bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2021‒02‒07
eight papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University

  1. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Jan 27. pii: S0891-5849(21)00039-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Cardiac hypertrophy, an important cause of heart failure, is characterized by an increase in heart weight, the ventricular wall, and cardiomyocyte volume. The volume regulatory anion channel (VRAC) is an important regulator of cell volume. However, its role in cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of leucine-rich repeat-containing 8A (LRRC8A), an essential component of the VRAC, on angiotensin II (AngII)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Our results showed that LRRC8A expression, NADPH oxidase activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased in AngII-induced hypertrophic neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes and the myocardium of C57/BL/6 mice. In addition, AngII activated VRAC currents in cardiomyocytes. The delivery of adeno-associated viral (AAV9) bearing siRNA against mouse LRRC8A into the left ventricular wall inhibited AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Accordingly, the knockdown of LRRC8A attenuated AngII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and VRAC currents in vitro. Furthermore, knockdown of LRRC8A suppressed AngII-induced ROS production, NADPH oxidase activity, the expression of NADPH oxidase membrane-bound subunits Nox2, Nox4, and p22phox, and the translocation of NADPH oxidase cytosolic subunits p47phox and p67phox. Immunofluorescent staining showed that LRRC8A co-localized with NADPH oxidase membrane subunits Nox2, Nox4, and p22phox. Co-immunoprecipitation and analysis of a C-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain (LRRD) mutant showed that LRRC8A physically interacts with Nox2, Nox4, and p22phox via the LRRD. Taken together, the results of this study suggested that LRRC8A might play an important role in promoting AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy by interacting with NADPH oxidases via the LRRD.
    Keywords:  NADPH oxidase; angiotensin II; cardiac hypertrophy; leucine-rich repeat containing 8A; reactive oxygen species; volume regulatory anion channel
  2. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 Feb 02. pii: 218. [Epub ahead of print]10(2):
      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the main human dementias around the world which is constantly increasing every year due to several factors (age, genetics, environment, etc.) and there are no prevention or treatment options to cure it. AD is characterized by memory loss associated with oxidative stress (OS) in brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, microglia, etc.). OS can be produced by amyloid beta (Aβ) protein aggregation and its interaction with metals, mitochondrial damage and alterations between antioxidants and oxidant enzymes such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. NADPH oxidase produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) and it is overexpressed in AD, producing large amounts of superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide which damage brain cells and the vasculature. In addition, it has been reported that NADPH oxidase causes an imbalance of pH which could also influence in the amyloid beta (Aβ) production. Therefore, NADPH oxidase had been proposed as a therapeutic target in AD. However, there are no drugs for AD treatment such as an NADPH oxidase inhibitor despite great efforts made to stabilize the ROS production using antioxidant molecules. So, in this work, we will focus our attention on NADPH oxidase (NOX2 and NOX4) in AD as well as in AD models and later discuss the use of NADPH oxidase inhibitor compounds in AD.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer models; NADPH oxidase; NADPH oxidase inhibitors; NOX2; NOX4; oxidative stress
  3. Circ Res. 2021 Feb 01.
      Rationale: Diaphragm weakness impairs quality-of-life, exercise capacity, and survival in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms responsible in humans remain poorly resolved. Objective: We prospectively evaluated clinical, functional (in vivo/in vitro), histological/ultrastructural and molecular alterations of the diaphragm from CHF patients receiving a left ventricular assist device compared to patients without CHF undergoing elective coronary bypass grafting (control) in the observational LIpsia DiaPhrAgm and MUScle Heart Failure Trial (LIPAMUS-HF). Methods and Results: Participants (Controls=21, CHF=18) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise and spirometry/respiratory muscle testing alongside diaphragm and cardiac imaging. Diaphragm biopsies were phenotyped for mitochondrial respiration, muscle fiber function, histology/ultrastructure, and protein expression. In vivo respiratory muscle function and diaphragm thickness were reduced in CHF by 38% and 23%. Diaphragm biopsies revealed a fiber-type shift and severe fiber atrophy in CHF alongside elevated proteasome-dependent proteolysis (i.e., MuRF1 expression, ubiquitination, ubiquitin proteasome activity) and myofibrillar protein oxidation, which corresponded to upregulated NADPH oxidase (Nox2/Nox4) signaling. Mitochondria demonstrated severe intrinsic functional and ultrastructural abnormalities in CHF characterized by accumulation of small mitochondria and inhibited autophagy/mitophagy. Single muscle fiber contractile function revealed reduced Ca2+ sensitivity in CHF and there was evidence of ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) dysfunction indicating Ca2+ leak from the sarcoplasmatic reticulum. Mitochondrial and Ca2+ measures corresponded to upregulated Nox4 isoform NADPH oxidase expression. Molecular markers correlated to whole-body exercise intolerance and diaphragm dysfunction/wasting.Conclusions: CHF patients demonstrate an obvious diaphragm myopathy independent of disuse or other confounding factors such as ageing, obesity, or hypertension. Diaphragm weakness in CHF was associated with intracellular abnormalities characterized by fiber atrophy, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired Ca2+ homeostasis, elevated proteasome dependent proteolysis, but inhibited autophagy/mitophagy, which we speculate offers a novel therapeutic molecular target regulated by a Nox-MuRF1/ubiquitin proteasome-mitochondria-RyR1/Ca2+ signaling axis.
