bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2021‒04‒18
eleven papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University

  1. Am J Transl Res. 2021 ;13(3): 1269-1279
      We have recently demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers ameliorate mechanical allodynia in a rat model of cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). In the present study, we investigated anti-nociceptive effect of Nox inhibitor apocynin in CIBP in rats. Mechanical allodynia was assessed by Von Frey tests in sham and CIBP group of rats. Western blotting and immunofluorescence technique were conducted to assess the expression levels and cellular localization of Nox2. Results illustrated that after intra-tibial implantation with tumor cells, Nox2 and ROS were both up-regulated in the spinal cord of rats. Injection of apocynin could dose-dependently decrease the abundance of Nox2 and inhibit the development of CIBP. Furthermore, pretreatment with the apocynin could delay the development of CIBP. This study for the first time proved that Nox2 inhibitors could downregulate the production of ROS in CIBP rats, which highlights the fact that Nox inhibitor is an important therapeutic option for CIBP and that, precise targeting inhibitor of different subtypes of Nox enzymes is needed to developed in future.
    Keywords:  Apocynin; NADPH oxidase 2; cancer-induced bone pain; reactive oxygen species
  2. J Leukoc Biol. 2021 Apr 15.
      p67phox fulfils a key role in the assembly/activation of the NADPH oxidase by direct interaction with Nox2. We proposed that Rac-GTP serves both as a carrier of p67phox to the membrane and an inducer of a conformational change enhancing its affinity for Nox2. This study provides evidence for the latter function: (i) oxidase activation was inhibited by p67phox peptides (106-120) and (181-195), corresponding to the β hairpin and to a downstream region engaged in intramolecular bonds with the β hairpin, respectively; (ii) deletion of residues 181-193 and point mutations Q115R or K181E resulted in selective binding of p67phox to Nox2 peptide (369-383); (iii) both deletion and point mutations led to a change in p67phox , expressed in increased apparent molecular weights; (iv) p67phox was bound to p67phox peptide (181-195) and to a cluster of peptides (residues 97-117), supporting the participation of selected residues within these sequences in intramolecular bonds; (v) p67phox failed to bind to Nox2 peptide (369-383), following interaction with Rac1-GTP, but a (p67phox -Rac1-GTP) chimera exhibited marked binding to the peptide, similar to that of p67phox deletion and point mutants; and (vi) size exclusion chromatography of the chimera revealed its partition in monomeric and polymeric forms, with binding to Nox2 peptide (369-383) restricted to polymers. The molecular basis of Rac-GTP action entails unmasking of a previously hidden Nox2-binding site in p67phox , following disengagement of the β hairpin from more C-terminal residues. The domain in Nox2 binding the "modified" p67phox comprises residues within the 369-383 sequence in the cytosolic dehydrogenase region.
    Keywords:  (p67phox-Rac) chimera; NADPH oxidase; conformational change; intramolecular bond; peptide-protein interaction; synthetic peptides
  3. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Apr 12. pii: S0891-5849(21)00209-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      An extensive body of research has demonstrated that pulmonary toxicity induced by fluoride is related to cell apoptosis. Although induction of death receptor-initiated extrinsic apoptosis by sodium fluoride (NaF) has been reported, its mechanism of action is still not clearly defined. Herein, we found that NaF treatment induced activation of caspase-8 in BEAS-2B cells, resulting in apoptosis, which was markedly reduced by blocking caspase-8 using small interfering RNA (siRNA). In this study, we report that death receptor 5 (DR5), a major component of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, is markedly induced upon NaF stimulation. Enhanced DR5 induction was necessary for the apoptotic effects of NaF, inasmuch as transfected BEAS-2B cells with DR5 siRNA attenuated NaF-induced caspase-8 activation in lung cells. Mechanism investigation indicated that the induction of DR5, following NaF exposure, was mediated by tumor protein 53 (p53)-dependent