bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2021‒01‒17
seven papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University

  1. J Biol Chem. 2021 Jan 08. pii: S0021-9258(21)00006-5. [Epub ahead of print] 100242
    Volonte D, Sedorovitz M, Cespedes VE, Beecher ML, Galbiati F.
      Oncogenic K-Ras (K-RasG12V) promotes senescence in normal cells but fuels transformation of cancer cells after the senescence barrier is bypassed. The mechanisms regulating this pleiotropic function of K-Ras remain to be fully established and bear high pathological significance. We find that K-RasG12V activates the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene promoter and promotes AGT protein expression in a Kruppel Like Factor 6 (KLF6)-dependent manner in normal cells. We show that AGT is then converted to angiotensin II (Ang II) in a cell-autonomous manner by cellular proteases. We show that blockade of the Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1-R) in normal cells inhibits oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). We provide evidence that the oncogenic K-Ras-induced synthesis of Ang II and AT1-R activation promote senescence through caveolin-1-dependent and NOX2-mediated oxidative stress. Interestingly, we find that expression of AGT remains elevated in lung cancer cells but in a KLF6-independent and High Mobility Group AT-Hook 1 (HMGA1)-dependent manner. We show that Ang II-mediated activation of the AT1-R promotes cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of lung cancer cells through a STAT3-dependent pathway. Finally, we find that expression of AGT is elevated in lung tumors of K-RasLA2-G12D mice, a mouse model of lung cancer, and human lung cancer. Treatment with the AT1-R antagonist losartan inhibits lung tumor formation in K-RasLA2-G12D mice. Together, our data provide evidence of the existence of a novel cell-autonomous and pleiotropic Ang II-dependent signaling pathway through which oncogenic K-Ras promotes OIS in normal cells while fueling transformation in cancer cells.
    Keywords:  Ras; angiotensin; caveolin; oncogene; senescence
  2. Genes Dev. 2021 Jan 14.
    Morimoto H, Yamamoto T, Miyazaki T, Ogonuki N, Ogura A, Tanaka T, Kanatsu-Shinohara M, Yabe-Nishimura C, Zhang H, Pommier Y, Trumpp A, Shinohara T.
      Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH1 oxidase 1 (NOX1) are thought to drive spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) self-renewal through feed-forward production of ROS by the ROS-BCL6B-NOX1 pathway. Here we report the critical role of oxygen on ROS-induced self-renewal. Cultured SSCs proliferated poorly and lacked BCL6B expression under hypoxia despite increase in mitochondria-derived ROS. Due to lack of ROS amplification under hypoxia, NOX1-derived ROS were significantly reduced, and Nox1-deficient SSCs proliferated poorly under hypoxia but normally under normoxia. NOX1-derived ROS also influenced hypoxic response in vivo because Nox1-deficient undifferentiated spermatogonia showed significantly reduced expression of HIF1A, a master transcription factor for hypoxic response. Hypoxia-induced poor proliferation occurred despite activation of MYC and suppression of CDKN1A by HIF1A, whose deficiency exacerbated self-renewal efficiency. Impaired proliferation of Nox1- or Hif1a-deficient SSCs under hypoxia was rescued by Cdkn1a depletion. Consistent with these observations, Cdkn1a-deficient SSCs proliferated actively only under hypoxia but not under normoxia. On the other hand, chemical suppression of mitochondria-derived ROS or Top1mt mitochondria-specific topoisomerase deficiency did not influence SSC fate, suggesting that NOX1-derived ROS play a more important role in SSCs than mitochondria-derived ROS. These results underscore the importance of ROS origin and oxygen tension on SSC self-renewal.
    Keywords:  Hif1; reactive oxygen species; spermatogonia
  3. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jan 13. pii: E761. [Epub ahead of print]22(2):
    Beretti F, Farnetani F, Reggiani Bonetti L, Fabbiani L, Zavatti M, Maiorana A, Pellacani G, Maraldi T.
      BACKGROUND: Melanoma is the leading cause of death due to cutaneous malignancy and its incidence is on the rise. Several signaling pathways, including receptor tyrosine kinases, have a role in the development and progression of melanocytic lesions and malignant melanoma. Among those, the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-met axis is emerging as a critical player because it can play a role in drug resistance. Indeed, 50% of melanoma patients present BRAF mutations, however, all responders develop resistance to the inhibitors typically within one year of treatment. Interestingly, BRAF inhibitors induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in melanoma cells, therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate a possible interplay between HGF/c-met and ROS sources, such as NADPH oxidases (Nox).METHODS: The expression of c-met and Nox were quantified in 60 patients with primary cutaneous melanoma. In vitro experiments on melanoma primary cells and the cell line were performed to dissect the underpinned molecular mechanism.
    RESULTS: The outcome of interest was the correlation between the high positivity for both Nox4 and c-met and metastasis occurring at least 1 year later than melanoma diagnosis in BRAF mutated patients, in contrast to nonmutated. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the axis HGF/c-met/Nox4/ROS triggers the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
    CONCLUSIONS: The observed correlation suggests an interplay between c-met and Nox4 in promoting the onset of metastasis. This study suggests that Nox4 inhibitors could be associated to the current therapy used to treat melanoma patients with BRAF mutations.
