bims-plasge Biomed News
on Plastid genes
Issue of 2018‒07‒29
seven papers selected by
Vera S. Bogdanova
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  1. Tree Physiol. 2018 Jul 19.
      Transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in regulating the production of the components required for photosynthesis; elucidating the mechanisms by which underlying genetic variation in TFs affects complex photosynthesis-related traits may improve our understanding of photosynthesis and identify ways to improve photosynthetic efficiency. Promoter analysis of 96 nuclear-encoded Populus tomentosa Carr. genes within this pathway revealed 47 motifs responsive to light, stress, hormones and organ-specific regulation, as well as 86 TFs that might bind these motifs. Using phenotype-genotype associations, we identified 244 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 105 genes associated with 12 photosynthesis-related traits. Most (30.33%) of these SNPs were located in intronic regions and these SNPs explained 18.66% of the mean phenotypic variation in the photosynthesis-related traits. Additionally, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping identified 216 eQTLs associated with 110 eGenes (genes regulated by eQTLs), explaining 14.12% of the variability of gene expression. The lead SNPs of 12.04% of the eQTLs also contributed to phenotypic variation. Among these, a SNP in zf-Dof 5.6 (G120_9287) affected photosynthesis by modulating the expression of a sub-regulatory network of eight other TFs, which in turn regulate 55 photosynthesis-related genes. Furthermore, epistasis analysis identified a large interacting network representing 732 SNP-SNP pairs, of which 354 were photosynthesis gene-TF pairs, emphasizing the important roles of TFs in affecting photosynthesis-related traits. We combined eQTL and epistasis analysis and found 32 TFs harboring eQTLs being epistatic to their targets (identified by eQTL analysis), of which 15 TFs were also associated with photosynthesis traits. We therefore constructed a schematic model of TFs involved in regulating the photosynthetic light reaction pathway. Taken together, our results provide insight into the genetic regulation of photosynthesis, and may drive progress in the marker-assisted selection of desirable P. tomentosa genotypes with more efficient photosynthesis.
  2. Genomics. 2018 Jul 19. pii: S0888-7543(18)30262-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is a perennial evergreen woody plant, and its leaves contain various beneficial ingredients and have healthy efficacy. HD-Zip (homeodomain-leucine zipper) transcription factors (TFs) are widely distributed in plants and play an important role in plant growth and environmental response. To date, knowledge on HD-Zip gene family in tea plant is still limited. In this study, 33 HD-Zip TFs were selected based on the genomic and transcriptomic databases of tea plant. The conserved domains and common motifs of these TFs were predicted and analyzed. These 33 Cshdz TFs were divided into four groups (HD-Zip I, HD-Zip II, HD-Zip III, and HD-Zip IV). The interaction network of the HD-Zip proteins of tea plant was established based on the data of Arabidopsis. In addition, the expression levels of these Cshdz genes in tea plant cv. 'Longjing43' were detected and analyzed under five abiotic stress treatments. Results showed that the different expression profiles of Cshdz genes were associated with different abiotic stress treatments. Our findings suggested a potential relationship between the resistance of tea plant and its Cshdz genes.
    Keywords:  Abiotic stress; Expression levels; HD-Zip; Tea plant; Transcription factor
  3. J Exp Bot. 2018 Jul 18. 69(16): 3801-3809
      The potential of enhanced photosynthetic efficiency to help achieve the sustainable yield increases required to meet future demands for food and energy has spurred intense research towards understanding, modeling, and engineering photosynthesis. These current efforts, largely focused on the C3 model Arabidopsis thaliana or crop plants (e.g. rice, sorghum, maize, and wheat), could be intensified and broadened using model systems closely related to our food, feed, and energy crops and that allow rapid design-build-test-learn cycles. In this outlooking Opinion, we advocate for a concerted effort to expand our understanding and improve our ability to redesign carbon uptake, allocation, and utilization. We propose two specific research directions that combine enhanced photosynthesis with climate-smart metabolic attributes: (i) engineering pathways for flexible (facultative) C3-C4 metabolism where plants will operate either C3 or C4 photosynthesis based on environmental conditions such as temperature, light, and atmospheric CO2 levels; and (ii) increasing rhizospheric sink strength for carbon utilization, including strategies that allow for augmented transport of carbon to the soil for improved soil properties and carbon storage without jeopardizing aboveground crop biomass. We argue that such ambitious undertakings be first approached and demonstrated by exploring the full genomic potential of two model grasses, the C3Brachypodium distachyon and the C4Setaria viridis. The development of climate-smart crops could provide novel and bold solutions to increase crop productivity while reducing atmospheric carbon and nitrogen emissions.
