show that pathologic MMD mutations cluster in the composite E3 domain, likely interfering with substrate ubiquitination. In conclusion, the structure of RNF213 uncovers a distinct type of an E3 enzyme, highlighting the growing mechanistic diversity in ubiquitination cascades. Our results also provide the molecular framework for investigating the emerging role of RNF213 in lipid metabolism, hypoxia, and angiogenesis.
    Keywords:  biochemistry; cerebrovascular disorder; chemical biology; human; molecular biophysics; molecular machines; mouse; protein quality control; protein ubiquitination; rare disease; structural biology
  20. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2020 Jun 18. pii: S0959-437X(20)30078-2. [Epub ahead of print]65 61-68
    Ugur B, Hancock-Cerutti W, Leonzino M, De Camilli P.
      The evolutionarily conserved VPS13 family proteins have been implicated in several cellular processes. Mutations in each of the four human VPS13s cause neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative disorders. Until recently, the molecular function of VPS13 remained elusive. Genetic, functional and structural studies have now revealed that VPS13 acts at contact sites between intracellular organelles to transport lipids by a novel mechanism: direct transfer between bilayers via a hydrophobic channel that spans its entire rod-like N-terminal half. Predicted similarities to the autophagy protein ATG2 suggested a similar role for ATG2 that has now been confirmed by structural and functional studies. Here, after a brief review of this evidence, we discuss what is known of human VPS13 proteins in physiology and disease.
  21. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 ;8 425
    Kulka LAM, Fangmann PV, Panfilova D, Olzscha H.
      Lysine acetylation is one of the major posttranslational modifications (PTM) in human cells and thus needs to be tightly regulated by the writers of this process, the histone acetyl transferases (HAT), and the erasers, the histone deacetylases (HDAC). Acetylation plays a crucial role in cell signaling, cell cycle control and in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Bromodomain (BRD)-containing proteins are readers of the acetylation mark, enabling them to transduce the modification signal. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) have been proven to be efficient in hematologic malignancies with four of them being approved by the FDA. However, the mechanisms by which HDACi exert their cytotoxicity are only partly resolved. It is likely that HDACi alter the acetylation pattern of cytoplasmic proteins, contributing to their anti-cancer potential. Recently, it has been demonstrated that various protein quality control (PQC) systems are involved in recognizing the altered acetylation pattern upon HDACi treatment. In particular, molecular chaperones, the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy are able to sense the structurally changed proteins, providing additional targets. Recent clinical studies of novel HDACi have proven that proteins of the UPS may serve as biomarkers for stratifying patient groups under HDACi regimes. In addition, members of the PQC systems have been shown to modify the epigenetic readout of HDACi treated cells and alter proteostasis in the nucleus, thus contributing to changing gene expression profiles. Bromodomain (BRD)-containing proteins seem to play a potent role in transducing the signaling process initiating apoptosis, and many clinical trials are under way to test BRD inhibitors. Finally, it has been demonstrated that HDACi treatment leads to protein misfolding and aggregation, which may explain the effect of panobinostat, the latest FDA approved HDACi, in combination with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in multiple myeloma. Therefore, proteins of these PQC systems provide valuable targets for precision medicine in cancer. In this review, we give an overview of the impact of HDACi treatment on PQC systems and their implications for malignant disease. We exemplify the development of novel HDACi and how affected proteins belonging to PQC can be used to determine molecular signatures and utilized in precision medicine.
    Keywords:  autophagy; bromodomain-containing protein; epigenetic drug; histone deacetylase inhibitor; molecular chaperone; precision medicine; protein quality control; ubiquitin proteasome system
  22. J Biol Chem. 2020 Jun 25. pii: jbc.RA120.014113. [Epub ahead of print]
    Mitxitorena I, Somma D, Mitchell JP, Lepistö M, Tyrchan C, Smith EL, Kiely PA, Walden H, Keeshan K, Carmody RJ.
      The transcription factor NF-ĸB is a master regulator of the innate immune response and plays a central role in inflammatory diseases by mediating the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Ubiquitination-triggered proteasomal degradation of DNA-bound NF-ĸB strongly limits the expression of its target genes. Conversely, the deubiquitinase ubiquitin-specific peptidase 7 (USP7) opposes the activities of E3 ligases, stabilizes DNA-bound NF-ĸB, and thereby promotes NF-ĸB-mediated transcription. Using gene expression and synthetic peptide arrays on membrane support (SPOT) synthesis of peptides and overlay analyses, we found here that inhibiting USP7 increases NF-ĸB ubiquitination and degradation, prevents Toll-like receptor-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and represents an effective strategy for controlling inflammation. However, the broad regulatory roles of USP7 in cell death pathways, chromatin, and DNA damage responses limits the use of catalytic inhibitors of USP7 as anti-inflammatory agents. To this end, we identified an NF-ĸB-binding site in USP7, ubiquitin-like domain 2, that selectively mediates interactions of USP7 with NF-ĸB subunits, but is dispensable for interactions with other proteins. Moreover, we found that the amino acids 757LDEL760 in USP7 critically contribute to the interaction with the p65 subunit of NF-ĸB. Our findings support the notion that USP7 activity could be potentially targeted in a substrate-selective manner through the development of non-catalytic inhibitors of this deubiquitinase to abrogate NF-ĸB activity.
