bims-plasge Biomed News
on Plastid genes
Issue of 2019‒06‒30
four papers selected by
Vera S. Bogdanova
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  1. J Plant Physiol. 2019 Jun 08. pii: S0176-1617(19)30089-6. [Epub ahead of print]240 152992
      The recently identified PPR-E+/NVWA/DYW2 RNA editing complex provides insights into the mechanism of RNA editing in higher plant organelles. However, whether the complex works together with the previously identified editing factors RIPs/MORFs is unclear. In this paper, we identified a maize Smk6 gene, which encodes a mitochondrion-targeted PPR-E+protein with E1 and E2 domains at the C terminus. Loss of Smk6 function affects the C-to-U editing at nad1-740, nad4L-110, nad7-739, and mttB-138,139 sites, impairs mitochondrial activity and blocks embryogenesis and endosperm development. Genetic and molecular analysis indicated that SMK6 is the maize ortholog of the Arabidopsis SLO2, which is a component of the PPR-E+/NVWA/DYW2 editing complex. However, yeast two-hybrid analyses did not detect any interaction between SMK6 and any of the mitochondrion-targeted RIPs/MORFs, suggesting that RIPs/MORFs may not be a component of PPR-E+/NVWA/DYW2 RNA editing complex. Further analyses are required to provide evidence that RIP/MORFs and SMK6 do not physically interact in vivo.
    Keywords:  Editing; Mitochondria; PPR protein; RIPs/MORFs; SMK6
  2. Plant Direct. 2019 Mar;3(3): e00124
      Plant development requires communication on many levels, including between cells and between organelles within a cell. For example, mitochondria and plastids have been proposed to be sensors of environmental stress and to coordinate their responses. Here we present evidence for communication between mitochondria and chloroplasts during leaf and root development, based on genetic and physical interactions between three Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-Like (MSL) proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. MSL proteins are Arabidopsis homologs of the bacterial Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance (MscS), which relieves cellular osmotic pressure to protect against lysis during hypoosmotic shock. MSL1 localizes to the inner mitochondrial membrane, while MSL2 and MSL3 localize to the inner plastid membrane and are required to maintain plastid osmotic homeostasis during normal growth and development. In this study, we characterized the phenotypic effect of a genetic lesion in MSL1, both in wild type and in msl2 msl3 mutant backgrounds. msl1 single mutants appear wild type for all phenotypes examined. The characteristic leaf rumpling in msl2 msl3 double mutants was exacerbated in the msl1 msl2 msl3 triple mutant. However, the introduction of the msl1 lesion into the msl2 msl3 mutant background suppressed other msl2 msl3 mutant phenotypes, including ectopic callus formation, accumulation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in the shoot apical meristem, decreased root length, and reduced number of lateral roots. All these phenotypes could be recovered by molecular complementation with a transgene containing a wild type version of MSL1. In yeast-based interaction studies, MSL1 interacted with itself, but not with MSL2 or MSL3. These results establish that the abnormalities observed in msl2 msl3 double mutants is partially dependent on the presence of functional MSL1 and suggest a possible role for communication between plastid and mitochondria in seedling development.
    Keywords:  Arabidopsis; chloroplast; mechanosensitive channel; mitochondria; reactive oxygen species
  3. PLoS One. 2019 ;14(6): e0218381
      Male sterility (induced or natural) is a potential tool for commercial hybrid seed production in different crops. Despite numerous endeavors to understand the physiological, hereditary, and molecular cascade of events governing CMS in cotton, the exact biological process controlling sterility and fertility reconstruction remains obscure. During current study, RNA-Seq using Ion Torrent S5 platform is carried out to identify 'molecular portraits' in floral buds among the Cytoplasmic Genic Male Sterility (CGMS) line, its near-isogenic maintainer, and restorer lines. A total of 300, 438 and 455 genes were differentially expressed in CGMS, Maintainer, and Restorer lines respectively. The functional analysis using AgriGo revealed suppression in the pathways involved in biogenesis and metabolism of secondary metabolites which play an important role in pollen and anther maturation. Enrichment analysis showed dearth related to pollen and anther's development in sterile line, including anomalous expression of genes and transcription factors that have a role in the development of the reproductive organ, abnormal cytoskeleton formation, defects in cell wall formation. The current study found aberrant expression of DYT1, AMS and cytochrome P450 genes involved in tapetum formation, pollen development, pollen exine and anther cuticle formation associated to male sterility as well as fertility restoration of CGMS. In the current study, more numbers of DEGs were found on Chromosome D05 and A05 as compared to other chromosomes. Expression pattern analysis of fourteen randomly selected genes using qRT-PCR showed high concurrence with gene expression profile of RNA-Seq analysis accompanied by a strong correlation of 0.82. The present study provides an important support for future studies in identifying interaction between cyto-nuclear molecular portraits, to accelerate functional genomics and molecular breeding related to cytoplasmic male sterility studies in cotton.
  4. Plant Direct. 2018 Oct;2(10): e00086
      The essential chloroplast CLP protease system consists of a tetradecameric proteolytic core with catalytic P (P1, 3-6) and non-catalytic R (R1-4) subunits, CLP chaperones and adaptors. The chloroplast CLP complex has a total of ten catalytic sites,but it is not known how many of these catalytic sites can be inactivated before plants lose viability. Here we show that CLPP3 and the catalytically inactive variant CLPP3S164A fully complement the developmental arrest of the clpp3-1 null mutant, even under environmental stress. In contrast, whereas the inactive variant CLPP5S193A assembled into the CLP core, it cannot rescue the embryo lethal phenotype of the clpp5-1 null mutant. This shows that CLPP3 makes a unique structural contribution but its catalytic site is dispensable, whereas the catalytic activity of CLPP5 is essential. Mass spectrometry of affinity-purified CLP cores of the complemented lines showed highly enriched CLP cores. Other chloroplast proteins were co-purified with the CLP cores and are candidate substrates. A strong overlap of co-purified proteins between the CLP core complexes with active and inactive subunits indicates that CLP cores with reduced number of catalytic sites do not over-accumulate substrates, suggesting that the bottle-neck for degradation is likely substrate recognition and unfolding by CLP adaptors and chaperones, upstream of the CLP core.
    Keywords:  CLP protease; CLPP3; CLPP5; catalytic triad; chloroplast; substrates