bims-plasge Biomed News
on Plastid genes
Issue of 2019‒01‒27
seven papers selected by
Vera S. Bogdanova
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  1. Plant Cell Rep. 2019 Jan 22.
      Chloroplast-nucleus communication takes place via processes called anterograde and retrograde signaling pathways. Discovery of the retrograde signaling pathways from the chloroplasts to the nucleus also raised an intriguing proposition that chloroplasts may serve as environmental sensors since multitudes of environmental factors disturb chloroplastic homeostasis. Certain chloroplastic perturbations, mostly impairing transcription/translation, are coupled to the repression of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs), thus finely coordinating photosynthetic and chloroplastic homeostasis. The unbiased forward genetic screen in Arabidopsis leads to the identification of six independent loci called GENOMES UNCOUPLED (GUN), whose inactivation was found to de-repress the expression of PhANGs under certain conditions promoting retrograde signaling. Of the six GUNs, five encode proteins associated with tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and one, namely GUN1, encodes a member of the pentatricopeptide repeat protein family. Despite the fact that GUN1 plays a role as a central signaling mediator for retrograde communication, the molecular details of GUN1 protein still remain to be elucidated. Here, we recapitulate our current understanding of the GUN1-mediated retrograde signaling pathway and propose a possible mode of action of GUN1 in the chloroplasts together with different aspects of GUN1 protein activity that deserve further investigation.
    Keywords:  Genomes uncoupled 1; Photosynthesis-associated genes; Retrograde signaling
  2. Plant Cell Rep. 2019 Jan 22.
      Most organisms on Earth use glucose, a photosynthetic product, as energy source. The chloroplast, the home of photosynthesis, is the most representative and characteristic organelle in plants and is enclosed by the outer envelope and inner envelope membranes. The chloroplast biogenesis and unique functions are very closely associated with proteins in the two envelope membranes of the chloroplast. Especially, the chloroplast outer envelope membrane proteins have important roles in signal transduction, protein import, lipid biosynthesis and remodeling, exchange of ions and numerous metabolites, plastid division, movement, and host defense. Therefore, biogenesis of these membrane proteins of chloroplast outer envelope membrane is very important for biogenesis of the entire chloroplast proteome as well as plant development. Most proteins among the outer envelope membrane proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome and are post-translationally targeted to the chloroplast outer envelope membrane. In this process, cytoplasmic receptor and import machineries are required for efficient and correct targeting of these membrane proteins. In this review, we have summarized recent advances on the sorting, targeting, and insertion mechanisms of the outer envelope membrane proteins of chloroplasts and also provide future direction of the study on these topics.
    Keywords:  AKR2; Chloroplast; Chloroplast outer envelope membrane protein; Signal-anchored protein; Tail-anchored protein; β-Barrel protein
  3. Front Plant Sci. 2018 ;9 1858
      Host disease resistance is the most desirable strategy for control of citrus canker, a disease caused by a gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. However, no resistant commercial citrus cultivar has been identified. Cybridization, a somatic hybridization approach that combines the organelle and nuclear genomes from different species, was used to create cybrids between citrus canker resistant 'Meiwa' kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle snym. Citrus japonica Thunb.) and susceptible grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad) cultivars. From these fusions, cybrids with grapefruit nucleus, kumquat mitochondria and kumquat chloroplasts and cybrids with grapefruit nucleus, kumquat mitochondria and grapefruit chloroplasts were generated. These cybrids showed a range of citrus canker response, but all cybrids with kumquat chloroplasts had a significantly lower number of lesions and lower Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri populations than the grapefruit controls. Cybrids with grapefruit chloroplasts had a significantly higher number of lesions than those with kumquat chloroplasts. To understand the role of chloroplasts in the cybrid disease defense, quantitative PCR was performed on both cybrid types and their parents to examine changes in gene expression during Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri infection. The results revealed chloroplast influences on nuclear gene expression, since isonuclear cybrids and 'Marsh' grapefruit had different gene expression profiles. In addition, only genotypes with kumquat chloroplasts showed an early up-regulation of reactive oxygen species genes upon Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri infection. These cybrids have the potential to enhance citrus canker resistance in commercial grapefruit orchards. They also serve as models for understanding the contribution of chloroplasts to plant disease response and raise the question of whether other alien chloroplast genotypes would condition similar results.
