bims-plasge Biomed News
on Plastid genes
Issue of 2020‒02‒23
three papers selected by
Vera S. Bogdanova
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  1. Front Plant Sci. 2019 ;10 1770
    Curaba J, Bostan H, Cavagnaro PF, Senalik D, Mengist MF, Zhao Y, Simon PW, Iorizzo M.
      Anthocyanins are natural health promoting pigments that can be produced in large quantities in some purple carrot cultivars. Decoration patterns of anthocyanins, such as acylation, can greatly influence their stability and biological properties and use in the food industry as nutraceuticals and natural colorants. Despite recent advances made toward understanding the genetic control of anthocyanin accumulation in purple carrot, the genetic mechanism controlling acylation of anthocyanin in carrot root have not been studied yet. In the present study, we performed fine mapping combined with gene expression analyses (RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR) to identify the genetic factor conditioning the accumulation of non-acylated (Cy3XGG) versus acylated (Cy3XFGG and Cy3XSGG) cyanidin derivatives, in three carrot populations. Segregation and mapping analysis pointed to a single gene with dominant effect controlling anthocyanin acylation in the root, located in a 576kb region containing 29 predicted genes. Orthologous and phylogenetic analyses enabled the identification of a cluster of three SCPL-acyltransferases coding genes within this region. Comparative transcriptome analysis indicated that only one of these three genes, DcSCPL1, was always expressed in association with anthocyanin pigmentation in the root and was co-expressed with DcMYB7, a gene known to activate anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in carrot. DcSCPL1 sequence analysis, in root tissue containing a low level of acylated anthocyanins, demonstrated the presence of an insertion causing an abnormal splicing of the 3rd exon during mRNA editing, likely resulting in the production of a non-functional acyltransferase and explaining the reduced acylation phenotype. This study provides strong linkage-mapping and functional evidences for the candidacy of DcSCPL1 as a primary regulator of anthocyanin acylation in carrot storage root.
    Keywords:  Daucus carota L.; acyltransferase; anthocyanins; candidate genes; fine mapping; transcriptome
  2. J Hered. 2020 Feb 19. pii: esaa003. [Epub ahead of print]
    Jewell CP, Zhang SV, Gibson MJS, Tovar-Méndez A, McClure B, Moyle LC.
      A goal of speciation genetics is to understand how the genetic components underlying interspecific reproductive barriers originate within species. Unilateral incompatibility (UI) is a postmating prezygotic barrier in which pollen rejection in the female reproductive tract (style) occurs in only one direction of an interspecific cross. Natural variation in the strength of UI has been observed among populations within species in the wild tomato clade. In some cases, molecular loci underlying self-incompatibility (SI) are associated with this variation in UI, but the mechanistic connection between these intra- and inter-specific pollen rejection behaviors is poorly understood in most instances. We generated an F2 population between SI and SC genotypes of a single species, Solanum pennellii, to examine the genetic basis of intraspecific variation in UI against other species, and to determine whether loci underlying SI are genetically associated with this variation. We found that F2 individuals vary in the rate at which UI rejection occurs. One large effect QTL detected for this trait co-localized with the SI-determining S-locus. Moreover, individuals that expressed S-RNase-the S-locus protein involved in SI pollen rejection-in their styles had much more rapid UI responses compared to those without S-RNase protein. Our analysis shows that intraspecific variation at mate choice loci-in this case at loci that prevent self-fertilization-can contribute to variation in the expression of interspecific isolation, including postmating prezygotic barriers. Understanding the nature of such intraspecific variation can provide insight into the accumulation of these barriers between diverging lineages.
    Keywords:   S-locus; QTL; postmating prezygotic; reproductive isolation; self-compatibility; unilateral incompatibility
  3. J Exp Bot. 2020 Feb 18. pii: eraa050. [Epub ahead of print]
    Cucinotta M, Di Marzo M, Guazzotti A, de Folter S, Kater MM, Colombo L.
      Angiosperms form the biggest group of land plants and display an astonishing diversity of floral structures. The development of the flowers greatly contributed to the evolutionary success of the angiosperms as they guarantee efficient reproduction with the help of either biotic or abiotic vectors. The female reproductive part of the flower is the gynoecium (also called pistil). Ovules arise from meristematic tissue within the gynoecium. Upon fertilization, these ovules develop into seeds while the gynoecium turns into a fruit. Gene regulatory networks involving transcription factors and hormonal communication regulate ovule primordium initiation, their spacing on the placenta, and ovule development. Ovule number and gynoecium size are usually correlated and several genetic factors that impact these traits have been identified. Understanding and fine-tuning the gene regulatory networks influencing ovule number and pistil length opens up strategies for crop yield improvement, which is pivotal in light of a rapidly growing world population. In this review, we present an overview of the current knowledge of the genes and hormones involved in determining ovule number and gynoecium size. We propose a model for the gene regulatory network that guides the developmental processes that determine seed yield.
    Keywords:  gynoecium; hormones; organ boundary; ovule number; ovule primordia; pistil; seed yield