bims-plasge Biomed News
on Plastid genes
Issue of 2021‒12‒12
two papers selected by
Vera S. Bogdanova
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  1. Rice (N Y). 2021 Dec 07. 14(1): 99
      BACKGROUND: The exploitation of useful genes through interspecific and intersubspecific crosses has been an important strategy for the genetic improvement of rice. Postzygotic reproductive isolation routinely occurs to hinder the growth of pollen or embryo sacs during the reproductive development of the wide crosses.RESULT: In this study, we investigated the genetic relationship between the hybrid breakdown of the population and transferred resistance genes derived from wide crosses using a near-isogenic population composed of 225 lines. Five loci (qSS12, qSS8, qSS11, ePS6-1, and ePS6-2) associated with spikelet fertility (SF) were identified by QTL and epistatic analysis, and two out of five epistasis interactions were found between the three QTLs (qSS12, qSS8 and qSS11) and background marker loci (ePS6-1 and ePS6-2) on chromosome 6. The results of the QTL combinations suggested a genetic model that explains most of the interactions between spikelet fertility and the detected loci with positive or negative effects. Moreover, the major-effect QTLs, qSS12 and qSS8, which exhibited additive gene effects, were narrowed down to 82- and 200-kb regions on chromosomes 12 and 8, respectively. Of the 13 ORFs present in the target regions, Os12g0589400 and Os12g0589898 for qSS12 and OS8g0298700 for qSS8 induced significantly different expression levels of the candidate genes in rice at the young panicle stage.
    CONCLUSION: The results will be useful for obtaining a further understanding of the mechanism causing the hybrid breakdown of a wide cross and will provide new information for developing rice cultivars with wide compatibility.
    Keywords:  Hybrid breakdown; Interspecies cross; QTL; Rice; Spikelet fertility; Spikelet sterility
  2. Front Plant Sci. 2021 ;12 781793
      The plastid is an essential organelle in autotrophic plant cells, descending from free-living cyanobacteria and acquired by early eukaryotic cells through endosymbiosis roughly one billion years ago. It contained a streamlined genome (plastome) that is uniparentally inherited and non-recombinant, which makes it an ideal tool for resolving the origin and diversity of plant species and populations. In the present study, a large dataset was amassed by de novo assembling plastomes from 295 common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) and 1135 Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) accessions, supplemented with 34 plastomes from other Oryza species. From this dataset, the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of O. rufipogon and O. sativa were reconstructed. Our results revealed two major maternal lineages across the two species, which further diverged into nine well supported genetic clusters. Among them, the Or-wj-I/II/III and Or-wi-I/II genetic clusters were shared with cultivated (percentage for each cluster ranging 54.9%∼99.3%) and wild rice accessions. Molecular dating, phylogeographic analyses and reconstruction of population historical dynamics indicated an earlier origin of the Or-wj-I/II genetic clusters from East Asian with at least two population expansions, and later origins of other genetic clusters from multiple regions with one or more population expansions. These results supported a single origin of japonica rice (mainly in Or-wj-I/II) and multiple origins of indica rice (in all five clusters) for the history of rice domestication. The massive plastomic data set presented here provides an important resource for understanding the history and evolution of rice domestication as well as a genomic resources for use in future breeding and conservation efforts.
    Keywords:  conservation genetics; crop wild relatives; germplasm resources; phylogeography; plant domestication