bims-polyam Biomed News
on Polyamines
Issue of 2020‒07‒26
seven papers selected by
Alexander Ivanov
Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology

  1. ACS Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 20.
      Viruses require host cell metabolites to productively infect, and the mechanisms by which viruses usurp these molecules is diverse. One group of cellular metabolites important in virus infection is the polyamines, small positively charged molecules involved in cell cycle, translation, and nucleic acid metabolism, among other cellular functions. Polyamines support replication of diverse viruses, and they are important for processes such as transcription, translation, and viral protein enzymatic activity. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a negative and ambisense RNA virus that requires polyamines to produce infectious particles. In polyamine depleted conditions, noninfectious particles are produced that interfere with virus replication and stimulate immune signaling. Here, we find that RVFV relies on virion-associated polyamines to maintain infectivity and enhance viral entry. We show that RVFV replication is facilitated by a limited set of polyamines and that spermidine and closely related molecules associate with purified virions and transmit from cell to cell during infection. Virion-associated spermidine maintains virion infectivity, as virions devoid of polyamines rapidly lose infectivity and are temperature sensitive. Further, virions without polyamines bind to cells but exhibit a defect in entry, requiring more acidic conditions than virions containing spermidine. These data highlight a unique role for polyamines, and spermidine particularly, in maintaining virus infectivity. Further, these studies are the first to identify polyamines associated with RVFV virions. Targeting polyamines represents a promising antiviral strategy, and this work highlights a new mechanism by which we can inhibit virus replication through FDA-approved polyamine depleting pharmaceuticals.
  2. Cells. 2020 Jul 22. pii: E1749. [Epub ahead of print]9(8):
      Polyamines (PAs) regulate growth in plants and modulate the whole plant life cycle. They have been associated with different abiotic and biotic stresses, but little is known about the molecular regulation involved. We quantified gene expression of PA anabolic and catabolic pathway enzymes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig) leaves under heat versus cold stress. These include arginase 1 and 2, arginine decarboxylase 1 and 2, agmatine iminohydrolase/deiminase 1, N-carbamoyl putrescine amidase, two ornithine decarboxylases, three S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylases, two spermidine synthases; spermine synthase; flavin-dependent polyamine oxidases (SlPAO4-like and SlPAO2) and copper dependent amine oxidases (SlCuAO and SlCuAO-like). The spatiotemporal transcript abundances using qRT-PCR revealed presence of their transcripts in all tissues examined, with higher transcript levels observed for SAMDC1, SAMDC2 and ADC2 in most tissues. Cellular levels of free and conjugated forms of putrescine and spermidine were found to decline during heat stress while they increased in response to cold stress, revealing their differential responses. Transcript levels of ARG2, SPDS2, and PAO4-like increased in response to both heat and cold stresses. However, transcript levels of ARG1/2, AIH1, CPA, SPDS1 and CuAO4 increased in response to heat while those of ARG2, ADC1,2, ODC1, SAMDC1,2,3, PAO2 and CuPAO4-like increased in response to cold stress, respectively. Transcripts of ADC1,2, ODC1,2, and SPMS declined in response to heat stress while ODC2 transcripts declined under cold stress. These results show differential expression of PA metabolism genes under heat and cold stresses with more impairment clearly seen under heat stress. We interpret these results to indicate a more pronounced role of PAs in cold stress acclimation compared to that under heat stress in tomato leaves.
    Keywords:  cold-stress; heat-stress; polyamines-biosynthesis; polyamines-catabolism; putrescine (PUT); spermidine (SPD); spermine (SPM); tomato
  3. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(7): e0236115
      BACKGROUND: Anti-GD2 therapy with dinutuximab is effective in improving the survival of high-risk neuroblastoma patients in remission and after relapse. However, allodynia is the major dose-limiting side effect, hindering its use for neuroblastoma patients at higher doses and for other GD2-expressing malignancies. As polyamines can enhance neuronal sensitization, including development of allodynia and other forms of pathological pain, we hypothesized that polyamine depletion might prove an effective strategy for relief of anti-GD2 induced allodynia.METHOD: Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to drink water containing various concentrations of difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) for several days prior to behavioral testing. Anti-GD2 (14G2a) was injected into the tail vein of lightly sedated animals and basal mechanical hindpaw withdrawal threshold assessed by von Frey filaments. Endpoint serum DFMO and polyamines, assessed 24h after 14G2a injection, were measured by HPLC and mass spectrometry.
    RESULTS: An i.v. injection of 14G2a causes increased paw sensitivity to light touch in this model, a response that closely mimics patient allodynia. Animals allowed to drink water containing 1% DFMO exhibited a significant reduction of 14G2a-induced pain sensitivity (allodynia). Increasing the dosage of the immunotherapeutic increased the magnitude (intensity and duration) of the pain behavior. Administration of DFMO attenuated the enhanced sensitivity. Consistent with the known actions of DFMO on ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), serum putrescene and spermidine levels were significantly reduced by DFMO, though the decrease in endpoint polyamine levels did not directly correlate with the behavioral changes.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that DFMO is an effective agent for reducing anti-GD2 -induced allodynia. Using DFMO in conjunction with dinutuximab may allow for dose escalation in neuroblastoma patients. The reduction in pain may be sufficient to allow new patient populations to utilize this therapy given the more acceptable side effect profile. Thus, DFMO may be an important adjunct to anti-GD2 immunotherapy in addition to a role as a potential anti-cancer therapeutic.