transcriptional activation. Notably, we demonstrated that NaF could induce a significant increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4). Specifically, NOX4 knockdown inhibited NaF-induced the activation of p53/DR5 axis by reducing NOX4-derived ROS production. Further in vivo investigation demonstrated that NOX4 deficiency markedly attenuates NaF-induced lung injury, apoptosis, and ROS levels in the lung. Moreover, the expressions of p53 and DR5 were significantly reduced after NaF treatment in NOX4 knockout mice compared with the wild type mice. Taken together, our findings provide a novel insight into for the pulmonary apoptosis in response to NaF exposure.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Caspase-8; DR5; NOX4; NaF; P53
  4. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2021 Mar;86(3): 262-274
      Altered expression of cellular redox genes and proteins contributes to invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance in cancer. NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoforms are the pro-oxidant enzymes that generate ROS as a primary product. Dysregulation of NOX activity and expression alters ROS generation, which either directly or indirectly modulates cell death and survival signaling during the progression of cancer. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) is an inducible transcription factor, which transcribes an array of antioxidant genes and protects cancer cells from the oxidative stress. Both NOXs and Nrf-2 participate in the regulation of cellular redox homeostasis; but their dysregulation promotes oxidative stress, which contributes to the progression of different types of cancer. Indeed, the role of NOX isoforms and Nrf-2 in developing the drug resistance in cancer is largely unknown. In the present study, we have explored the association of NOX isoforms and Nrf-2 signaling with the MDR1 gene expression in colon carcinoma cells (HCT-116/R). The MDR1 gene was overexpressed to develop resistant HCT-116/R cells and the NOX activation and ROS generation were monitored. We also assessed the role of NOX isoforms and Nrf-2 in the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) mediated apoptotic cell death of HCT-116/R cells. The HCT-116/R cells demonstrated higher expression of HIF-1α, Nrf-2, and HO-1 and were highly resistant to 5-FU; they also displayed upregulated expression and activity of NOX-2, as well as elevated ROS levels. Interestingly, the treatment with HDC, a specific NOX-2 inhibitor, reduced the ROS levels in HCT-116/R cells. The treatment with HDC and ML-385 (specific inhibitor of Nrf-2) augmented the 5-FU-mediated apoptotic cell death of HCT-116/R cells, which suggests that NOX-2 and Nrf-2 are involved in the development of the chemoresistant phenotype of these cells. Taken together, NOX-2 and Nrf-2 are associated with developing drug resistance of colorectal cancer cells and might be potential targets to overcome drug resistance during cancer therapy.
    Keywords:  5-fluorouracil; HO-1; MDR1; NOX-2; Nrf-2; ROS; drug resistance
  5. EMBO J. 2021 Apr 13. e106491
      Exercise can alter the skeletal muscle DNA methylome, yet little is known about the role of the DNA methylation machinery in exercise capacity. Here, we show that DNMT3A expression in oxidative red muscle increases greatly following a bout of endurance exercise. Muscle-specific Dnmt3a knockout mice have reduced tolerance to endurance exercise, accompanied by reduction in oxidative capacity and mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, Dnmt3a-deficient muscle overproduces reactive oxygen species (ROS), the major contributors to muscle dysfunction. Mechanistically, we show that DNMT3A suppresses the Aldh1l1 transcription by binding to its promoter region, altering its epigenetic profile. Forced expression of ALDH1L1 elevates NADPH levels, which results in overproduction of ROS by the action of NADPH oxidase complex, ultimately resulting in mitochondrial defects in myotubes. Thus, inhibition of ALDH1L1 pathway can rescue oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction from Dnmt3a deficiency in myotubes. Finally, we show that in vivo knockdown of Aldh1l1 largely rescues exercise intolerance in Dnmt3a-deficient mice. Together, we establish that DNMT3A in skeletal muscle plays a pivotal role in endurance exercise by controlling intracellular oxidative stress.
