bims-plasge Biomed News
on Plastid genes
Issue of 2020‒03‒22
two papers selected by
Vera S. Bogdanova
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  1. Front Genet. 2020 ;11 95
      The regulation of mitochondrial proteome is unique in that its components have origins in both mitochondria and nucleus. With the development of OMICS technologies, emerging evidence indicates an interaction between mitochondria and nucleus based not only on the proteins but also on the non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). It is now accepted that large parts of the non-coding genome are transcribed into various ncRNA species. Although their characterization has been a hot topic in recent years, the function of the majority remains unknown. Recently, ncRNA species microRNA (miRNA) and long-non coding RNAs (lncRNA) have been gaining attention as direct or indirect modulators of the mitochondrial proteome homeostasis. These ncRNA can impact mitochondria indirectly by affecting transcripts encoding for mitochondrial proteins in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, reports of mitochondria-localized miRNAs, termed mitomiRs, and lncRNAs directly regulating mitochondrial gene expression suggest the import of RNA to mitochondria, but also transcription from the mitochondrial genome. Interestingly, ncRNAs have been also shown to hide small open reading frames (sORFs) encoding for small functional peptides termed micropeptides, with several examples reported with a role in mitochondria. In this review, we provide a literature overview on ncRNAs and micropeptides found to be associated with mitochondrial biology in the context of both health and disease. Although reported, small study overlap and rare replications by other groups make the presence, transport, and role of ncRNA in mitochondria an attractive, but still challenging subject. Finally, we touch the topic of their potential as prognosis markers and therapeutic targets.
    Keywords:  lncRNA; miRNA; micropeptide; mitochondria; mtDNA; ncRNA
  2. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Mar 17. pii: E2043. [Epub ahead of print]21(6):
      Environmental stress hampers pea productivity. To understand the genetic basis of heat resistance, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted on six stress responsive traits of physiological and agronomic importance in pea, with an objective to identify the genetic loci associated with these traits. One hundred and thirty-five genetically diverse pea accessions from major pea growing areas of the world were phenotyped in field trials across five environments, under generally ambient (control) and heat stress conditions. Statistical analysis of phenotype indicated significant effects of genotype (G), environment (E), and G × E interaction for all traits. A total of 16,877 known high-quality SNPs were used for association analysis to determine marker-trait associations (MTA). We identified 32 MTAs that were consistent in at least three environments for association with the traits of stress resistance: six for chlorophyll concentration measured by a soil plant analysis development meter; two each for photochemical reflectance index and canopy temperature; seven for reproductive stem length; six for internode length; and nine for pod number. Forty-eight candidate genes were identified within 15 kb distance of these markers. The identified markers and candidate genes have potential for marker-assisted selection towards the development of heat resistant pea cultivars.
    Keywords:  GWAS; candidate-gene; genetic diversity; genotyping-by-sequencing; heat stress; marker-trait association; pea