  4. Biology (Basel). 2020 Jul 22. pii: E185. [Epub ahead of print]9(8):
      This study examined the expression patterns of antioxidative genes and the activity of the corresponding enzymes in the excess moisture-stressed seedlings of soybean in response to seed treatment with polyamines, spermine (Spm) and spermidine (Spd). At the 4 day after planting (DAP) stage, the excess moisture impaired the embryo axis growth, and this effect is associated with the downregulation of superoxide dismutase (GmSOD1) expression and SOD activity in the cotyledon. Seed treatment with Spm reversed the effects of excess moisture on embryo axis growth partly through enhancing glutathione reductase (GR) activity, in both the cotyledon and embryo axis, although no effect on the GmGR expression level was evident. Excess moisture inhibited the shoot and root growth in 7 DAP seedlings, and this is associated with decreased activities of GR in the shoot and SOD in the root. The effect of excess moisture on shoot and root growth was reversed by seed treatment with Spd, and this was mediated by the increased activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and GR in the shoot, and APX in the root, however, only GR in the shoot appears to be regulated transcriptionally. Root growth was also reversed by seed treatment with Spm with no positive effect on gene expression and enzyme activity.
    Keywords:  cotyledon; enzyme activity; gene expression; root; shoot; spermidine; spermine
  5. Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 22. 10(1): 12240
      Tea plant often suffers from low temperature induced damage during its growth. How to improve the cold resistance of tea plant is an urgent problem to be solved. Nitric oxide (NO), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and proline have been proved that can improve the cold resistance of tea plants, and signal transfer and biosynthesis link between them may enhance their function. NO is an important gas signal material in plant growth, but our understanding of the effects of NO on the GABA shunt, proline and NO biosynthesis are limited. In this study, the tea roots were treated with a NO donor (SNAP), NO scavenger (PTIO), and NO synthase inhibitor (L-NNA). SNAP could improve activities of arginine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate decarboxylase, GABA transaminase and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase and the expression level of related genes during the treatments. The contents of putrescine and spermidine under SNAP treatment were 45.3% and 37.3% higher compared to control at 24 h, and the spermine content under PTIO treatment were 57.6% lower compare to control at 12 h. Accumulation of proline of SNAP and L-NNA treatments was 52.2% and 43.2% higher than control at 48 h, indicating other pathway of NO biosynthesis in tea roots. In addition, the NO accelerated the consumption of GABA during cold storage. These facts indicate that NO enhanced the cold tolerance of tea, which might regulate the metabolism of the GABA shunt and of proline, associated with NO biosynthesis.
  6. Metabolites. 2020 Jul 16. pii: E289. [Epub ahead of print]10(7):
      Metabolic reprogramming is one of the hallmarks of tumors. Alterations of cellular metabolism not only contribute to tumor development, but also mediate the resistance of tumor cells to antitumor drugs. The metabolic response of tumor cells to various chemotherapy drugs can be analyzed by metabolomics. Although cancer cells have experienced metabolic reprogramming, the metabolism of drug resistant cancer cells has been further modified. Metabolic adaptations of drug resistant cells to chemotherapeutics involve redox, lipid metabolism, bioenergetics, glycolysis, polyamine synthesis and so on. The proposed metabolic mechanisms of drug resistance include the increase of glucose and glutamine demand, active pathways of glutaminolysis and glycolysis, promotion of NADPH from the pentose phosphate pathway, adaptive mitochondrial reprogramming, activation of fatty acid oxidation, and up-regulation of ornithine decarboxylase for polyamine production. Several genes are associated with metabolic reprogramming and drug resistance. Intervening regulatory points described above or targeting key genes in several important metabolic pathways may restore cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. This paper reviews the metabolic changes of tumor cells during the development of chemoresistance and discusses the potential of reversing chemoresistance by metabolic regulation.
    Keywords:  chemoresistance; drug resistance; metabolic regulation; metabolic reprogramming; reversal of chemoresistance
  7. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2020 Jul 21.
      Intrauterine hypoxia (IUH) affects the growth and development of offspring. It remains unclear that how long the impact of IUH on cognitive function lasts and whether sexual differences exist. Spermidine (SPD) has shown to improve cognition, but its effect on the cognitive function of IUH offspring remains unknown. In the present study we investigated the influence of IUH on body weight and neurological, motor and cognitive function and the expression of APP, BACE1 and Tau5 proteins in brain tissues in 2- and 4-month-old IUH rat offspring, as well as the effects of SPD intervention on these parameters. IUH rat model was established by treating pregnant rats with intermittent hypoxia on gestational days 15-21, meanwhile pregnant rats were administered SPD (5 mg·kg-1·d-1;ip) for 7 days. Neurological deficits were assessed in the Longa scoring test; motor and cognitive functions were evaluated in coat hanger test and active avoidance test, respectively. We found that IUH decreased the body weight of rats in both sexes but merely impaired motor and cognitive function in female rats without changing neurological function in the rat offspring of either sex at 2 months of age. For 4-month-old offspring, IUH decreased body weight in males and impaired neurological function and increased cognitive function in both sexes. IUH did not affect APP, BACE1 or Tau5 protein expression in either the hippocampus or cortex of all offspring; however, it increased the cortical Tau5 level in 2-month-old female offspring. Surprisingly, SPD intervention prevented weight loss. SPD intervention reversed the motor and cognitive decline caused by IUH in 2-month-old female rat offspring. Taken together, IUH-induced cognitive decline in rat offspring is sex-dependent during puberty and can be recovered in adult rats. SPD intervention improves IUH-induced cognitive and neural function decline.
    Keywords:  cognitive defects; intrauterine hypoxia; motor defects; neurological function; prenatal hypoxia; rat offspring; sexual differences; spermidine intervention