bims-plasge Biomed News
on Plastid genes
Issue of 2019‒12‒01
two papers selected by
Vera S. Bogdanova
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  1. BMC Genomics. 2019 Nov 21. 20(1): 889
      BACKGROUND: Improving fiber quality and yield are the primary research objectives in cotton breeding for enhancing the economic viability and sustainability of Upland cotton production. Identifying the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fiber quality and yield traits using the high-density SNP-based genetic maps allows for bridging genomics with cotton breeding through marker assisted and genomic selection. In this study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, derived from cross between two parental accessions, which represent broad allele diversity in Upland cotton, was used to construct high-density SNP-based linkage maps and to map the QTLs controlling important cotton traits.RESULTS: Molecular genetic mapping using RIL population produced a genetic map of 3129 SNPs, mapped at a density of 1.41 cM. Genetic maps of the individual chromosomes showed good collinearity with the sequence based physical map. A total of 106 QTLs were identified which included 59 QTLs for six fiber quality traits, 38 QTLs for four yield traits and 9 QTLs for two morphological traits. Sub-genome wide, 57 QTLs were mapped in A sub-genome and 49 were mapped in D sub-genome. More than 75% of the QTLs with favorable alleles were contributed by the parental accession NC05AZ06. Forty-six mapped QTLs each explained more than 10% of the phenotypic variation. Further, we identified 21 QTL clusters where 12 QTL clusters were mapped in the A sub-genome and 9 were mapped in the D sub-genome. Candidate gene analyses of the 11 stable QTL harboring genomic regions identified 19 putative genes which had functional role in cotton fiber development.
    CONCLUSION: We constructed a high-density genetic map of SNPs in Upland cotton. Collinearity between genetic and physical maps indicated no major structural changes in the genetic mapping populations. Most traits showed high broad-sense heritability. One hundred and six QTLs were identified for the fiber quality, yield and morphological traits. Majority of the QTLs with favorable alleles were contributed by improved parental accession. More than 70% of the mapped QTLs shared the similar map position with previously reported QTLs which suggest the genetic relatedness of Upland cotton germplasm. Identification of QTL clusters could explain the correlation among some fiber quality traits in cotton. Stable and major QTLs and QTL clusters of traits identified in the current study could be the targets for map-based cloning and marker assisted selection (MAS) in cotton breeding. The genomic region on D12 containing the major stable QTLs for micronaire, fiber strength and lint percentage could be potential targets for MAS and gene cloning of fiber quality traits in cotton.
    Keywords:  Array; Breeding; Fiber quality and yield; Linkage map; Mapping; QTL clusters; Quantitative trait locus (QTL); Recombinant inbred lines (RILs); Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); Upland cotton
  2. Front Plant Sci. 2019 ;10 1401
      Membrane proteins that are imported into chloroplasts must be accurately targeted in order to maintain the identity and function of the highly differentiated internal membranes. Relatively little is known about the targeting information or pathways that direct proteins with transmembrane domains to either the inner envelope or thylakoids. In this study, we focused on a structurally simple class of membrane proteins, the tail-anchored proteins, which have stroma-exposed amino-terminal domains and a single transmembrane domain within 30 amino acids of the carboxy-terminus. SECE1 and SECE2 are essential tail-anchored proteins that function as components of the dual SEC translocases in chloroplasts. SECE1 localizes to the thylakoids, while SECE2 localizes to the inner envelope. We have used transient expression in Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts and confocal microscopy in combination with a domain-swapping strategy to identify regions that contain important targeting determinants. We show that membrane-specific targeting depends on features of the transmembrane domains and the short C-terminal tails. We probed the contributions of these regions to targeting processes further through site-directed mutagenesis. We show that thylakoid targeting still occurs when changes are made to the tail of SECE1, but changing residues in the tail of SECE2 abolishes inner envelope targeting. Finally, we discuss possible parallels between sorting of tail-anchored proteins in the stroma and in the cytosol.
    Keywords:  SEC translocase; chloroplast; inner envelope membrane; organelle biogenesis; tail-anchored protein; targeting; thylakoid