bims-plasge Biomed News
on Plastid Genes
Issue of 2018‒06‒10
five papers selected by
Vera S. Bogdanova
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

  1. Theor Appl Genet. 2018 Jun 01.
      KEY MESSAGE: We identified 21 new and stable QTL, and 11 QTL clusters for yield-related traits in three bread wheat populations using the wheat 90 K SNP assay. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield-related traits and closely linked molecular markers is important in order to identify gene/QTL for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat breeding. The objectives of the present study were to identify QTL for yield-related traits and dissect the relationships among different traits in three wheat recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses Doumai × Shi 4185 (D × S), Gaocheng 8901 × Zhoumai 16 (G × Z) and Linmai 2 × Zhong 892 (L × Z). Using the available high-density linkage maps previously constructed with the wheat 90 K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, 65, 46 and 53 QTL for 12 traits were identified in the three RIL populations, respectively. Among them, 34, 23 and 27 were likely to be new QTL. Eighteen common QTL were detected across two or three populations. Eleven QTL clusters harboring multiple QTL were detected in different populations, and the interval 15.5-32.3 cM around the Rht-B1 locus on chromosome 4BS harboring 20 QTL is an important region determining grain yield (GY). Thousand-kernel weight (TKW) is significantly affected by kernel width and plant height (PH), whereas flag leaf width can be used to select lines with large kernel number per spike. Eleven candidate genes were identified, including eight cloned genes for kernel, heading date (HD) and PH-related traits as well as predicted genes for TKW, spike length and HD. The closest SNP markers of stable QTL or QTL clusters can be used for MAS in wheat breeding using kompetitive allele-specific PCR or semi-thermal asymmetric reverse PCR assays for improvement of GY.
  2. Plant Cell Rep. 2018 Jun 02.
      Chickpea genomics promises to illuminate our understanding of genome organization, structural variations, evolutionary and domestication-related insights and fundamental biology of legume crops. Unprecedented advancements of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled in decoding of multiple chickpea genome sequences and generating huge genomic resources in chickpea both at functional and structural level. This review is aimed to update the current progress of chickpea genomics ranging from high density linkage map development, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), functional genomics resources for various traits, emerging role of abiotic stress responsive coding and non-coding RNAs after the completion of draft chickpea genome sequences. Additionally, the current efforts of whole genome re-sequencing (WGRS) approach of global chickpea germplasm to capture the global genetic diversity existing in the historically released varieties across the world and increasing the resolution of the previously identified candidate gene(s) of breeding importance have been discussed. Thus, the outcomes of these genomics resources will assist in genomics-assisted selection and facilitate breeding of climate-resilient chickpea cultivars for sustainable agriculture.
    Keywords:  Chickpea; Genomics; Molecular markers; NGS; QTL
  3. Plant Cell Physiol. 2018 Jun 01. 59(6): 1120-1127
      Endosymbiotically originated chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) encodes part of the genetic information needed to fulfill chloroplast function, including fundamental processes such as photosynthesis. In the last two decades, advances in genome analysis led to the identification of a considerable number of cpDNA sequences from various species. While these data provided the consensus features of cpDNA organization and chloroplast evolution in plants, how cpDNA is maintained through development and is inherited remains to be fully understood. In particular, the fact that cpDNA exists as multiple copies despite its limited genetic capacity raises the important question of how copy number is maintained or whether cpDNA is subjected to quantitative fluctuation or even developmental degradation. For example, cpDNA is abundant in leaves, where it forms punctate structures called nucleoids, which seemingly alter their morphologies and numbers depending on the developmental status of the chloroplast. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of 'cpDNA dynamics', focusing on the changes in DNA abundance. A special focus is given to the cpDNA degradation mechanism, which appears to be mediated by Defective in Pollen organelle DNA degradation 1 (DPD1), a recently discovered organelle exonuclease. The physiological significance of cpDNA degradation in flowering plants is also discussed.
  4. Microb Pathog. 2018 May 31. pii: S0882-4010(18)30746-0. [Epub ahead of print]121 277-282
      Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has significant role in of gene expression and silencing pathways for several biological processes in eukaryotes. lncRNAs has been reported as key player in remodeling chromatin and genome architecture, RNA stabilization and transcription regulation, including enhancer-associated activity. Host lncRNAs are reckoned as compulsory elements of plant defense. In response to pathogen attack, plants protect themselves with the help of lncRNAs -dependent immune systems in which lncRNAs regulate pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and other effectors. Role of lncRNAs in plant microbe interaction has been studied extensively but regulations of several lncRNAs still need extensive research. In this study we discussed and provide as overview the topical advancements and findings relevant to pathogen attack and plant defense mediated by lncRNAs. It is hoped that lncRNAs would be exploited as a mainstream player to achieve food security by tackling different plant diseases.
    Keywords:  Immunity; PMP; Pathogen; Plant disease
  5. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2018 Jun 02.
      Plant response to water stress involves the activation of mechanisms expected to help them cope with water scarcity. Among these mechanisms, proteome-wide adjustment is well known. This includes actions to save energy, protect cellular and molecular components, and maintain vital functions of the cell. Intrinsically disordered proteins, which are proteins without a rigid three-dimensional structure, are seen as emerging multifunctional cellular components of proteomes. They are highly abundant in eukaryotic proteomes, and numerous functions for these proteins have been proposed. Here, we discuss several reasons why the collection of intrinsically disordered proteins in a proteome (disordome) could be subjected to an active regulation during conditions of water scarcity in plants. We also discuss the potential misinterpretations of disordome content estimations made so far due to bias-prone data and the need for reliable analysis based on experimental data in order to acknowledge the plasticity nature of the disordome.
    Keywords:  Disordome; Intrinsically disordered proteins/regions; Water stress