    Keywords:  DNA methylation; exercise; oxidative stress
  6. J Neurosci. 2021 Apr 13. pii: JN-RM-2672-20. [Epub ahead of print]
      Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidases (Nox) contribute to the development of different types of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), a common impairment in humans with no established treatment. Although the essential role of Nox3 in otoconia biosynthesis and its possible involvement in hearing have been reported in rodents, immunohistological methods targeted at detecting Nox3 expression in inner ear cells reveal ambiguous results. Therefore, the mechanism underlying Nox3-dependent SNHL remains unclear and warrants further investigation. We generated Nox3-Cre knock-in mice, in which Nox3 was replaced with Cre recombinase (Cre). Using Nox3-Cre;tdTomato mice of either sex, in which tdTomato is expressed under the control of the Nox3 promoter, we determined Nox3-expressing regions and cell types in the inner ear. Nox3-expressing cells in the cochlea included various types of supporting cells (SC), outer hair cells (OHC), inner hair cells (IHC), and spiral ganglion neurons (SGN). Nox3 expression increased with cisplatin, age, and noise insults. Moreover, increased Nox3 expression in SC and OHC, especially at the basal turn of the cochlea, played essential roles in ROS-related SNHL. The extent of Nox3 involvement in SNHL follows the following order: cisplatin-induced HL (CIHL) > age-related HL (ARHL) > noise-induced HL (NIHL). Here, on the basis of Nox3-Cre;tdTomato, which can be used as a reporter system (Nox3-Cre+/-;tdTomato+/+ and Nox3-Cre+/+;tdTomato+/+ ), and Nox3-KO (Nox3-Cre+/+;tdTomato+/+ ) mice, we demonstrate that Nox3 inhibition in the cochlea is a promising strategy for ROS-related SNHL, such as CIHL, ARHL, and NIHL.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT:We found Nox3-expressing regions and cell-types in the inner ear, especially in the cochlea, using Nox3-Cre;tdTomato mice, a reporter system generated in this study. Nox3 expression increased with cisplatin, age, and noise insults in specific cell-types in the cochlea and resulted in the loss (apoptosis) of outer hair cells. Thus, Nox3 might serve as a molecular target for the development of therapeutics for sensorineural hearing loss, particularly cisplatin-induced, age-related, and noise-induced hearing loss.
  7. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 628991
      The cellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) represents an evolutionary ancient antimicrobial defense system against microorganisms. The NADPH oxidases (NOX), which are predominantly localized to endosomes, and the electron transport chain in mitochondria are the major sources of ROS. Like any powerful immunological process, ROS formation has costs, in particular collateral tissue damage of the host. Moreover, microorganisms have developed defense mechanisms against ROS, an example for an arms race between species. Thus, although NOX orthologs have been identified in organisms as diverse as plants, fruit flies, rodents, and humans, ROS functions have developed and diversified to affect a multitude of cellular properties, i.e., far beyond direct antimicrobial activity. Here, we focus on the development of NOX in phagocytic cells, where the so-called respiratory burst in phagolysosomes contributes to the elimination of ingested microorganisms. Yet, NOX participates in cellular signaling in a cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic manner, e.g., via the release of ROS into the extracellular space. Accordingly, in humans, the inherited deficiency of NOX components is characterized by infections with bacteria and fungi and a seemingly independently dysregulated inflammatory response. Since ROS have both antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties, their tight regulation in space and time is required for an efficient and well-balanced immune response, which allows for the reestablishment of tissue homeostasis. In addition, distinct NOX homologs expressed by non-phagocytic cells and mitochondrial ROS are interlinked with phagocytic NOX functions and thus affect the overall redox state of the tissue and the cellular activity in a complex fashion. Overall, the systematic and comparative analysis of cellular ROS functions in organisms of lower complexity provides clues for understanding the contribution of ROS and ROS deficiency to human health and disease.
    Keywords:  CGD; NADPH; inflammation; macrophages; mitochondrial ROS; myeloid cells; neutrophils; reactive oxygen species
  8. Cell Rep. 2021 Apr 13. pii: S2211-1247(21)00286-2. [Epub ahead of print]35(2): 108972
      Disruption of sphingolipid homeostasis is known to cause neurological disorders, but the mechanisms by which specific sphingolipid species modulate pathogenesis remain unclear. The last step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis is the conversion of dihydroceramide to ceramide by dihydroceramide desaturase (human DEGS1; Drosophila Ifc). Loss of ifc leads to dihydroceramide accumulation, oxidative stress, and photoreceptor degeneration, whereas human DEGS1 variants are associated with leukodystrophy and neuropathy. In this work, we demonstrate that DEGS1/ifc regulates Rac1 compartmentalization in neuronal cells and that dihydroceramide alters the association of active Rac1 with organelle-mimicking membranes. We further identify the Rac1-NADPH oxidase (NOX) complex as the major cause of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in ifc-knockout (ifc-KO) photoreceptors and in SH-SY5Y cells with the leukodystrophy-associated DEGS1H132R variant. Suppression of Rac1-NOX activity rescues degeneration of ifc-KO photoreceptors and ameliorates oxidative stress in DEGS1H132R-carrying cells. Therefore, we conclude that DEGS1/ifc deficiency causes dihydroceramide accumulation, resulting in Rac1 mislocalization and NOX-dependent neurodegeneration.