    Keywords:  NF-kappa B (NF-KB); deubiquitinase; deubiquitylation (deubiquitination); gene regulation; inflammation; innate immunity; protein-protein interaction; toll-like receptor (TLR); transcription factor; ubiquitin like domain; ubiquitin specific peptidase 7 (USP7); ubiquitylation (ubiquitination)
  23. Gastroenterology. 2020 Jun 20. pii: S0016-5085(20)34831-9. [Epub ahead of print]
    Dasgupta D, Nakao Y, Mauer AS, Thompson JM, Sehrawat TS, Liao CY, Krishnan A, Lucien F, Guo Q, Liu M, Xue F, Fukushima M, Katsumi T, Bansal A, Pandey MK, Maiers JL, DeGrado T, Ibrahim SH, Revzin A, Pavelko KD, Barry MA, Kaufman RJ, Malhi H.
      BACKGROUND & AIMS: Endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1 (ERN1, also called IRE1A) is a sensor of the unfolded protein response that is activated in livers of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Hepatocytes release ceramide-enriched inflammatory extracellular vesicles (EVs) following activation of IRE1A. We studied the effects of inhibiting IRE1A on release of inflammatory EVs in mice with diet-induced steatohepatitis.METHODS: C57BL/6J mice and mice with hepatocyte-specific disruption of Ire1a (IRE1αΔhep) mice were fed a diet high in fat, fructose, and cholesterol (FFC) to induce development of steatohepatitis or a standard chow diet (controls). Some mice were given intraperitoneal injections of the IRE1A inhibitor 4μ8C. Mouse liver and primary hepatocytes were transduced with adenovirus or adeno-associated virus that expressed IRE1A. Livers were collected from mice and analyzed by quantitative PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays; plasma samples were analyzed by ELISA. EVs were derived from hepatocytes and injected intravenously into mice. Plasma EVs were characterized by nanoparticle-tracking analysis, electron microscopy, immunoblots, and nanoscale flow cytometry; we used a membrane-tagged reporter mouse to detect hepatocyte-derived EVs. Plasma and liver tissues from patients with NASH and without NASH (controls) were analyzed for EV concentration and by RNAscope and gene expression analyses.
    RESULTS: Disruption of Ire1a in hepatocytes or inhibition of IRE1A reduced release of EVs and liver injury, inflammation, and accumulation of macrophages in mice on the FFC diet. Activation of IRE1A, in livers of mice, stimulated release of hepatocyte-derived EVs, and also from cultured primary hepatocytes. Mice given intravenous injections of IRE1A-stimulated, hepatocyte-derived EVs accumulated monocyte-derived macrophages in liver. IRE1A-stimulated EVs were enriched in ceramides. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that IRE1A activated X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) to increase transcription of serine palmitoyltransferase genes, which encode the rate-limiting enzyme for ceramide biosynthesis. Administration of a pharmacological inhibitor of serine palmitoyltransferase to mice reduced the release of EVs. Levels of XBP1 and serine palmitoyltransferase were increased in liver tissues, and numbers of EVs were increased in plasma, from patients with NASH compared with controls and correlated with the histologic features of inflammation.
    CONCLUSIONS: In mouse hepatocytes, activated IRE1A promotes transcription of serine palmitoyltransferase genes via XBP1, resulting in ceramide biosynthesis and release of EVs. The EVs recruit monocyte-derived macrophages to liver, resulting in inflammation and injury in mice with diet-induced steatohepatitis. Levels of XBP1, serine palmitoyltransferase, and EVs are all increased in liver tissues from patients with NASH. Strategies to block this pathway might be developed to reduce liver inflammation in patients with NASH.
    Keywords:  ER stress; exosome; lipotoxicity; macrophage
  24. Biomed Res Int. 2020 ;2020 2626090
    Tang YJ, Chen H, Yi Y, Chen GM, Yang FW, Li Y, Tian RD, Huang WG, Cheng QJ, He YH.