    Keywords:  MuRF1; diaphragm
  4. J Biol Chem. 2021 Jan 29. pii: S0021-9258(21)00119-8. [Epub ahead of print] 100347
      The renal collecting duct plays a critical role in setting urinary volume and composition, with principal cells transporting Na+ and K+ and intercalated cells mediating Cl- reabsorption. Published evidence implies Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a potent regulator of the collecting duct apical transport systems in response to systemic volume depletion. However, virtually nothing is known about Ang II actions on the basolateral conductance of principal and intercalated cells. Here, we combined macroscopic and single channel patch clamp recordings from freshly isolated mouse collecting ducts with biochemical and fluorescence methods to demonstrate an acute stimulation of the basolateral Cl- conductance and specifically the ClC-K2 Cl- channel by nanomolar Ang II concentrations in intercalated cells. In contrast, Ang II did not exhibit measurable effects on the basolateral conductance and on Kir4.1/5.1 potassium channel activity in principal cells. Although both Ang II receptors AT1 and AT2 are expressed in collecting duct cells, we show that AT1 receptors were essential for stimulatory actions of Ang II on ClC-K2. Moreover, AT1R-/- mice had decreased renal ClC-K2 expression. We further demonstrated that activation of NADPH oxidases (NOX) is the major signaling pathway downstream of Ang II-AT1R that leads to stimulation of ClC-K2. Treatment of freshly isolated collecting ducts with Ang II led to production of reactive oxygen species on the same timescale as single channel ClC-K2 activation. Overall, we propose that Ang II-dependent regulation of ClC-K2 in intercalated cells is instrumental for stimulation of Cl- reabsorption by the collecting duct, particularly during hypovolemic states.
    Keywords:  Angiotensin II; G protein‐coupled receptor (GPCR); NADPH oxidase; anion transport; cell signaling; chloride transport; electrophysiology; epithelial cell; fluorescence; hormone receptor; hydrogen peroxide; hypertension; ion channel; kidney; molecular cell biology; reactive oxygen species (ROS); renal physiology; signal transduction
  5. Circ Res. 2021 Feb 05. 128(3): 335-357
      RATIONALE: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DbCM) is a major complication in type-1 diabetes, accompanied by altered cardiac energetics, impaired mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress. Previous studies indicate that type-1 diabetes is associated with increased cardiac expression of KLF5 (Krüppel-like factor-5) and PPARα (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) that regulate cardiac lipid metabolism.OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the involvement of KLF5 in DbCM and its transcriptional regulation.
    METHODS AND RESULTS: KLF5 mRNA levels were assessed in isolated cardiomyocytes from cardiovascular patients with diabetes and were higher compared with nondiabetic individuals. Analyses in human cells and diabetic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific FOXO1 (Forkhead box protein O1) deletion showed that FOXO1 bound directly on the KLF5 promoter and increased KLF5 expression. Diabetic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific FOXO1 deletion had lower cardiac KLF5 expression and were protected from DbCM. Genetic, pharmacological gain and loss of KLF5 function approaches and AAV (adeno-associated virus)-mediated Klf5 delivery in mice showed that KLF5 induces DbCM. Accordingly, the protective effect of cardiomyocyte FOXO1 ablation in DbCM was abolished when KLF5 expression was rescued. Similarly, constitutive cardiomyocyte-specific KLF5 overexpression caused cardiac dysfunction. KLF5 caused oxidative stress via direct binding on NADPH oxidase (NOX)4 promoter and induction of NOX4 (NADPH oxidase 4) expression. This was accompanied by accumulation of cardiac ceramides. Pharmacological or genetic KLF5 inhibition alleviated superoxide formation, prevented ceramide accumulation, and improved cardiac function in diabetic mice.
    CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes-mediated activation of cardiomyocyte FOXO1 increases KLF5 expression, which stimulates NOX4 expression, ceramide accumulation, and causes DbCM.
