bims-polyam Biomed News
on Polyamines
Issue of 2020‒10‒04
seven papers selected by
Alexander Ivanov
Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology

  1. Vet Microbiol. 2020 Sep 19. pii: S0378-1135(20)30977-9. [Epub ahead of print]250 108839
      Like obligate intracellular parasites, viruses co-opt host cell resources to establish productive infections. Polyamines are key aliphatic molecules that perform important roles in cellular growth and proliferation. They are also needed for the successful multiplication of various viruses. Little is known about the effects of polyamines on Arteriviridae infections. Here, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an economically prominent porcine virus, was used to investigate virus-polyamine interactions. We found that PRRSV infection significantly downregulated the levels of cellular polyamines. Using an inhibitor or specific short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of ornithine decarboxylase 1, a key anabolic enzyme involved in the classical de novo biosynthesis of polyamines, we found that polyamine depletion abrogated PRRSV proliferation, and this effect was recoverable by adding exogenous spermidine and spermine, but not putrescine to the cells, suggesting that the host inhibits polyamine biosynthesis to restrict PRRSV proliferation. Further analysis revealed that the expression level of spermidine-spermine acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1), a catabolic enzyme that reduces spermidine and spermine levels, was upregulated during PRRSV infection, but conversely, SAT1 had an inhibitory effect on PRRSV reproduction. Our data show that polyamines are important molecules during PRRSV-host interactions, and polyamines and their biosynthetic pathways are potential therapeutic targets against PRRSV infection.
    Keywords:  Antiviral drug target; Polyamine; Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus; Spermidine-spermine acetyltransferase 1
  2. Heliyon. 2020 Sep;6(9): e05031
      The polyamines spermidine, spermine and putrescine are essential for normal cellular functions. The contents of polyamines in tissue decreased in aged mice compared to young mice. In this study, the polyamine contents and their metabolic byproduct acrolein-conjugated lysine (N ε-(3-formyl-3,4-dehydropiperidino)-lysine, FDP-Lys) in human liver tissue were measured and analyzed the correlation with age of the subjects. The putrescine and FDP-Lys levels were significantly increased with age. On the other hand, spermine level was decreased with age. Spermidine did not significantly correlate with age. The relative amount of spermine oxidase (SMOX) significantly correlated with the age of subjects whereas ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AMD1) significantly reduced by the age. Our results suggested that an increase in oxidation and reduction in polyamine synthesis may cause the change of polyamine profile in the elderly.
    Keywords:  Acrolein-conjugated lysine; Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase; Aging; Biochemistry; Biomarkers; Biomolecules; Ornithine decarboxylase; Oxidative stress; Polyamine; Spermine oxidase
  3. Plant Signal Behav. 2020 Sep 28. 1824697
      In this research, the lettuce high-temperature-sensitive variety Beisan San 3 was used as a test material. The effects of exogenous spermidine (Spd) on membrane lipid peroxidation, the antioxidant system, the ascorbic acid-glutathione (AsA-GSH) system and the glyoxalase (Glo) system in lettuce seedlings under high-temperature stress were studied by spraying either 1 mM spermidine or ionized water as a control. The results showed that, under high-temperature stress, the growth of lettuce seedlings was weak, and the dry weight (DW) and fresh weight (FW) were reduced by 68.9% and 82%, respectively, compared with those of the normal-temperature controls. In addition, the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation increased, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level increased, both of which led to a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. Under high-temperature stress, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased, the activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased first but then decreased, and the activity of ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX) decreased first but then increased. Glutathione reductase (GR) activity, ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) content showed an upward trend under high-temperature stress. The activities of glyoxalase (GloI and GloII) in the lettuce seedling leaves increased significantly under high-temperature stress. In contrast, the application of exogenous Spd alleviated the oxidative damage to the lettuce seedlings, which showed a decrease in MDA content and LOX activity and an increase in SOD, POD, CAT, APX, GR, GloI, and GloII activities. In addition, the antioxidant AsA and GSH contents also increased to varying degrees. It can be seen from the results that high temperature stress leads to an increase in the level of ROS and cause peroxidation in lettuce seedlings, and exogenous Spd can enhance the ability of lettuce seedlings to withstand high temperature by enhancing the antioxidant system, glyoxalase system and AsA-GSH cycle system.
    Keywords:  Antioxidant system; exogenous substance; high temperature stress; methylglyoxal; oxidative stress
  4. J Food Prot. 2020 Oct 01.
      Shewanella baltica , as one of the dominant spoilers in seafoods where they encounter acidic environments during spoilage, can synthesize putrescine from ornithine and cause food spoilage as well as health problems. Here, the ornithine decarboxylation (ODC) pathway composed of ornithine decarboxylases SpeC and SpeF and an ornithine-putrescine transporter PotE were identified in S. baltica by database searches and further by molecular biology operations, and SpeC functioned as an auxiliary adjusting component of ODC system. Ornithine and putrescine were found to promote putrescine accumulation through up-regulating the expression of speF and potE rather than speC . In addition, increased putrescine biosynthesis and alkalization of cytoplasm was detected at acidic pH especially at pH 6.0 compared to neutral pH. Particularly, the maximum up-regulation of ODC genes and the optimum decarboxylation activity of SpeF were detected at acidic pH around 6.0. It's concluded that the ODC pathway plays dual roles in cytoplasmic acid counteraction and putrescine production of S. baltica . This study contributes to our understanding of the spoilage mechanism of spoilers in the food system, and provides a novel target for seafoods preservation.
