bims-polyam Biomed News
on Polyamines
Issue of 2020‒05‒31
seven papers selected by
Alexander Ivanov
Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology


  1. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2020 May 23.
    Murray Stewart T, Desai AA, Fitzgerald ML, Marton LJ, Casero RA.
      PURPOSE: Polyamines are essential for the sustained proliferation and biomass required by tumor cells. Bis-alkylated polyamine analogs are nonfunctional competitors of natural polyamines. Of these, PG-11047, a second-generation unsaturated analog of the polyamine spermine, has demonstrated anticancer activity in cell lines and animal models of multiple cancer types. This report describes the first phase I clinical trial to investigate PG-11047 in patients with advanced refractory metastatic solid tumors.METHODS: Forty-six patients were treated with 60-min intravenous infusions of PG-11047 using a 28-day dosing cycle with treatments on days 1, 8, and 15. Doses ranged from 50 to 750 mg. The treatment period consisted of at least two cycles.
    RESULTS: The maximum tolerated dose of PG-11047 administered at this dosing schedule was 610 mg. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) were mainly gastrointestinal, including oral/anal mucositis and diarrhea; other DLTs included one case each of angioedema and a grade 3 alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increase. The most common adverse effects were fatigue and anorexia. Stable disease was documented in 30% of patients.
    CONCLUSION: Results of this phase I trial suggest that PG-11047 can be safely administered to patients on the once weekly dosing schedule described. The manageable toxicity profile and high MTD determination provide a safety profile for further clinical studies, including those in combination with current chemotherapeutic agents.
    Keywords:  Bis-alkyl polyamine analog; Cancer; Chemotherapy; Clinical trial
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00280-020-04082-4
  2. Brain Res. 2020 May 22. pii: S0006-8993(20)30253-5. [Epub ahead of print] 146897
    Akyol S, Yilmaz A, Joon Oh K, Ugur Z, Aydas B, McGuinness B, Passmore P, Kehoe PG, Maddens M, Green BD, Graham SF.
      Disruptions of brain metabolism are considered integral to the pathogenesis of dementia, but thus far little is known of how dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) impacts the brain metabolome. DLB is less well known than other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease which is perhaps why it is under-investigated. This exploratory study aimed to address current knowledge gaps in DLB research and search for potentially targetable biochemical pathways for therapeutics. It also aimed to better understand metabolic similarities and differences with other dementias. Combined metabolomic analyses of 1H NMR and tandem mass spectrometry of neocortical post-mortem brain tissue (Brodmann region 7) from autopsy confirmed cases of DLB (n=15) were compared with age/gender-matched, non-cognitively impaired healthy controls (n=30). Following correction for multiple comparisons, only 2 metabolites from a total of 219 measured compounds significantly differed. Putrescine was suppressed (55.4%) in DLB and O-phosphocholine was elevated (52.5%). We identified a panel of 5 metabolites (PC aa C38:4, O-Phosphocholine, putrescine, 4-Aminobutyrate, and SM C16:0) capable of accurately discriminating between DLB and control subjects. Deep Learning (DL) provided the best predictive model following 10-fold cross validation (AUROC (95% CI) = 0.80 (0.60-1.0)) with sensitivity and specificity equal to 0.92 and 0.88, respectively. Altered brain levels of putrescine and O-phosphocholine indicate that the Kennedy pathway and polyamine metabolism are perturbed in DLB. These are accompanied by a consistent underlying trend of lipid dysregulation. As yet it is unclear whether these are a cause or consequence of DLB onset.
    Keywords:  (1)H NMR; Dementia with Lewy Bodies; brain; metabolic pathways; metabolomics; targeted mass spectrometry
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2020.146897
  3. Pharmacol Res. 2020 May 24. pii: S1043-6618(20)31251-2. [Epub ahead of print] 104943
    Fan J, Feng Z, Chena N.
      
    Keywords:  autophagy; caloric restriction; immunosurveillance; spermidine; tumorigenesis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104943
  4. Amino Acids. 2020 May 24.
    Adacan K, Obakan-Yerlikaya P, Arisan ED, Coker-Gurkan A, Kaya RI, Palavan-Unsal N.
      Epibrassinolide (EBR), a polyhydroxysteroid belongs to plant growth regulator family, brassinosteroids and has been shown to have a similar chemical structure to mammalian steroid hormones. Our findings indicated that EBR could trigger apoptosis in cancer cells via induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, caused by protein folding disturbance in the ER. Normal cells exhibited a remarkable resistance to EBR treatment and avoid from apoptotic cell death. The unfolded protein response clears un/misfolded proteins and restore ER functions. When stress is chronic, cells tend to die due to improper cellular functions. To understand the effect of EBR in non-malign cells, mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells were investigated in detail for ER stress biomarkers, autophagy, and polyamine metabolism in this study. Evolutionary conserved autophagy mechanism is a crucial cellular process to clean damaged organelles and protein aggregates through lysosome under the control of autophagy-related genes (ATGs). Cells tend to activate autophagy to promote cell survival under stress conditions. Polyamines are polycationic molecules playing a role in the homeostasis of important cellular events such as cell survival, growth, and, proliferation. The administration of PAs has been markedly extended the lifespan of various organisms via inducing autophagy and inhibiting oxidative stress. Our data indicated that ER stress is induced following EBR treatment in MEF cells as well as MEF Atg5-/- cells. In addition, autophagy is activated following EBR treatment by targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR in wildtype (wt) cells. However, EBR-induced autophagy targets ULK1 in MEF cells lacking Atg5 expression. Besides, EBR treatment depleted the PA pool in MEF cells through the alterations of metabolic enzymes. The administration of Spd with EBR further increased autophagic vacuole formation. In conclusion, EBR is an anticancer drug candidate with selective cytotoxicity for cancer cells, in addition the induction of autophagy and PA metabolism are critical for responses of normal cells against EBR.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Autophagy; ER stress; Epibrassinolide; Polyamines
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-020-02857-w
  5. J Cell Physiol. 2020 May 29.
    Yu Y, Ladeiras D, Xiong Y, Boligan KF, Liang X, von Gunten S, Hunger RE, Ming XF, Yang Z.