      Objectives: Protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK)/eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) is an important factor along the main pathways for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of eIF2α phosphorylation on hepatocyte apoptosis and the ER stress mechanisms in acute liver injury.Methods: eIF2α phosphorylation and apoptosis under ER stress were monitored and measured in male BALB/c mice with acute liver injury and human hepatocyte line LO2 cells.
    Results: Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration triggered ER stress and hepatocyte apoptosis, as well as eIF2α phosphorylation in mice. Inhibition of eIF2α dephosphorylation, as the pretreatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid (chemical chaperone, ER stress inhibitor), mitigated CCl4-induced intrahepatic ER stress, apoptosis, and liver injury. In an ER stress model of LO2 cells induced by thapsigargin (disrupting ER calcium balance), inhibition of eIF2α dephosphorylation reduced ER stress and apoptosis, while PERK knockdown reduced eIF2α phosphorylation and exacerbated ER stress and apoptosis.
    Conclusions: eIF2α phosphorylation is one of the mechanisms employed by ER stress for restoring cellular homeostasis. Inhibition of eIF2α dephosphorylation mitigates hepatocyte apoptosis by alleviating ER stress in acute liver injuries.
  25. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Jun 22. pii: E1653. [Epub ahead of print]12(6):
    Sala-Gaston J, Martinez-Martinez A, Pedrazza L, Lorenzo-Martín LF, Caloto R, Bustelo XR, Ventura F, Rosa JL.
      HERC proteins are ubiquitin E3 ligases of the HECT family. The HERC subfamily is composed of six members classified by size into large (HERC1 and HERC2) and small (HERC3-HERC6). HERC family ubiquitin ligases regulate important cellular processes, such as neurodevelopment, DNA damage response, cell proliferation, cell migration, and immune responses. Accumulating evidence also shows that this family plays critical roles in cancer. In this review, we provide an integrated view of the role of these ligases in cancer, highlighting their bivalent functions as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors, depending on the tumor type. We include a discussion of both the molecular mechanisms involved and the potential therapeutic strategies.
    Keywords:  E3; ERK; HECT; MAPK; RAF; genome stability; oncogene; p38; p53; tumor suppressor
  26. PLoS Genet. 2020 Jun 25. 16(6): e1008837
    Grenga L, Little RH, Chandra G, Woodcock SD, Saalbach G, Morris RJ, Malone JG.
      Control of mRNA translation is a crucial regulatory mechanism used by bacteria to respond to their environment. In the soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens, RimK modifies the C-terminus of ribosomal protein RpsF to influence important aspects of rhizosphere colonisation through proteome remodelling. In this study, we show that RimK activity is itself under complex, multifactorial control by the co-transcribed phosphodiesterase trigger enzyme (RimA) and a polyglutamate-specific protease (RimB). Furthermore, biochemical experimentation and mathematical modelling reveal a role for the nucleotide second messenger cyclic-di-GMP in coordinating these activities. Active ribosome regulation by RimK occurs by two main routes: indirectly, through changes in the abundance of the global translational regulator Hfq and directly, with translation of surface attachment factors, amino acid transporters and key secreted molecules linked specifically to RpsF modification. Our findings show that post-translational ribosomal modification functions as a rapid-response mechanism that tunes global gene translation in response to environmental signals.
  27. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Jun 22. pii: 201916290. [Epub ahead of print]
    Timmons A, Fray E, Kumar M, Wu F, Dai W, Bullen CK, Kim P, Hetzel C, Yang C, Beg S, Lai J, Pomerantz JL, Yukl SA, Siliciano JD, Siliciano RF.
      HIV-1 latency is a major barrier to cure. Identification of small molecules that destabilize latency and allow immune clearance of infected cells could lead to treatment-free remission. In vitro models of HIV-1 latency involving cell lines or primary cells have been developed for characterization of HIV-1 latency and high-throughput screening for latency-reversing agents (LRAs). We have shown that the majority of LRAs identified to date are relatively ineffective in cells from infected individuals despite activity in model systems. We show here that, for diverse LRAs, latency reversal observed in model systems involves a heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-mediated stress pathway. Small-molecule inhibition of HSF1 attenuated HIV-1 latency reversal by histone deactylase inhibitors, protein kinase C agonists, and proteasome inhibitors without interfering with the known mechanism of action of these LRAs. However, latency reversal by second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (SMAC) mimetics was not affected by inhibition of HSF1. In cells from infected individuals, inhibition of HSF1 attenuated latency reversal by phorbol ester+ionomycin but not by anti-CD3+anti-CD28. HSF1 promotes elongation of HIV-1 RNA by recruiting P-TEFb to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR), and we show that inhibition of HSF1 attenuates the formation of elongated HIV-1 transcripts. We demonstrate that in vitro models of latency have higher levels of the P-TEFb subunit cyclin T1 than primary cells, which may explain why many LRAs are functional in model systems but relatively ineffective in primary cells. Together, these studies provide insights into why particular LRA combinations are effective in reversing latency in cells from infected individuals.