  4. Theor Appl Genet. 2018 Jul 21.
      Key message Development of MAALs and disomic introgression lines derived from the cross between O. sativa and O. rhizomatis to exploit and utilize the valuable traits for rice improvement. The CC genome wild species, Oryza rhizomatis, possesses valuable traits for rice improvement. Unlike other CC genome wild rice, O. rhizomatis is less studied and none of the research has focused on the utilization of this resource in rice breeding. The transfer of novel genes governing the valuable traits from O. rhizomatis is difficult due to high genome incompatibility with O. sativa. Here we report the development of backcross progenies and complete sets of monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) for the first time from O. rhizomatis in O. sativa line IR31917-45-3-2. Autotetraploid IR31917-45-3-2 (4x = AAAA) was used to generate allotriploid F1, and the F1 plant was backcrossed to IR31917-45-3-2 (2x). Forty-seven BC1F1 and 73 BC2F1 plants were produced with chromosome numbers ranging from 24 to 33 (2x + 9) and 24 to 27 (2x + 3), respectively. A complete set of MAALs were identified by morphological, cytological and marker-based analysis. A total of 116 CC genome-specific InDel markers across the 12 chromosome of rice were used to detect O. rhizomatis chromosome segments in F1, BC1F1, BC2F2, MAALs and disomic introgression lines (DILs). Expressions of major phenotypic traits inherited from O. rhizomatis were observed in MAAL-derived DILs. Small chromosomal segments of O. rhizomatis for chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 12 were detected in DILs, and some of the introgression lines showed insect resistance against brown planthopper and green leafhopper. These newly developed MAALs and DILs will be useful for gene mining and more precise faster transfer of favorable genes to improve rice cultivars.
  5. J Exp Bot. 2018 Jul 19.
      Plant peroxisomes are important components of cellular antioxidant networks, dealing with ROS generated by multiple metabolic pathways. Peroxisomes respond to environmental and cellular conditions by changing their size, number, and proteomic content. To investigate the role of peroxisomes in response to drought, dehydration and ABA treatment we took an evolutionary and comparative genomics approach. Colonisation of land required evolution of dehydration tolerance in the absence of subsequent anatomical adaptations. Therefore, the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana and wheat (Tricitcum aestivum) a globally important cereal crop were compared. Three sets of genes namely 'PTS1 genes' (a proxy for genes encoding peroxisome targeted proteins), PEX genes (involved in peroxisome biogenesis) and genes involved in plant antioxidant networks were identified in all 3 species and their expression compared under drought (dehydration) and ABA treatment. Genes encoding enzymes of β-oxidation and gluconeogenesis, antioxidant enzymes including catalase and glutathione reductase and PEX3 and PEX11 isoforms showed conserved up-regulation, and peroxisome proliferation was induced by ABA in moss. Interestingly, expression of some of these genes differed between drought sensitive and resistant genotypes of wheat in line with measured photosynthetic and biochemical differences. These results point to an underappreciated role for peroxisomes in drought response.
  6. Microbiol Res. 2018 Sep;pii: S0944-5013(18)30130-7. [Epub ahead of print]214 101-113
      Maize, a crop cultivated worldwide, was investigated for plant tissue and crop stage specific colonization of endophytic bacteria. Such bacterial interactions have high potential to enhance maize grain yield by means of biological nitrogen fixation and/or plant growth promoting activities. In this study endophytic bacteria were isolated from a hybrid PEEHM-5 and composite PC-4 maize varieties using root, stem and leaf tissues of plants at vegetative, flowering and maturity stages of growth. PEEHM-5 harbored higher endophytic bacterial population than PC-4 at all growth stages, with highest in roots and at flowering stage. Morphologically 188 different endophytic isolates (82 from PEEHM-5, 106 from PC-4) were screened for plant growth promoting attributes viz. P, K, Zn solubilization, production of hormones, siderophore, ACC deaminase, HCN, biological nitrogen fixation and biocontrol of two maize fungal pathogens. Thirty one potential PGP isolates on RFLP analysis of their amplified 16S rRNA gene, were clustered in 13 phylogenetic groups. On sequencing and blasting of amplified 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates from each group identified PC-4 endophytic bacterial isolates as Bacillus aryabhattai, Pantoea cypripedii, Bacillus licheniformis, Klebsiella sp., Pantoea dispersa, Klebsiella variicola, Pantoea sp., Agrobacterium larrymoorei and PEEHM-5 endophytic bacterial isolates as Bacillus sp., Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus hominis. In planta evaluation of potential isolates at variable chemical fertilizer input indicated their potential in compensating nearly 25% of the fertilizer input as observed on their improvement of shoot and root parameters. Lactococcus lactis inoculation influenced maximum followed by Pantoea and Klebsiella isolates.
    Keywords:  Anatomy; Composite maize; Endophytes; Growth stages; Hybrid maize; PGPB
  7. J Exp Bot. 2018 Jul 19.
      In grass, the spikelet is a unique inflorescence structure that directly determines grain yield. Despite a great deal of research, the molecular mechanisms behind spikelet development are not fully understood. In the study, FZP encodes an ERF domain protein, and functions in grain size and sterile lemma identity. Mutation of FZP causes smaller grains and degenerated sterile lemmas. The small fzp-12 grains were caused by a reduction in cell number and size in the hulls. Interestingly, the sterile lemma underwent a homeotic transformation into a rudimentary glume in the fzp-12 and fzp-13 mutants, whereas the sterile lemma underwent a homeotic transformation into a lemma in FZP over-expressing plants, suggesting that FZP specifically determines the sterile lemma identity. We confirmed the function of FZP by complementation, CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, and cytological and molecular tests. Additionally, FZP interacts specifically with the GCC-box and DRE motifs, and may be involved in regulation of the downstream genes. Our results revealed that FZP plays a vital role in the regulation of grain size, and first provides clear evidence in support of the hypothesis that the lemma, rudimentary glume, and sterile lemma are homologous organs.