bims-plasge Biomed News
on Plastid genes
Issue of 2018‒08‒05
six papers selected by
Vera S. Bogdanova
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  1. J Plant Physiol. 2018 Jul 18. pii: S0176-1617(18)30418-8. [Epub ahead of print]229 89-99
      The well-known neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) not only regulates sleep and mood in humans and animals but may also play important roles in modulating growth, development, and defense responses, such as seed germination, flowering, and abiotic stress tolerance, in plants. Serotonin inhibits primary root (PR) growth; however, the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying serotonin-mediated PR growth inhibition remain largely unclear. Here, we investigate the effects of serotonin on root growth and development in Arabidopsis. Serotonin inhibits PR elongation by affecting both the meristem and elongation zones. In the meristem zone, serotonin represses both meristem cell division potential and stem cell niche activity. Serotonin induces H2O2 overaccumulation in the elongation zone and reduces O2- accumulation in the meristem zone by a UPB1 pathway, thereby disrupting reactive oxygen species (ROS) equilibrium in root tips, thus resulting in PR growth inhibition. Serotonin also regulates auxin distribution in root tips by decreasing auxin-related gene expression and repressing auxin transport through modulation of AUX1 and PIN2 abundances in root tips. Taken together, our data indicate that high concentrations of serotonin result in stress responses in plants by inhibiting PR elongation through the regulation of H2O2 and O2- distribution in PR tips and through an auxin pathway via the repression of auxin biosynthesis and transport.
    Keywords:  Arabidopsis thaliana; Serotonin; auxin; growth; oxygen; primary; reactive; root; species
  2. J Plant Physiol. 2018 Jul 18. pii: S0176-1617(18)30417-6. [Epub ahead of print]229 100-110
      Improvement of salt tolerance is one of the major targets in rice breeding. Here, we report that the zinc-finger protein (ZFP) OsZFP213 functions in enhancing salt tolerance in rice. OsZFP213 is localized in the nucleus and has transactivation activity. Transgenic rice overexpressing OsZFP213 showed enhanced salt tolerance compared with wild type and OsZFP213 RNAi plants. Furthermore, OsZFP213 overexpression plants showed higher transcription levels of antioxidant system genes and higher catalytic activity of scavenging enzymes of reactive oxygen, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR), and a lower level of ROS accumulation than that in wild type and OsZFP213 RNAi plants under salt treatment. Yeast two-hybrid, pull-down, and BiFC analysis showed that OsMAPK3 is a direct partner of OsZFP213, and this interaction enhanced the transactivation activity of OsZFP213. Taken together, these results suggest that OsZFP213 cooperates with OsMAPK3 in the regulation of rice salt stress tolerance by enhancing the ability of scavenging reactive oxygen.
    Keywords:  C(2)H(2) zinc-finger protein; OsMAPK3; OsZFP213; ROS; Rice; Salt tolerance
  3. New Phytol. 2018 Jul 28.
      The initiation of starch granule formation is still poorly understood. However, the soluble starch synthase 4 (SS4) appears to be a major component of this process since it is required to synthesize the correct number of starch granules in the chloroplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. A yeast two-hybrid screen allowed the identification of several putative SS4 interacting partners. We identified the product of At4g32190 locus as a chloroplast-targeted PROTEIN INVOLVED IN STARCH INITIATION (named PII1). Arabidopsis mutants devoid of PII1 display an alteration of the starch initiation process and accumulate, on average, one starch granule per plastid instead of the five to seven granules found in plastids of wild-type plants. These granules are larger than in wild-type, and they remain flat and lenticular. pii1 mutants display wild-type growth rates and accumulate standard starch amounts. Moreover, starch characteristics, such as amylopectin chain length distribution, remain unchanged. Our results reveal the involvement of PII1 in the starch priming process in Arabidopsis leaves through interaction with SS4.
    Keywords:  Arabidopsis; PII1; SS4; starch; starch granule size; starch initiation; starch priming
  4. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018 Jul 17. pii: S0006-291X(18)31568-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a non-coding RNA greater than 200 nucleotides in length. LncRNAs can regulate gene expression at transcription and post-transcription, epigenetic level, and plays an important role in a wide range of biological processes such as genomic imprinting, chromatin remodeling, transcriptional activation, transcriptional interference and cell cycle. It becomes the current hot topics in the study of molecular biology and genetics. Emerging evidence proposed that lncRNAs play important roles in response to both abiotic and biotic stress. In this review, we discuss the role of lncRNAs in drought resistance, salt resistance, disease resistance, and immunity of plants, providing strong evidence for exploring the important role of lncRNAs in plant resistance, in order to explore new ideas and new targets for prevention and control.
    Keywords:  Long non-coding RNA; Plant; Regulation mechanism; Stress
  5. Infect Genet Evol. 2018 Jul 25. pii: S1567-1348(18)30421-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      During the past four decades, the scientific community has seen an exponential advance in the number, sophistication, and quality of molecular techniques and bioinformatics tools for the genetic characterization of plant virus populations. Predating these advances, the field of Phylogenetics has significantly contributed to understand important aspects of plant virus evolution. This review aims at summarizing the impact of Phylogenetics in the current knowledge on three major aspects of plant virus evolution that have benefited from the development of phylogenetic inference: (1) The identification and classification of plant virus diversity. (2) The mechanisms and forces shaping the evolution of plant virus populations. (3) The understanding of the interaction between plant virus evolution, epidemiology and ecology. The work discussed here highlights the important role of phylogenetic approaches in the study of the dynamics of plant virus populations.
    Keywords:  Co-evolution; Phylodynamics; Phylogenetics; Plant virus evolution; Plant virus genomics
  6. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2018 Jul 03. pii: S0723-2020(18)30222-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      Plants are chronically associated with microorganisms, residing all tissues. Holonomic analysis of diversity of established rhizobacteria in uncultivated plants is scarce. Thus, the present study was conducted to access the root-associated bacterial diversity of 6 crops (maize, canola, soybean, reed canarygrass, alfafa, and miscanthus) and 20 uncultivated plant species in the region of Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec, Canada, using pure-culture methods. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, 446 bacterial isolates were distributed onto four phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes), 32 families and 90 genera. Proteobacteria constituted the largest group of isolates (240), 40% of ectophytic and 61% of endophytic bacteria. Representatives of the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas dominated in rhizosphere soil; Microbacterium and Pseudomonas were the predominant endophytes. Some genera were associated with specific plant species, such as Stenotrophomonas, Yersinia, Labrys and Luteibacter. Several endophytes were occasionally observed in the rhizosphere, and vice versa. This is the first survey of culturable endophytic bacteria associated with uncultivated plants in Québec. The culturable bacterial community studied herein are assumed to represent a portion of the entire phytomicrobiome of the evaluated plants. Results confirmed that the crops and uncultivated plants of Québec represent an extremely rich reservoir of diverse rhizobacteria.
    Keywords:  16S rRNA analysis; Canada; Crop plants; Ectophytes; Endophytic bacteria; Uncultivated plants