bims-plasge Biomed News
on Plastid genes
Issue of 2020‒03‒08
three papers selected by
Vera S. Bogdanova
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  1. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(3): e0229554
    Singh M, Kumar S, Basandrai AK, Basandrai D, Malhotra N, Saxena DR, Gupta D, Sarker A, Singh K.
      Domesticated lentil has a relatively narrow genetic base globally and most released varieties are susceptible to severe biotic and abiotic stresses. The crop wild relatives could provide new traits of interest for tailoring novel germplasm and cultivated lentil improvement. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate wild lentil accessions for identification of economically viable agro-morphological traits and resistance against major biotic stresses. The study has revealed substantial variations in seed yield and its important component characters. Further, the diversity analysis of wild accessions showed two major clusters which were bifurcated into sub-clusters, thereby suggesting their wider genetic divergence. However, principal component analysis exhibited that seed yield plant-1, number of seeds plant-1, number of pods plant-1, harvest index and biological yield plant-1 contributed significantly to the total genetic variation assessed in wild lentil taxa. Moreover, some of the wild accessions collected from Syria and Turkey regions showed resistance against more than one disease indicating rich diversity of lentil genetic resources. The identification of most promising genotypes carrying resistance against major biotic stresses could be utilized in the cultivated or susceptible varieties of lentil for enhancing genetic gains. The study has also identified some trait specific accessions, which could also be taken into the consideration while planning distant hybridization in lentil.
  2. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2020 Mar 05.
    Lu C, Xie Z, Yu F, Tian L, Hao X, Wang X, Chen L, Li D.
      Mitochondrial function is critical for cellular vitality in all eukaryotes including plants. Although plant mitochondria house a large number of proteins, only a small portion of proteins have been studied in the context of plant development and physiology. We used knock-down mutant of RPS9M to study its important role in male gametogenesis and seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Knock-down of RPS9M in rps9m-3 mutant led to abnormal pollen development and impaired pollen tube growth. In addition, both the embryo and endosperm development were affected. Phenotype analysis revealed that the rps9m-3 mutant contained lesser endosperm nuclear, and the embryo cell divisions and embryo pattern were affected, resulting in abnormal and defective embryo. Lowering the level of RPS9M in rps9m-3 plants affect mitochondrial ribosome biogenesis, energy metabolism and production of reactive oxygen species. Our data revealed that RPS9M plays important roles in normal gametophyte development and seed formation, possibly by sustaining mitochondria function.
    Keywords:   Arabidopsis thaliana ; development; mitochondrion; pollen; ribosomal protein; seed
  3. Theor Appl Genet. 2020 Mar 02.
    Jost M, Singh D, Lagudah E, Park RF, Dracatos P.
      KEY MESSAGE: Fine mapping of the barley leaf rust resistance locus Rph13 on chromosome 3HL facilitates its use in breeding programs through marker-assisted selection. Barley leaf rust (BLR-caused by Puccinia hordei) is a widespread fungal disease that can be effectively controlled by genetic resistance. There is an ongoing need to both diversify and genetically characterise resistance loci to provide effective and durable control given the ongoing threat of rapidly evolving P. hordei populations. Here, we report on the molecular genetic characterisation of the Rph13 locus, originally derived from wild barley and transferred to barley accession Berac (then referred to as PI 531849). The 2017 reference genome of cv. Morex was used as a road map to rapidly narrow both a genetic and physical intervals around the Rph13 resistance locus. Using recombination-based mapping, we narrowed the physical interval to 116.6 kb on chromosome 3H in a segregating population of a cross of the Rph13 carrying resistant line PI 531849 with the leaf rust-susceptible cultivar Gus. We identified two nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat genes as likely candidates for the Rph13 resistance. Sequences from the candidate genes enabled the development of a KASP marker that distinguished resistant and susceptible progeny and was found to be predictive and useful for MAS.