bims-plasge Biomed News
on Plastid genes
Issue of 2018‒08‒26
five papers selected by
Vera S. Bogdanova
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  1. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2018 Aug 14. pii: S0981-9428(18)30355-3. [Epub ahead of print]130 613-622
      The multifunctional Orange (Or) protein plays crucial roles in carotenoid homeostasis, photosynthesis stabilization, and antioxidant activity in plants under various abiotic stress conditions. The Or gene has been cloned in several crops but not in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Alfalfa is widely cultivated across the world; however, its cultivation is largely limited by various abiotic stresses, including drought. In this study, we isolated the Or gene from alfalfa (MsOr) cv. Xinjiang Daye. The amino acid sequence of the deduced MsOr protein revealed that the protein contained two trans-membrane domains and a DnaJ cysteine-rich zinc finger domain, and showed a high level of similarity with the Or protein of other plants species. The MsOr protein was localized in leaf chloroplasts of tobacco. The expression of MsOr was the highest in mature leaves and was significantly induced by abiotic stresses, especially drought. To perform functional analysis of the MsOr gene, we overexpressed MsOr gene in tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana). Compared with wild-type (WT) plants, transgenic tobacco lines showed higher carotenoid accumulation and increased tolerance to various abiotic stresses, including drought, heat, salt, and methyl viologen-mediated oxidative stress. Additionally, contents of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde were lower in the transgenic lines than in WT plants, suggesting superior membrane stability and antioxidant capacity of TOR lines under multiple abiotic stresses. These results indicate the MsOr gene as a potential target for the development of alfalfa cultivars with enhanced carotenoid content and tolerance to multiple environmental stresses.
    Keywords:  Abiotic stress; Alfalfa; Drought; Heat; Orange gene; Oxidative stress; Salt
  2. Phytochemistry. 2018 Aug 16. pii: S0031-9422(18)30362-5. [Epub ahead of print]155 126-135
      Lonicera spp. (Caprifoliaceae) are important not only as a common medicinal herb in East Asia but also as one of the most problematic invasive species in North America. In the present study, we performed a systemic analysis of genomic and chemical diversity among six Lonicera species occurring in Korea, L. japonica, L. maackii, L. insularis, L. sachalinensis, L. praeflorens, and L. vesicaria, using chloroplast DNA whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing and LC-MS analyses. The phylogenetic and phylochemical relationships did not coincide with each other, but partial consistency could be found among them. InDel-based cDNA marker for authentication was developed based on the genome sequences. Flavonoids, iridoids, and organic acids were identified in the LC-MS analyses, and their inter-species distribution and localization were also revealed.
    Keywords:  Caprifoliaceae; Chemical diversity; Chloroplast DNA; Genomic diversity; LC–MS; Lonicera; Specialized metabolites
  3. Trends Plant Sci. 2018 Aug 16. pii: S1360-1385(18)30159-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Whole-genome duplication (WGD) is characteristic of almost all fundamental lineages of land plants. Unfortunately, the timings of WGD events are loosely constrained and hypotheses of evolutionary consequence are poorly formulated, making them difficult to test. Using examples from across the plant kingdom, we show that estimates of timing can be improved through the application of molecular clock methodology to multigene datasets. Further, we show that phenotypic change can be quantified in morphospaces and that relative phenotypic disparity can be compared in the light of WGD. Together, these approaches facilitate tests of hypotheses on the role of WGD in plant evolution, underscoring the potential of plants as a model system for investigating the role WGD in macroevolution.
    Keywords:  genome duplication; macroevolution; plant evolution; polyploidy
  4. Mol Biol Rep. 2018 Aug 18.
      The grasses of the Lolium-Festuca complex show a prominent role in world agricultural scenario. Several studies have demonstrated that the plasticity of 45S rDNA sites has been recently associated with the possible fragility of the loci. Often, these fragile sites were observed as extended sites and gaps in metaphases. This organization can be evaluated in relation to their transcriptional activity/accessibility through epigenetic changes. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the relationship of the 5-methylcytosine and histone H3 lysine-9 dimethylation in different conformations of 45S rDNA sites in interphase nuclei and in metaphase chromosomes of L. perenne, L. multiflorum and F. arundinacea. The FISH technique using 45S rDNA probes was performed sequentially after the immunolocalization. The sites showed predominantly the following characteristics in the interphase nuclei: intra- and perinucleolar position, decondensed or partially condensed and hypomethylated and hyper/hypomethylated status. Extranucleolar sites were mainly hypermethylated for both epigenetic marks. The 45S rDNA sites with gaps identified in metaphases were always hypomethylated, which justifies it decondensed and transcriptional state. The frequency of sites with hypermethylated gaps was very low. The structural differences observed in these sites are directly related to the assessed epigenetic marks, justifying the different conformations throughout the cell cycle.
    Keywords:  Epigenetic marks; Fragile sites; Lolium–Festuca complex; Post translational modification
  5. Mol Biol Rep. 2018 Aug 18.
      Emerging evidence suggests that the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is also involved in the floral transition control. The transcription factors ABA INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) and ABI5 negatively regulate flowering by directly promoting FLOWERING LOCUS C expression, and ABI3 also negatively regulates the floral transition. However, the genetic relationships between ABI4 and both ABI5 and ABI3 remain elusive. Here, we generated transgenic plants overexpressing ABI4 in the abi5 (OE-ABI4::abi5) and abi3 backgrounds (OE-ABI4::abi3). The flowering phenotypic analysis demonstrated that OE-ABI4::abi5 and OE-ABI4::abi3 plants exhibited delayed flowering. These findings suggest that ABI4 independently regulates floral transition but not through ABI5 and ABI3 cascades.
    Keywords:  ABA; ABI3; ABI4; ABI5; Flowering