bims-polyam Biomed News
on Polyamines
Issue of 2020‒07‒05
eight papers selected by
Alexander Ivanov
Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology


  1. Aging (Albany NY). 2020 Jun 30. 12
    Fischer M, Ruhnau J, Schulze J, Obst D, Flöel A, Vogelgesang A.
      The global increase in neurodegenerative disorders is one of the most crucial public health issues. Oral polyamine intake was shown to improve memory performance which is thought to be mediated at least in part via increased autophagy induced in brain cells. In Alzheimer's Disease, T-cells were identified as important mediators of disease pathology. Since autophagy is a central regulator of cell activation and cytokine production, we investigated the influence of polyamines on T-cell activation, autophagy, and the release of Th1/Th2 cytokines from blood samples of patients (n=22) with cognitive impairment or dementia in comparison to healthy controls (n=12) ex vivo. We found that spermine downregulated all investigated cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Spermidine led to an upregulation of some cytokines for lower dosages, while high dosages downregulated all cytokines apart from upregulated IL-17A. Autophagy and T-cell activation increased in a dose-dependent manner by incubation with either polyamine. Although effects in patients were seen in lower concentrations, alterations were similar to controls.We provide novel evidence that supplementation of polyamines alters the function of T-cells. Given their important role in dementia, these data indicate a possible mechanism by which polyamines would help to prevent structural and cognitive decline in aging.
    Keywords:  T cell; cytokines; dementia; spermidine; spermine
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.103527
  2. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2020 Jun 27. 1-15
    Muthukumaran S, Sulochana KN, Umashankar V.
      Polyamine synthesis in human cells is initiated by catalytic action of Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) on Ornithine. Elevated levels of polyamines are manifested proliferating cancer cells and are found to promote tumour cell adhesion. Di-flouro methyl orninthine is a known inhibitor of ODC, however its usage is limited due its low affinity quick clearance and incompetent cellular uptake, thus posing a need for potential inhibitors. Currently, peptides are substituting drugs, as these are highly selective, specific and potent. Hence, in this study, the interacting interfaces of native homodimeric form of ODC and its heterodimer with Antizyme were probed to design inhibitory peptides targeting ODC. The designed peptides were validated for structural fitness by extensive molecular dynamics simulations and Circular dichroism studies. Finally, these peptides were validated in Y79 retinoblastoma cells for impact on ODC activity, cytotoxicity cell cycle and cell adhesion. On collective analysis, Peptide3 (Pep 3) and Peptide4 (Pep 4) were found to be potentially targeting ODC, as these peptides showed significant decrease in intracellular polyamine levels, cell adhesion and cell cycle perturbation in Y79 cells. Thus, Pep 3 and Pep 4 shall be favourably considered as therapeutic agents for targeting ODC mediated proliferation in retinoblastoma.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
    Keywords:  Ornithine decarboxylase; antizyme; cell adhesion; docking; peptide inhibitor; retinoblastoma
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1785331
  3. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2020 Jul 02. 271678X20928882
    Bourourou M, Gouix E, Melis N, Friard J, Heurteaux C, Tauc M, Blondeau N.
      In eukaryotes, the polyamine pathway generates spermidine that activates the hypusination of the translation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). Hypusinated-eIF5A modulates translation, elongation, termination and mitochondrial function. Evidence in model organisms like drosophila suggests that targeting polyamines synthesis might be of interest against ischemia. However, the potential of targeting eIF5A hypusination in stroke, the major therapeutic challenge specific to ischemia, is currently unknown. Using in vitro models of ischemic-related stress, we documented that GC7, a specific inhibitor of a key enzyme in the eIF5A activation pathway, affords neuronal protection. We identified the preservation of mitochondrial function and thereby the prevention of toxic ROS generation as major processes of GC7 protection. To represent a thoughtful opportunity of clinical translation, we explored whether GC7 administration reduces the infarct volume and functional deficits in an in vivo transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI) model in mice. A single GC7 pre- or post-treatment significantly reduces the infarct volume post-stroke. Moreover, GC7-post-treatment significantly improves mouse performance in the rotarod and Morris water-maze, highlighting beneficial effects on motor and cognitive post-stroke deficits. Our results identify the targeting of the polyamine-eIF5A-hypusine axis as a new therapeutic opportunity and new paradigm of research in stroke and ischemic diseases.
    Keywords:  Brain ischemia; eIF5A; mitochondria; oxidative stress neuroprotection; polyamine
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1177/0271678X20928882
  4. Sci Rep. 2020 Jun 29. 10(1): 10543
    Malta-Santos H, França-Costa J, Macedo A, Queiroz ATL, Fukutani KF, Muxel SM, Khouri R, Van Weyenbergh J, Boaventura V, Barral A, Costa JM, Floh EIS, Andrade BB, Floeter-Winter LM, Borges VM.
      Tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) is a parasitic disease that can result in wide spectrum clinical manifestations. It is necessary to understand host and parasite determinants of clinical outcomes to identify novel therapeutic targets. Previous studies have indicated that the polyamine biosynthetic pathway is critical for Leishmania growth and survival. Despite its importance, expression of the such pathway has not been previously investigated in TL patients. We performed an exploratory analysis employing Systems Biology tools to compare circulating polyamines and amino acid concentration as well as polyamine pathway gene expression in cutaneous lesions patients presenting with distinct TL disease presentations. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) was associated with higher concentrations of amino acids, polyamines and its substrate transporters than mucosal cutaneous leishmaniasis or localized cutaneous leishmaniasis. In addition, the RNA expression of polyamine-related genes of patients lesions from two separate cohorts demonstrated that differential activation of this pathway is associated with parasite loads and able to discriminate the clinical spectrum of TL. Taken together, our findings highlight a new aspect of DCL immunopathogenesis indicating that the polyamine pathway may be explored as a novel therapeutic target to control disease burden.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67432-5
  5. Life Sci. 2020 Jun 29. pii: S0024-3205(20)30781-5. [Epub ahead of print] 118031
    Sato M, Toyama T, Kim MS, Lee JY, Hoshi T, Miura N, Naganuma A, Hwang GW.
      AIMS: We had previously reported that addition of putrescine to the culture medium was reported to reduce methylmercury toxicity in C17.2 neural stem cells. Here, we have examined the inhibition of methylmercury-induced cytotoxicity by putrescine using ODC1-overexpressing C17.2 cells.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established stable ODC1-overexpressing C17.2 cells and evaluated methylmercury-induced apoptosis by examining the TUNEL assay and cleaved caspase-3 levels. Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis was also evaluated by reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential and recruitment of Bax and Bak to the mitochondria.
    KEY FINDINGS: ODC is encoded by ODC1 gene, and putrescine levels in ODC1-overexpressing cells were significantly higher than in control cells. Overexpression of ODC1 and addition of putrescine to the culture medium suppressed DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation, which are observed when apoptosis is induced by methylmercury. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caused by methylmercury, were also inhibited by the overexpression of ODC1 and putrescine; pretreatment with ODC inhibitor, however, promoted both ROS generation and apoptosis by methylmercury. Finally, we found that Bax and Bak, the apoptosis-promoting factors, to be increased in mitochondria, following methylmercury treatment, and the same was inhibited by overexpression of ODC1. These results suggest that overexpression of ODC1 may prevent mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by methylmercury via increase of putrescine levels.
    SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings provide important clues to clarify mechanisms involved in the defense against methylmercury toxicity and suggest novel biological functions of putrescine.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Methylmercury; Mitochondria; ODC1; Putrescine
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118031
  6. Kidney Int. 2020 Jun 27. pii: S0085-2538(20)30715-8. [Epub ahead of print]
    Liang W, Yamahara K, Hernando-Erhard C, Lagies S, Wanner N, Liang H, Schell C, Kammerer B, Huber TB, Bork T.
      Podocyte maintenance and stress resistance are exquisitely based on high basal rates of autophagy making these cells a unique model to unravel mechanisms of autophagy regulation. Polyamines have key cellular functions such as proliferation, nucleic acid biosynthesis and autophagy. Here we test whether endogenous spermidine signaling is a driver of basal and dynamic autophagy in podocytes by using genetic and pharmacologic approaches to interfere with different steps of polyamine metabolism. Translational studies revealed altered spermidine signaling in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in vivo and in vitro. Exogenous spermidine supplementation emerged as new treatment strategy by successfully activating autophagy in vivo via inhibition of EP300, a protein with an essential role in controlling cell growth, cell division and prompting cells to differentiate to take on specialized functions. Surprisingly, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy based untargeted metabolomics of wild type and autophagy deficient primary podocytes revealed a positive feed-back mechanism whereby autophagy itself maintains polyamine metabolism and spermidine synthesis. The transcription factor MAFB acted as an upstream regulator of polyamine metabolism. Thus, our data highlight a novel positive feedback loop of autophagy and spermidine signaling allowing maintenance of high basal levels of autophagy as a key mechanism to sustain the filtration barrier. Hence, spermidine supplementation may emerge as a new therapeutic to restore autophagy in glomerular disease.
    Keywords:  LC3; MAFB; autophagy; podocyte; polyamine; spermidine
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.06.016
  7. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2020 Jun 26. pii: S0091-3057(20)30340-3. [Epub ahead of print] 172976
    Kotagale N, Dixit M, Garmelwar H, Bhondekar S, Umekar M, Taksande B.