    Keywords:  NADPH oxidases; ceramides; diabetic cardiomyopathy; forkhead box protein O1; oxidative stress; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors
  6. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 Feb 02. pii: 224. [Epub ahead of print]10(2):
      Diabetes-associated long-term hyperglycaemia leads to oxidative stress-mediated fibrosis in different tissues and organs. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EndMT) appears to play a role in diabetes-associated fibrotic conditions. Here, we investigate whether EndMT is implicated in the diabetic retinopathy fibrotic process and evaluate the possibility that resveratrol could counteract EndMT by inhibiting high glucose (HG)-induced increases in ROS. Primary Human Retinal Endothelial Cells (HRECs) were either pre-treated for 24 h with 1 µM resveratrol or left untreated, then glucose (30 mM) was applied at 3-day intervals for 10 days. qRT-PCR and ELISA were used to detect mRNA or protein expression of endothelial markers (CD31, CDH5, vWF) or mesenchymal markers (VIM, αSMA and collagen I), respectively. Intracellular ROS levels were measured with carboxy-DCFDA, while NOX-associated ROS levels were evaluated using the NADPH-specific redox biosensor p47-roGFP. Treatment of HRECs with HG increased intracellular ROS levels and promoted phenotype shifting towards EndMT, evidenced by decreased expression of endothelial markers concomitant with increased expression of mesenchymal ones. HG-induced EndMT appears to be mediated by NADPH-associated ROS generation as pre-treatment of HRECs with resveratrol or the NADPH inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), attenuated ROS production and EndMT transition, suggesting that the effect of resveratrol on HG-induced ROS occurs via down-regulation of NADPH oxidase. It is worth noting that resveratrol or Chelerythrine, a Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, reduce ROS and EndMT in HG-exposed cells, suggesting that NADPH activation occurs via a PKC-dependent mechanism. Taken together, our results provide the basis for a resveratrol-based potential protective therapy to prevent diabetic-associated complications.
    Keywords:  EndMT; NOX; diabetes; fibrosis; oxidative stress; resveratrol; retinopathy
  7. Pharmacol Res. 2021 Jan 30. pii: S1043-6618(21)00054-2. [Epub ahead of print] 105470
      The beneficial effects of antioxidants against oxidative stress have been well described. However, the pharmacological impacts of antioxidants other than inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) remain less understood. This study demonstrated that diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a canonical NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) inhibitor, effectively promoted non-opsonized bacterial phagocytosis. Indeed, DPI abrogated the elevation in the extracellular ATP level of Escherichia coli (E. coli) -infected murine peritoneal macrophages, thereby restoring the association of the purinergic receptor P2X7 with non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) to upregulate the P2X7 -dependent phagocytosis of E. coli. DPI also suppressed inflammasome activation and reduced necroptosis in E. coli-infected macrophages by decreasing extracellular ATP levels. Mechanistically, DPI upregulated p38 MAPK phosphorylation to suppress the expression and activity of the hemichannel protein connexin 43 (CX43), leading to the inhibition of CX43-mediated ATP efflux in E. coli-infected macrophages. In a murine E. coli infection model, DPI effectively reduced ATP release, decreased bacterial load and inhibited inflammasome activation, thereby improving survival and ameliorating organ injuries in model mice. In summary, our study demonstrates a previously unknown function of DPI in conferring protection against bacterial infection and suggests a putative antimicrobial strategy of modulating CX43 -dependent ATP leakage.
    Keywords:  ATP; Connexin 43; Diphenyleneiodonium; P2X7; inflammasome; phagocytosis
  8. Exp Cell Res. 2021 Jan 27. pii: S0014-4827(21)00025-2. [Epub ahead of print] 112494
      Bortezomib (Bort), a chemotherapeutic agent, is widely used for the clinical treatment of cancers. However, Bort-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (BIPN) significantly restricts its clinical application, which is difficult to deal with since the underlying mechanisms of BIPN are unclear. Here, we showed that Bort activates mTORC1 pathway leading to dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuronal apoptosis. Inhibition of mTORC1 with rapamycin or knockdown of raptor, regulatory-associated protein of mTORC1, with shRNA dramatically rescued the cells from Bort-caused apoptosis. In addition, we found that Bort-activated mTORC1 pathway was attributed to Bort elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This is supported by the evidence that using ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly alleviated Bort-activated mTORC1 pathway. Furthermore, we revealed that upregulation of NOX2 contributed to Bort-elicited ROS overproduction, leading to mTORC1 pathway-dependent apoptosis in DRG neurons. Inhibition of NOX2 with apocynin remarkably diminished Bort-induced overgeneration of ROS, activation of mTORC1 pathway and apoptosis in the cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Bort activation of mTORC1 pathway mediated by NOX2-drived ROS leads to apoptotic death in DRG neurons. Our findings highlight that manipulation of intracellular ROS level or NOX2 or mTORC1 activity may be exploited for prevention of BIPN.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Bortezomib; DRG; NOX2/ROS; mTORC1