    Keywords:  DEGS1; Rac1 mislocalization; dihydroceramide; neurodegeneration; oxidative stress
  9. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Apr 07. pii: S0891-5849(21)00203-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Oxidative stress (OS) is a common toxic feature in various neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, reducing OS could provide a potential approach to achieve neuroprotection. Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) is a serine protease that is linked to neurodegeneration, as endogenous PREP inhibits autophagy and induces the accumulation of detrimental protein aggregates. As such, inhibition of PREP by a small-molecular inhibitor has provided neuroprotection in preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, PREP inhibition has been shown to reduce production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the absence of PREP blocks stress-induced ROS production. However, the mechanism behind PREP-related ROS regulation is not known. As we recently discovered PREP's physiological role as a protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulator, we wanted to characterize PREP inhibition as an approach to reduce OS. We studied the impact of a PREP inhibitor, KYP-2047, on hydrogen peroxide and ferrous chloride induced ROS production and on cellular antioxidant response in HEK-293 and SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, we used HEK-293 and SH-SY5Y PREP knock-out cells to validate the role of PREP on stress-induced ROS production. We were able to show that absence of PREP almost entirely blocks the stress-induced ROS production in both cell lines. Reduced ROS production and smaller antioxidant response was also seen in both cell lines after PREP inhibition by 10 μM KYP-2047. Our results also revealed that the OS reducing mechanism of PREP inhibition is related to reduced activation of ROS producing NADPH oxidase through enhanced PP2A activation. In conclusion, our results suggest that PREP inhibition could also provide neuroprotection by reducing OS, thus broadening the scope of its beneficial effects on neurodegeneration.
    Keywords:  NADPH oxidase; neurodegeneration; oxidative stress; p47phox; prolyl oligopeptidase; protein phosphatase 2A
  10. Autophagy. 2021 Apr 13. 1-18
      Macrophage activation in the presence of bacterial cells and molecules entails complex programs of gene expression. How such triggers elicit specific gene expression programs is incompletely understood. We previously discovered that TFEB (transcription factor EB) is a key contributor to macrophage activation during bacterial phagocytosis. However, the mechanism linking phagocytosis of bacterial cells to TFEB activation and downstream pro-inflammatory cytokine induction remained unknown. We found that macrophages lacking both TFEB and TFE3 (transcription factor E3) were unable to mount a pro-inflammatory phenotype in response to bacterial infection. The NOX/PHOX (NADPH oxidase)-dependent oxidative burst was required for nuclear translocation of TFEB during phagocytosis of Gram-positive or -negative bacteria, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were sufficient to trigger TFEB activation in a CD38- and NAADP (nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate)-dependent manner. Consistent with the Ca2+-releasing activity of NAADP, intracellular Ca2+ chelation and PPP3/calcineurin inhibition prevented TFEB activation by phagocytosis and ROS (reactive oxygen species), impairing the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL6 and TNF/TNFα. Therefore, here we describe a previously unknown pathway that links phagocytosis with macrophage pro-inflammatory polarization via TFEB and related transcription factor TFE3. These findings reveal that activation of TFEB and TFE3 is a key regulatory event for the activation of macrophages, and have important implications for infections, inflammation, cancer, obesity, and atherosclerosis.
    Keywords:  CD38; il1α; il1β; il6; innate immunity; phagocyte; reactive oxygen species; tfe3; tfeb; tnfα
  11. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Apr 13. pii: S0891-5849(21)00211-2. [Epub ahead of print]
      Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) contribute to the physiological cellular turnover of the adult brain and make up its regenerative potential. It is thus essential to understand how different factors influence their proliferation and differentiation to gain better insight into potential therapeutic targets in neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injuries. Recent evidences indicate the roles of redox stress sensing and coping mechanisms in mediating the balance between NSPC self-renewal and differentiation. Such mechanisms involve direct cysteine modification, signaling and metabolic reprogramming, epigenetic alterations and transcription changes leading to adaptive responses like autophagy. Here, we discuss emerging findings on the involvement of redox sensors and effectors and their mechanisms in influencing changes in cellular redox potential and NSPC fate.
    Keywords:  Cell fate; Cysteine sulfenylation; Neural stem cells; Oxidative stress; Reactive oxygen species; Redox signaling