bims-plasge Biomed News
on Plastid genes
Issue of 2019‒05‒26
four papers selected by
Vera S. Bogdanova
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  1. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2019 May 18. pii: S1055-7903(19)30195-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      Short repeats (SR) play an important role in shaping seed plant mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs). However, their origin, distribution, and relationships across the different plant lineages remain unresolved. We focus on the angiosperm family Solanaceae that shows a wide diversity in repeat content and extend the study to a wide diversity of seed plants. We determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the organellar genomes of the medicinal plant Physochlaina orientalis (Solanaceae), member of the tribe Hyoscyameae. To understand the evolution of the P. orientalis mtDNA we made comparisons with those of five other Solanaceae. P. orientalis mtDNA presents the largest mitogenome (∼685 kb in size) among the Solanaceae and has an unprecedented 8-copy repeat family of ∼8.2 kb in length and a great number of SR arranged in tandem-like structures. We found that the SR in the Solanaceae share a common origin, but these only expanded in members of the tribe Hyoscyameae. We discuss a mechanism that could explain SR formation and expansion in P. orientalis and Hyoscyamus niger. Finally, the great increase in plant mitochondrial data allowed us to systematically extend our repeat analysis to a total of 136 seed plants to characterize and analyze for the first time families of SR among seed plant mtDNAs.
    Keywords:  Physochlaina orientalis; Solanaceae; mitochondrial genome; plastid genome; seed plants; short repeats
  2. Theor Appl Genet. 2019 May 22.
      KEY MESSAGE: This study precisely mapped and validated a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 4AL for thousand-grain weight in wheat using multiple near-isogenic lines. Thousand-grain weight (TGW) is an essential yield component. Following the previous identification of a major QTL for TGW within the interval of 15.7 cM (92.7-108.4 cM) on chromosome 4AL using the Nongda3338 (ND3338)/Jingdong6 (JD6) doubled haploid population, the aim of this study was to perform more precise mapping and validate the genetic effect of the QTL. Multiple near-isogenic lines (NILs) were developed using ND3338 as the recurrent parent through marker-assisted selection. Based on five independent BC3F3:4 segregating populations derived from BC3F3 plants with different heterozygous segments for the target QTL site and the results of genotyping analysis performed using the Wheat660 K SNP array, it was possible to delimit the QTL region to a physical interval of approximately 6.5 Mb (677.11-683.61 Mb, IWGSC Ref Seq v1.0). Field trials across multiple environments showed that NILsJD6 had a consistent effect on increasing the TGW by 5.16-27.48% and decreasing the grain number per spike (GNS) by 3.98-32.91% compared to the corresponding NILsND3338, which exhibited locus-specific TGW-GNS trade-offs. Moreover, by using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of whole grains at 10 days after pollination stage of multiple NILs, we found that differentially expressed genes between the NIL pairs were significantly enriched for cell cycle and the replication of chromosome-related genes, hence affecting cell division and cell proliferation. Overall, our results provide a basis for map-based cloning of the major QTL and determining the mechanisms underlying TGW-GNS trade-offs in wheat, which would help to fine-tune these two components and maximize the grain yield for breeders.
  3. Front Plant Sci. 2019 ;10 467
      The recent availability of an assembled and annotated genome reference sequence for the diploid crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) provides new opportunities to study the genetic basis of agronomically important traits such as resistance to stripe [Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei (Psh)], leaf [P. hordei (Ph)], and stem [P. graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt)] rust diseases. The European barley cultivar Pompadour is known to possess high levels of resistance to leaf rust, predominantly due to adult plant resistance (APR) gene Rph20. We developed a barley recombinant inbred line (RIL) population from a cross between Pompadour and the leaf rust and stripe rust susceptible selection Biosaline-19 (B-19), and genotyped this population using DArT-Seq genotyping by sequencing (GBS) markers. In the current study, we produced a high-density linkage map comprising 8,610 (SNP and in silico) markers spanning 5957.6 cM, with the aim of mapping loci for resistance to leaf rust, stem rust, and stripe rust. The RIL population was phenotyped in the field with Psh (Mexico and Ecuador) and Ph (Australia) and in the greenhouse at the seedling stage with Australian Ph and Pgt races, and at Wageningen University with a European variant of Psh race 24 (PshWUR). For Psh, we identified a consistent field QTL on chromosome 2H across all South American field sites and years. Two complementary resistance genes were mapped to chromosomes 1H and 4H at the seedling stage in response to PshWUR, likely to be the loci rpsEm1 and rpsEm2 previously reported from the cultivar Emir from which Pompadour was bred. For leaf rust, we determined that Rph20 in addition to two minor-effect QTL on 1H and 3H were effective at the seedling stage, whilst seedling resistance to stem rust was due to QTL on chromosomes 3H and 7H conferred by Pompadour and B-19, respectively.
    Keywords:  DArT-Seq markers; QTL; barley; high-density linkage map; rust resistance
  4. Nat Commun. 2019 May 24. 10(1): 2304
      A central problem in speciation is the origin and mechanisms of reproductive barriers that block gene flow between sympatric populations. Wind-pollinated plant species that flower in synchrony with one another rely on post-pollination interactions to maintain reproductive isolation. In some locations in Mexico, sympatric populations of domesticated maize and annual teosinte grow in intimate associate and flower synchronously, but rarely produce hybrids. This trait is typically conferred by a single haplotype, Teosinte crossing barrier1-s. Here, we show that the Teosinte crossing barrier1-s haplotype contains a pistil-expressed, potential speciation gene, encoding a pectin methylesterase homolog. The modification of the pollen tube cell wall by the pistil, then, is likely a key mechanism for pollen rejection in Zea and may represent a general mechanism for reproductive isolation in grasses.