bims-plasge Biomed News
on Plastid Genes
Issue of 2018‒06‒24
six papers selected by
Vera S. Bogdanova
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  1. Theor Appl Genet. 2018 Jun 16.
      KEY MESSAGE: In the soybean cultivar Suweon 97, BCMV-resistance gene was fine-mapped to a 58.1-kb region co-localizing with the Soybean mosaic virus (SMV)-resistance gene, Rsv1-h raising a possibility that the same gene is utilized against both viral pathogens. Certain soybean cultivars exhibit resistance against soybean mosaic virus (SMV) or bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). Although several SMV-resistance loci have been reported, the understanding of the mechanism underlying BCMV resistance in soybean is limited. Here, by crossing a resistant cultivar Suweon 97 with a susceptible cultivar Williams 82 and inoculating 220 F2 individuals with a BCMV strain (HZZB011), we observed a 3:1 (resistant/susceptible) segregation ratio, suggesting that Suweon 97 possesses a single dominant resistance gene against BCMV. By performing bulked segregant analysis with 186 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers across the genome, the resistance gene was determined to be linked with marker BARSOYSSR_13_1109. Examining the genotypes of nearby SSR markers on all 220 F2 individuals then narrowed down the gene between markers BARSOYSSR_13_1109 and BARSOYSSR_13_1122. Furthermore, 14 previously established F2:3 lines showing crossovers between the two markers were assayed for their phenotypes upon BCMV inoculation. By developing six more SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers, the resistance gene was finally delimited to a 58.1-kb interval flanked by BARSOYSSR_13_1114 and SNP-49. Five genes were annotated in this interval of the Williams 82 genome, including a characteristic coiled-coil nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (CC-NBS-LRR, CNL)-type of resistance gene, Glyma13g184800. Coincidentally, the SMV-resistance allele Rsv1-h was previously mapped to almost the same region, thereby suggesting that soybean Suweon 97 likely relies on the same CNL-type R gene to resist both viral pathogens.
  2. Theor Appl Genet. 2018 Jun 16.
      KEY MESSAGE: A major stripe rust resistance QTL on chromosome 4BL was localized to a 4.5-Mb interval using comparative QTL mapping methods and validated in 276 wheat genotypes by haplotype analysis. CYMMIT-derived wheat line P10103 was previously identified to have adult plant resistance (APR) to stripe rust in the greenhouse and field. The conventional approach for QTL mapping in common wheat is laborious. Here, we performed QTL detection of APR using a combination of genome-wide scanning and extreme pool-genotyping. SNP-based genetic maps were constructed using the Wheat55 K SNP array to genotype a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross Mingxian 169 × P10103. Five stable QTL were detected across multiple environments. A fter comparing SNP profiles from contrasting, extreme DNA pools of RILs six putative QTL were located to approximate chromosome positions. A major QTL on chromosome 4B was identified in F2:4 contrasting pools from cross Zhengmai 9023 × P10103. A consensus QTL (LOD = 26-40, PVE = 42-55%), named QYr.nwafu-4BL, was defined and localized to a 4.5-Mb interval flanked by SNP markers AX-110963704 and AX-110519862 in chromosome arm 4BL. Based on stripe rust response, marker genotypes, pedigree analysis and mapping data, QYr.nwafu-4BL is likely to be a new APR QTL. The applicability of the SNP-based markers flanking QYr.nwafu-4BL was validated on a diversity panel of 276 wheat lines. The additional minor QTL on chromosomes 4A, 5A, 5B and 6A enhanced the level of resistance conferred by QYr.nwafu-4BL. Marker-assisted pyramiding of QYr.nwafu-4BL and other favorable minor QTL in new wheat cultivars should improve the level of APR to stripe rust.
