bims-nucpor Biomed News
on Nuclear pore complex and nucleoporins in stress, aging and disease
Issue of 2021‒08‒22
three papers selected by
Sara Mingu
Johannes Gutenberg University

  1. Front Plant Sci. 2021 ;12 719453
      The double membrane of the nuclear envelope (NE) constitutes a selective compartment barrier that separates nuclear from cytoplasmic processes. Plant viability and responses to a changing environment depend on the spatial communication between both compartments. This communication is based on the bidirectional exchange of proteins and RNAs and is regulated by a sophisticated transport machinery. Macromolecular traffic across the NE depends on nuclear transport receptors (NTRs) that mediate nuclear import (i.e. importins) or export (i.e. exportins), as well as on nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) that are composed of nucleoporin proteins (NUPs) and span the NE. In this review, we provide an overview of plant NPC- and NTR-directed cargo transport and we consider transport independent functions of NPCs and NE-associated proteins in regulating plant developmental processes and responses to environmental stresses.
    Keywords:  nuclear pore complex (NPC); nuclear transport receptors (NTRs); nucleocytoplasmic transport; nucleoporins (NUPs); plant development and immunity
  2. Stem Cells. 2021 Aug 16.
      Nucleoporins (Nups) are components of the nuclear pore complex that, besides regulating nucleus-cytoplasmic transport, emerged as a hub for chromatin interaction and gene expression modulation. Specifically, Nups act in a dynamic manner both at specific gene level and in the topological organization of chromatin domains. As such, they play a fundamental role during development and determination of stemness/differentiation balance in stem cells. An increasing number of reports indicate the implication of Nups in many central nervous system functions with great impact on neurogenesis, neurophysiology and neurological disorders. Nevertheless, the role of Nup-mediated epigenetic regulation in embryonic and adult neural stem cells (NSCs) is a field largely unexplored and the comprehension of their mechanisms of action is only beginning to be unveiled. After a brief overview of epigenetic mechanisms, we will present and discuss the emerging role of Nups as new effectors of neuroepigenetics and as dynamic platform for chromatin function with specific reference to the biology of NSCs. © AlphaMed Press 2021 SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Adult neurogenesis supports brain function by providing new neurons for tissue homeostasis and memory processes. Unfortunately, decreased neurogenesis occurs during aging and in neurodegenerative diseases, thus reducing brain repair capacity. Greater understanding of the mechanisms implicated in neural stem cell biology could lead to increasing the regenerative potential of these cells for many therapeutic purposes. This paper reviews the emerging role of nuclear pore proteins as novel key molecules that, by epigenetic mechanisms, control stemness and fate specification of neural progenitors in the developing embryo and in the adult brain.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer's disease; epigenetics; neural stem cells; neurogenesis; nucleoporins
  3. Mol Plant. 2021 Aug 13. pii: S1674-2052(21)00321-X. [Epub ahead of print]