    Keywords:  Acid resistance; Ornithine decarboxylation system; Putrescine production; Shewanella baltica; Transcriptional regulation
  5. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Sep 29. pii: E932. [Epub ahead of print]9(10):
      Recently, nutritional interventions have received attention as promising approaches to promote human health during a lifespan. The Mediterranean and Okinawan diets have been associated with longevity and decreasing risk for age-related diseases in contrast to the Western diet. The effect might be due to several antioxidative bioactive compounds highly consumed in both diets, namely, resveratrol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, curcumin, and spermidine. This review aims to address the underlying mechanisms of these compounds to enhance mental fitness throughout life with a focus on brain mitophagy. Mitophagy is the autophagic clearance of dysfunctional, redundant, and aged mitochondria. In aging and neurodegenerative disorders, mitophagy is crucial to preserve the autophagy mechanism of the whole cell, especially during oxidative stress. Growing evidence indicates that curcumin, astaxanthin, resveratrol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and spermidine might exert protective functions via antioxidative properties and as well the enhanced induction of mitophagy mediators. The compounds seem to upregulate mitophagy and thereby alleviate the clearance of dysfunctional and aged mitochondria as well as mitogenesis. Thus, the Mediterranean or Okinawan diet could represent a feasible nutritional approach to reduce the risk of developing age-related cognitive impairment and corresponding disorders via the stimulation of mitophagy and thereby ensure a balanced redox state of brain cells.
    Keywords:  antioxidants; astaxanthin; brain aging; curcumin; diet; hydroxytyrosol; mitophagy; oleuropein; resveratrol; spermidine
  6. Front Plant Sci. 2020 ;11 1271
      Nitrogen fertilization is common for poplar trees to improve growth and productivity. The utilization of N by poplar largely depends on fertilizer application patterns; however, the underlying regulatory hubs are not fully understood. In this study, N utilization and potentially physiological regulations of two poplar clones (XQH and BC5) were assessed through two related experiments (i: five levels of N supply and ii: conventional and exponential N additions). Poplar growth (leaf area) and N utilization significantly increased under fertilized compared to unfertilized conditions, whereas photosynthetic N utilization efficiency significantly decreased under low N supplies. Growth characteristics were better in the XQH than in the BC5 clone under the same N supplies, indicating higher N utilization efficiency. Leaf absorbed light energy, and thermal dissipation fraction was significantly different for XQH clone between conventional and exponential N additions. Leaf concentrations of putrescine (Put) and acetylated Put were significantly higher in exponential than in conventional N addition. Photorespiration significantly increased in leaves of XQH clone under exponential compared to conventional N addition. Our results indicate that an interaction of the clone and N supply pattern significantly occurs in poplar growth; leaf expansion and the storage N allocations are the central hubs in the regulation of poplar N utilization.
    Keywords:  Populus; exponential fertilization; nitrogen utilization efficiency; photorespiration; polyamine; polyamine acetylation
  7. Biol Pharm Bull. 2020 ;43(10): 1556-1561
      Renal insufficiency secondary to contrast administration remains a prevalent and debilitating complication of angiographic procedures. Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common clinical problem for which there is no effective medical treatment. However, agmatine has been shown to be effective against ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury in rats, a similar condition to CIN. Our aim was to examine the protective effects of agmatine in a rat model of CIN and, based on those results, in a rabbit model of CIN. CIN in the rat model was induced by intravenous administration of indomethacin (10 mg/kg), Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (10 mg/kg) and iopamidol (OYPALOMIN, 7.4 g iodine/kg) at 2 weeks after a unilateral nephrectomy. CIN in the rabbit model was induced by intrarenal arterial injection of only iopamidol (BYSTAGE, 4.8 g iodine/kg). Intravenous injection of agmatine (0.1 and 0.3 mmol/kg) did not attenuate the CIN-induced renal insufficiency in the rat model. Intravenous injection of agmatine (0.3 mmol/kg) attenuated the CIN-induced renal insufficiency in the rabbit model such as increases in blood urea nitrogen and plasma creatinine levels. Renal histological damage was also improved by the agmatine administration. The difference in effects of agmatine injection between CIN rats and CIN rabbits was caused by indomethacin and L-NAME administrations. These results indicate that agmatine prevents the development of CIN-induced renal insufficiency in rabbits, and the effect is accompanied by activation of nitric oxide synthase and subsequent increase of blood flow.
    Keywords:  agmatine; contrast-induced nephropathy; intrarenal arterial injection; iopamidol; rabbit