  3. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2018 Jun 04. pii: S0981-9428(18)30253-5. [Epub ahead of print]129 285-294
      Chaperones belonging to the small heat shock protein (sHSP) family are ubiquitous and exhibit elevated expression under stresses conditions to protect proteins against aggregation, thereby contributing to the stress tolerance of the organism. Tropical plants are constantly exposed to high temperatures, and the mechanisms by which these plants tolerate heat stress are of foremost importance to basic science as well as applied agrobiotechnology. Therefore, this study aims to characterize sHSPs from different organelles from sugarcane, an important crop that is associated with sugar and bioenergy production. An expression sequence tag database of sugarcane was searched, and sHsp genes of mitochondrial and chloroplast organelles were selected and cloned. The proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and isolated and purified by two chromatographic steps with high purity as single species. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that both proteins were purified in their folded states with a predominant β-sheet secondary structure. Determination of the molecular weight, diffusion coefficient and Stokes radius parameters showed that both chaperones form large spherical-like oligomers in solution. The two sHSPs had different oligomeric states and substrate specificities. The mitochondrial sHSP was a 20-mer with ability to protect model substrates that differ from that of the 16-meric sHSP from chloroplasts. These results indicate that both sHSPs are key agents to protect against stress confirming the importance of the great diversity of sHSP chaperones in plants for homeostasis maintenance. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the first report about small HSPs from sugarcane organelles.
    Keywords:  Chaperone activity; Chloroplast; Mitochondria; Proteostasis; Small heat shock proteins; Sugarcane
  4. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2018 Jun 04. pii: S0981-9428(18)30254-7. [Epub ahead of print]129 221-237
      Calcium (Ca2+) is an ubiquitous key second messenger in plants, where it modulates many developmental and adaptive processes in response to various stimuli. Several proteins containing Ca2+ binding domain have been identified in plants, including calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin-like (CML) proteins, which play critical roles in translating Ca2+ signals into proper cellular responses. In this work, a genome-wide analysis conducted in Vitis vinifera identified three CaM- and 62 CML-encoding genes. We assigned gene family nomenclature, analyzed gene structure, chromosomal location and gene duplication, as well as protein motif organization. The phylogenetic clustering revealed a total of eight subgroups, including one unique clade of VviCaMs distinct from VviCMLs. VviCaMs were found to contain four EF-hand motifs whereas VviCML proteins have one to five. Most of grapevine CML genes were intronless, while VviCaMs were intron rich. All the genes were well spread among the 19 grapevine chromosomes and displayed a high level of duplication. The expression profiling of VviCaM/VviCML genes revealed a broad expression pattern across all grape organs and tissues at various developmental stages, and a significant modulation in biotic stress-related responses. Our results highlight the complexity of CaM/CML protein family also in grapevine, supporting the versatile role of its different members in modulating cellular responses to various stimuli, in particular to biotic stresses. This work lays the foundation for further functional and structural studies on specific grapevine CaMs/CMLs in order to better understand the role of Ca2+-binding proteins in grapevine and to explore their potential for further biotechnological applications.
    Keywords:  Biotic stress; Calcium signaling; Calmodulin; Calmodulin-like proteins; EF-hand; Gene family; Vitis vinifera
  5. Funct Integr Genomics. 2018 Jun 16.
      The homeobox gene family, a large family represented by transcription factors, has been implicated in secondary growth, early embryo patterning, and hormone response pathways in plants. However, reports about the information and evolutionary history of the homeobox gene family in carrot are limited. In the present study, a total of 130 homeobox family genes were identified in the carrot genome. Specific codomain and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the genes were classified into 14 subgroups. Whole genome and proximal duplication participated in the homeobox gene family expansion in carrot. Purifying selection also contributed to the evolution of carrot homeobox genes. In Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, most members of the HD-ZIP III and IV subfamilies were found to have a lipid binding (GO:0008289) term. Most HD-ZIP III and IV genes also harbored a steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid transfer (START) domain. These results suggested that the HD-ZIP III and IV subfamilies might be related to lipid transfer. Transcriptome and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) data indicated that members of the WOX and KNOX subfamilies were likely implicated in carrot root development. Our study provided a useful basis for further studies on the complexity and function of the homeobox gene family in carrot.
    Keywords:  Daucus carota L.; Evolution; Expansion; GO annotation; Homeobox genes; Root
  6. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2018 Jun 14. pii: S1369-5266(17)30228-5. [Epub ahead of print]45(Pt A): 103-111
      Environmental stimuli play a major role in modulating growth and development throughout the life-cycle of a plant. Quantitative and qualitative variations in light and temperature trigger changes in gene expression that ultimately shape plant morphology for adaptation and survival. Although the phenotypic and transcriptomic basis of plant responses to the constantly changing environment have been examined for decades, the relationship between global changes in nuclear architecture and adaption to environmental stimuli is just being uncovered. This review presents recent discoveries investigating how changes in light and temperature trigger changes in chromatin structure and nuclear organization with a focus on the role of gene repositioning and chromatin accessibility in regulating gene expression.