      Elevated arginase type II (Arg-II) associates with higher grade tumors. Its function and underlying molecular mechanisms in melanoma remain elusive. In the present study, we observed a significantly higher frequency of Arg-II expression in melanoma of patients with metastasis than those without metastasis. Silencing Arg-II in two human melanoma cell lines slowed down the cell growth, while overexpression of native but not a catalytically inactive Arg-II promoted cell proliferation without affecting cell death. Treatment of cells with arginase inhibitor also reduced melanoma cell number, demonstrating that Arg-II promotes melanoma cell proliferation dependently of its enzymatic activity. However, results from silencing Arg-II or overexpressing native or the inactive Arg-II as well as treatment with arginase inhibitor showed that Arg-II promotes melanoma metastasis-related processes, such as melanoma cell migration and adhesion on endothelial cells, independently of its enzymatic activity. Moreover, the treatment of the cells with STAT3 inhibitor suppressed Arg-II-promoted melanoma cell migration and adhesion. Furthermore, catalase, but not superoxide dismutase, prevented STAT3 activation as well as increased melanoma cell migration and adhesion induced by overexpressing native or the inactive Arg-II. Taken together, our study uncovers both activity-dependent and independent mechanisms of Arg-II in promoting melanoma progression. While Arg-II enhances melanoma cell proliferation through polyamine dependently of its enzymatic activity, it promotes metastasis-related processes, that is, migration and adhesion onto endothelial cell, through mitochondrial H2 O2 -STAT3 pathway independently of the enzymatic activity. Suppressing Arg-II expression rather than inhibiting its enzymatic activity may, therefore, represent a novel strategy for the treatment of melanoma.
    Keywords:  ROS; STAT3; arginase-II; melanoma; metastasis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29814
  6. Nanotoxicology. 2020 May 25. 1-20
    Bannuscher A, Hellack B, Bahl A, Laloy J, Herman H, Stan MS, Dinischiotu A, Giusti A, Krause BC, Tentschert J, Roșu M, Balta C, Hermenean A, Wiemann M, Luch A, Haase A.
      Nanomaterials (NMs) can be produced in plenty of variants posing several challenges for NM hazard and risk assessment. Metabolomic profiling of NM-treated cells and tissues allows for insights into underlying Mode-of-Action (MoA) and offers several advantages in this context. It supports the description of Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) and, therefore, tailored AOP-based hazard testing strategies. Moreover, it bears great potential for biomarker discovery supporting toxicity prediction. Here, we applied metabolomics profiling to cells treated with four well-selected SiO2 variants, differing in structure, size and surface charge. TiO2 NM-105 served as a benchmark. Responses were studied in vitro in rat lung epithelial cells (RLE-6TN) and alveolar macrophages (NR8383) and compared to in vivo responses in rat lung tissues obtained from in vivo instillation and short-term inhalation studies (STIS). Time- and concentration-dependent changes were observed in both in vitro models but with cell-type specific responses. Overall, the levels of lipids and biogenic amines (BAs) tended to increase in epithelial cells but decreased in macrophages. Many identified metabolites like Met-SO, hydroxy-Pro and spermidine were related to oxidative stress, indicating that oxidative stress contributes to the MoA for the selected NMs. Several biomarker candidates such as Asp, Asn, Ser, Pro, spermidine, putrescine and LysoPCaC16:1 were identified in vitro and verified in vivo. In this study, we successfully applied a metabolomics workflow for in vitro and in vivo samples, which proved to be well suited to identify potential biomarkers, to gain insights into NM structure-activity relationship and into the underlying MoA.
    Keywords:  Nanoparticles; biomarker; mechanistic toxicology; metabolomics
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/17435390.2020.1764123
  7. Biosci Rep. 2020 May 26. pii: BSR20193314. [Epub ahead of print]
    Yi R, Wang H, Deng C, Wang X, Yao L, Niu W, Fei M, Zhaba W.
      It has been demonstrated from previous studies about the killing effect of dihydroartemisinin(DHA) on glioblastoma, which involves multiple aspects: cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest and invasion inhibition. DHA has the advantages of low cytotoxicity to normal cells, selective killing effect and low drug resistance, making it one of the popular anti-tumor research directions. Ferroptosis is a newly discovered form of cell death characterized by iron dependence and lipid reactive oxygen species(ROS) accumulation. In this study, we found differences in the expression of transferrin receptors in normal human astrocytes(NHA) and glioblastoma cells (U87 and A172), which may be one of the mechanisms of DHA selective killing effect. Through the determination of ferroptosis-related protein expression, we found that the significant decrease of GPX4, accompanied by the constant expression of xCT and ACSL4, suggesting GPX4 was a pivotal target for DHA-activated ferroptosis in glioblastoma. Total and lipid ROS levels were increased and all these results could be reversed by the ferroptosis inhibitor, ferrostatin-1. These findings demonstrated ferroptosis would be a critical component of cell death caused by DHA and GPX4 was the main target. All these results provide a novel treatment direction to glioblastoma. The association between ferroptosis and polyamines is also discussed, which will provide new research directions for ferroptosis caused by DHA in glioblastoma.
    Keywords:  dihydroartemisinin; ferroptosis; glioma; selective; transferrin receptors
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1042/BSR20193314