    Keywords:  Citrus; Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri; cybridization; disease resistance; plastid
  4. Front Plant Sci. 2018 ;9 1867
      Photoperiod response of flowering determines plant adaptation to different latitudes. Soybean, a short-day plant, has gained the ability to flower under long-day conditions during the growing season at higher latitudes, mainly through dysfunction of phytochrome A genes (E3 and E4) and the floral repressor E1. In this study, we identified a novel molecular genetic basis of photoperiod insensitivity in Far-Eastern Russian soybean cultivars. By testcrossing these cultivars with a Canadian cultivar Harosoy near-isogenic line for a recessive e3 allele, followed by association tests and fine mapping, we determined that the insensitivity was inherited as a single recessive gene located in an 842-kb interval in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 4, where E1-Like b (E1Lb), a homoeolog of E1, is located. Sequencing analysis detected a single-nucleotide deletion in the coding sequence of the gene in insensitive cultivars, which generated a premature stop codon. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) for the loss-of-function allele (designated e1lb) exhibited upregulated expression of soybean FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) orthologs, FT2a and FT5a, and flowered earlier than those for E1Lb under long-day conditions in both the e3/E4 and E3/E4 genetic backgrounds. These NILs further lacked the inhibitory effect on flowering by far-red light-enriched long-day conditions, which is mediated by E4, but not that of red-light-enriched long-day conditions, which is mediated by E3. These findings suggest that E1Lb retards flowering under long-day conditions by repressing the expression of FT2a and FT5a independently of E1. This loss-of-function allele can be used as a new resource in breeding of photoperiod-insensitive cultivars, and may improve our understanding of the function of the E1 family genes in the photoperiod responses of flowering in soybean.
    Keywords:  E1Lb; Glycine max; adaptation; flowering; photoperiodism; soybean
  5. Theor Appl Genet. 2019 Jan 24.
      KEY MESSAGE: A major, likely novel stripe rust resistance QTL for all-stage resistance on chromosome arm 1BL identified in a 1.76-cM interval using a saturated linkage map was validated in four populations with different genetic backgrounds. Stripe rust is a globally important disease of wheat. Identification and utilization of new resistance genes are essential for breeding resistant cultivars. Wheat line 20828 has exhibited high levels of stripe rust resistance for over a decade. However, the genetics of stripe rust resistance in this line has not been studied. A set of 199 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were developed from a cross between 20828 and a susceptible cultivar Chuannong 16. The RIL population was genotyped with the Wheat55K SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) array and SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers and evaluated in four environments with current predominant Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici t races including CYR32, CYR33 and CYR34. Four stable QTL were located on chromosomes 1B (2 QTL), 4A and 6A. Among them, the major QTL, QYr.sicau-1B.1 (LOD = 23-28, PVE = 16-39%), was localized to a 1.76-cM interval flanked by SSR markers Xwmc216 and Xwmc156 on chromosome 1BL. Eight resistance genes were previously identified in the physical interval of QYr.sicau-1B.1. Compared with previous studies, QYr.sicau-1B.1 is a new gene for resistant to stripe rust. It was further verified by analysis of the closely linked SSR markers Xwmc216 and Xwmc156 in four other populations with different genetic backgrounds. QYr.sicau-1B.1 reduced the stripe rust disease index by up to 82.8%. Three minor stable QTL (located on chromosomes 1B, 4A and 6A, respectively) also added to the resistance level of QYr.sicau-1B.1. Our results provide valuable information for further fine mapping and cloning as well as molecular-assisted breeding with QYr.sicau-1B.1.
  6. Front Plant Sci. 2018 ;9 1921
      Barley occupies the widest ecological area among the major cereal crops, thereby generating a high potential for adaptive genetic diversity against various environmental factors. Colored barley such as black grain barley has been suggested to result from environmental adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Using one double haploid population (433 lines), plus three F5 recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations (1,009 lines), the black lemma and pericarp (Blp) gene was mapped between two Insertion/deletion (Indel) markers MC_1570156 and MC_162350 with a physical distance of 0.807 Mb, containing 21 annotated genes in the mapped interval. Whole-genome re-sequencing was performed on two Tibetan wild barley lines (X1 and W1) with black grain phenotype. The probable candidate genes for Blp were discussed based on gene functional annotation and gene sequence variation analyses. Thirteen polymorphic Indel markers covering the target genetic region were used to analyze 178 barley accessions including 49 black husk entries. Genotype-based clustering analyses showed that the black landraces of different geographical background may have evolved from a single origin. Our study represents a significant improvement on the genetic mapping of Blp and would facilitate future study on the characterization of the genetic basis underlying this interesting agronomic trait.
    Keywords:  barley; black lemma and pericarp; environmental adaptation; evolution; genetic mapping; wild barley
  7. Genes (Basel). 2019 Jan 19. pii: E68. [Epub ahead of print]10(1):
      Loss of seed shattering is a key trait in crop domestication, particularly for grain crops. For wild plants, seed shattering is a crucial mechanism to achieve greater fitness, although in the agricultural context, this mechanism reduces harvesting efficiency, especially under dry conditions. Loss of seed shattering was acquired independently in different monocotyledon and dicotyledon crop species by 'convergent phenotypic evolution', leading to similar low dehiscent and indehiscent phenotypes. Here, the main aim is to review the current knowledge about seed shattering in crops, in order to highlight the tissue modifications that underlie the convergent phenotypic evolution of reduced shattering in different types of fruit, from the silique of Brassicaceae species, to the pods of legumes and spikes of cereals. Emphasis is given to legumes, with consideration of recent data obtained for the common bean. The current review also discusses to what extent convergent phenotypes arose from parallel changes at the histological and/or molecular levels. For this reason, an overview is included of the main findings relating to the genetic control of seed shattering in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana and in other important crops.
    Keywords:  QTL mapping; common bean; crop domestication; gene expression; legumes; pod anatomy