    Keywords:  HIV; HSF1; LRA; latency; reservoir
  28. Mol Cell. 2020 Jun 19. pii: S1097-2765(20)30388-9. [Epub ahead of print]
    Lin Y, Li F, Huang L, Polte C, Duan H, Fang J, Sun L, Xing X, Tian G, Cheng Y, Ignatova Z, Yang X, Wolf DA.
      eIF3, a multi-subunit complex with numerous functions in canonical translation initiation, is known to interact with 40S and 60S ribosomal proteins and translation elongation factors, but a direct involvement in translation elongation has never been demonstrated. We found that eIF3 deficiency reduced early ribosomal elongation speed between codons 25 and 75 on a set of ∼2,700 mRNAs encoding proteins associated with mitochondrial and membrane functions, resulting in defective synthesis of their encoded proteins. To promote elongation, eIF3 interacts with 80S ribosomes translating the first ∼60 codons and serves to recruit protein quality-control factors, functions required for normal mitochondrial physiology. Accordingly, eIF3e+/- mice accumulate defective mitochondria in skeletal muscle and show a progressive decline in muscle strength. Hence, eIF3 interacts with 80S ribosomes to enhance, at the level of early elongation, the synthesis of proteins with membrane-associated functions, an activity that is critical for mitochondrial physiology and muscle health.
    Keywords:  eIF3; knockout mouse; mRNA translation; mitochondrial protein synthesis; muscle strength; ribosome profiling; selective ribosome profiling; translation elongation; translation initiation; translation initiation factor 3
  29. EMBO J. 2020 Jun 22. e105127
    Schubert AF, Nguyen JV, Franklin TG, Geurink PP, Roberts CG, Sanderson DJ, Miller LN, Ovaa H, Hofmann K, Pruneda JN, Komander D.
      Manipulation of host ubiquitin signaling is becoming an increasingly apparent evolutionary strategy among bacterial and viral pathogens. By removing host ubiquitin signals, for example, invading pathogens can inactivate immune response pathways and evade detection. The ovarian tumor (OTU) family of deubiquitinases regulates diverse ubiquitin signals in humans. Viral pathogens have also extensively co-opted the OTU fold to subvert host signaling, but the extent to which bacteria utilize the OTU fold was unknown. We have predicted and validated a set of OTU deubiquitinases encoded by several classes of pathogenic bacteria. Biochemical assays highlight the ubiquitin and polyubiquitin linkage specificities of these bacterial deubiquitinases. By determining the ubiquitin-bound structures of two examples, we demonstrate the novel strategies that have evolved to both thread an OTU fold and recognize a ubiquitin substrate. With these new examples, we perform the first cross-kingdom structural analysis of the OTU fold that highlights commonalities among distantly related OTU deubiquitinases.
    Keywords:  bacterial effector; deubiquitinase; pathogen; protein structure; ubiquitin
  30. J Biol Chem. 2020 Jun 25. pii: jbc.RA120.014298. [Epub ahead of print]
    Lin X, Zhang H, Boyce BF, Xing L.
      Macrophages play critical roles in homeostasis and inflammation. Macrophage polarization to either a pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory status is controlled by activating inflammatory signaling pathways. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification that regulates these inflammatory signaling pathways. However, the influence of protein ubiquitination on macrophage polarization has not been well studied. We hypothesized that the ubiquitination status of key proteins in inflammatory pathways contributes to macrophage polarization, which is regulated by itchy E3 ubiquitin ligase (ITCH), a negative regulator of inflammation. Using ubiquitin proteomics, we found that ubiquitination profiles are different among polarized murine macrophage subsets. Interestingly, interleukin-1α (IL-1α), an important proinflammatory mediator, was specifically ubiquitinated in lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory macrophages, which was enhanced in ITCH-deficient macrophages. The ITCH-deficient macrophages had increased levels of the mature form of IL-1α and exhibited proinflammatory polarization, and reduced deubiquitination of IL-1α protein. Finally, IL-1α neutralization attenuated pro-inflammatory polarization of the ITCH-deficient macrophages. In conclusion, ubiquitination of IL-1α is associated with increased pro-inflammatory polarization of macrophages deficient in the E3 ligase ITCH.
    Keywords:  Interleukin-1α; Itch; deubiquitylation (deubiquitination); inflammation; interleukin 1 (IL-1); macrophage; macrophage polarization; ubiquitylation (ubiquitination)