      Agmatine is a biogenic amine synthesized following decarboxylation of L-arginine by the enzyme arginine decarboxylase and exhibits favourable outcome in neurodegenerative disorders. Present study was designed to examine the relationship between agmatine and the imidazoline receptors in memory deficits induced by Aβ1-42 peptide in mice. Mice were treated with single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ1-42 peptide (3 μg) and evaluated for learning and memory in Morris water maze (MWM) and subjected to Aβ1-42, TNF-α and IL-6 and BDNF immunocontent analysis within the hippocampus. While the learning and memory impairment was evident in the mice subjected to MWM test following Aβ1-42 peptide administration, there was a significant increase in Aβ1-42, TNF-α and IL-6 and reduction in BDNF immunocontent within the hippocampus. Daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment with agmatine (10 and 20 mg/kg); imidazoline I1 receptor agonist, moxonidine and imidazoline I2 receptor agonist, 2-BFI starting from day 8 to 27 post-Aβ1-42 injection, significantly prevented the cognitive deficits and normalized the Aβ1-42 peptide, IL-6, TNF-α and BDNF immunocontent in hippocampus. On the other hand, pre-treatment with imidazoline I1 receptor antagonist, efaroxan and imidazoline I2 receptor antagonist, BU224 attenuated the effects of agmatine on learning and memory in MWM, IL-6, TNF-α and BDNF content. In conclusion, the present study provides functional evidence for the involvement of the imidazoline receptors in agmatine induced reversal of Aβ1-42 induced memory deficits in mice. The data projects agmatine and imidazoline receptor agonists as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of AD.
    Keywords:  Agmatine; Alzheimer's disease; Imidazoline receptors; Memory deficits; Neurotoxicity; β-Amyloid(1–42) peptide
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2020.172976
  8. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2020 Mar 31. pii: S0739-7240(20)30046-1. [Epub ahead of print]74 106479
    Reichhardt CC, Ahmadpour A, Christensen RG, Ineck NE, Murdoch GK, Thornton KJ.
      Approximately 90% of beef cattle on feed in the United States receive at least one anabolic implant, which results in increased growth, efficiency, and economic return to producers. However, the complete molecular mechanism through which anabolic implants function to improve skeletal muscle growth remains unknown. This study had 2 objectives: (1) determine the effect of polyamines and their precursors on proliferation rate in bovine satellite cells (BSC); and (2) understand whether trenbolone acetate (TBA), a testosterone analog, has an impact on the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. To address these, BSC were isolated from 3 finished steers and cultured. Once cultures reached 75% confluency, they were treated in 1% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and/or 10 nM TBA, 10 mM methionine (Met), 8 mM ornithine (Orn), 2 mM putrescine (Put), 1.5 mM spermidine (Spd), or 0.5 mM spermine (Spe). Initially, a range of physiologically relevant concentrations of Met, Orn, Put, Spd, and Spe were tested to determine experimental doses to implement the aforementioned experiments. One, 12, or 24 h after treatment, mRNA was isolated from cultures and abundance of paired box transcription factor 7 (Pax7), Sprouty 1 (Spry), mitogen-activated protein kinase-1 (Mapk), ornithine decarboxylase (Odc), and S adenosylmethionine (Amd1) were determined, and normalized to 18S. No treatment × time interactions were observed (P ≥ 0.05). Treatment with TBA, Met, Orn, Put, Spd, or Spe increased (P ≤ 0.05) BSC proliferation when compared with control cultures. Treatment of cultures with Orn or Met increased (P ≤ 0.01) expression of Odc 1 h after treatment when compared with control cultures. Abundance of Amd1 was increased (P < 0.01) 1 h after treatment in cultures treated with Spd or Spe when compared with 1% FBS controls. Cultures treated with TBA had increased (P < 0.01) abundance of Spry mRNA 12 h after treatment, as well as increased mRNA abundance of Mapk (P < 0.01) 12 h and 24 h after treatment when compared with 1% FBS control cultures. Treatment with Met increased (P < 0.01) mRNA abundance of Pax7 1 h after treatment as compared with 1% FBS controls. These results indicate that treatments of BSC cultures with polyamines and their precursors increase BSC proliferation rate, as well as abundance of mRNA involved in cell proliferation. In addition, treatment of BSC cultures with TBA, polyamines, or polyamine precursors impacts expression of genes related to the polyamine biosynthetic pathway and proliferation.
    Keywords:  Bovine; Polyamine biosynthesis; Proliferation; Satellite cell; Skeletal muscle growth; Testosterone
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.domaniend.2020.106479