    Keywords:  HGF; NADPH oxidases; melanoma; oxidative stress
  4. Redox Biol. 2021 Jan 06. pii: S2213-2317(21)00001-X. [Epub ahead of print]40 101853
    Kim HK, Lee HY, Riaz TA, Bhattarai KR, Chaudhary M, Ahn JH, Jeong J, Kim HR, Chae HJ.
      Chalcone is a polyphenolic compound found abundantly in natural plant components. They have been acclaimed as potential antitumor compounds in multiple tumor cells. However, not much attention has been paid to elucidate its antitumor mechanism of action. Here, chalcone was demonstrated to trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis through sulfonation of IRE1α by ER-localized NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4). IRE1α-sulfonation at a cysteine residue was shown to induce "regulated IRE1α-dependent decay" (RIDD) of mRNA rather than specific splicing of XBP1. The IRE1α sulfonation-induced RIDD degraded miR-23b, enhancing the expression of NOX4. The expression of NOX4 was also upregulated in breast, and prostate cancer tissue. In chalcone-administered mice in vivo, tumor growth was regressed by the consistent mechanisms "NOX4-IRE1α sulfonation-RIDD". Similarly, NOX4 activation and IRE1α sulfonation were also highly increased under severe ER stress conditions. Together, these findings suggest chalcone as a lead anticancer compound where it acts through NOX4-IRE1α-RIDD-miR-23b axis providing a promising vision of chalcone derivatives' anticancer mechanism.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Chalcone; IRE1α sulfonation; NOX4; RIDD; miR-23b
  5. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jan 11. pii: E664. [Epub ahead of print]22(2):
    Panahipour L, Omerbasic A, Nasirzade J, Gruber R.
      Allografts consisting of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) are supposed to retain the growth factors of native bone. However, it is not clear if transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is maintained in the acid-extracted human bone. To this aim, the aqueous solutions of supernatants and acid lysates of OraGRAFT® Demineralized Cortical Particulate and OraGRAFT® Prime were prepared. Exposing fibroblasts to the aqueous solution caused a TGF-β receptor type I kinase-inhibitor SB431542-dependent increase in interleukin 11 (IL11), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) expression. Interleukin 11 expression and the presence of TGF-β1 in the aqueous solutions were confirmed by immunoassay. Immunofluorescence further confirmed the nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 when fibroblasts were exposed to the aqueous solutions of both allografts. Moreover, allografts released matrix metalloprotease-2 activity and blocking proteases diminished the cellular TGF-β response to the supernatant. These results suggest that TGF-β is preserved upon the processing of OraGRAFT® and released by proteolytic activity into the aqueous solution.
    Keywords:  allografts; bioassay; bone augmentation; bone regeneration; demineralized bone matrix; transforming growth factor β1
  6. Neural Regen Res. 2021 Aug;16(8): 1582-1591
    Deng H, Zhang Y, Li GG, Yu HH, Bai S, Guo GY, Guo WL, Ma Y, Wang JH, Liu N, Pan C, Tang ZP.
      Oxidative stress is a crucial pathological process that contributes to secondary injury following intracerebral hemorrhage. P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), which is activated by the abnormal accumulation of extracellular ATP, plays an important role in the regulation of oxidative stress in the central nervous system, although the effects of activated P2X7R-associated oxidative stress after intracerebral hemorrhage remain unclear. Mouse models of intracerebral hemorrhage were established through the stereotactic injection of 0.075 U VII collagenase into the right basal ganglia. The results revealed that P2X7R expression peaked 24 hours after intracerebral hemorrhage, and P2X7R expressed primarily in neurons. The inhibition of P2X7R, using A438079 (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2) expression and malondialdehyde generation, increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione/oxidized glutathione levels, and alleviated neurological damage, brain edema, and apoptosis after intracellular hemorrhage. The P2X7R inhibitor A438079 (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) after intracerebral hemorrhage. Blocking ERK1/2 activation, using the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 (2 µg, intraventricular injection), reduced the level of NOX2-mediated oxidative stress induced by P2X7R activation after intracellular hemorrhage. Similarly, the inhibition of NF-κB, using the NF-κB inhibitor JSH-23 (3.5 µg, intraventricular), reduced the level of NOX2-mediated oxidative stress induced by P2X7R activation. Finally, GSK2795039 (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), a NOX2 antagonist, attenuated P2X7R-mediated oxidative stress, neurological damage, and brain edema after intracerebral hemorrhage. The results indicated that P2X7R activation aggravated NOX2-induced oxidative stress through the activation of the ERK1/2 and NF-κB pathways following intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. The present study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China (approval No. TJ-A20160805) on August 26, 2016.
    Keywords:  brain; central nervous system; factor; inflammation; injury; pathways; repair; stroke
  7. Biomolecules. 2021 Jan 07. pii: E69. [Epub ahead of print]11(1):
    Wanschel ACBA, Guizoni DM, Lorza-Gil E, Salerno AG, Paiva AA, Dorighello GG, Davel AP, Balkan W, Hare JM, Oliveira HCF.
      Endothelial dysfunction precedes atherosclerosis and is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Cholesterol levels and oxidative stress are key contributors to endothelial damage, whereas high levels of plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) could prevent it. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is one of the most potent endogenous negative regulators of HDL-cholesterol. However, whether and to what degree CETP expression impacts endothelial function, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the vascular effects of CETP on endothelial cells, have not been addressed. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of aortic rings was impaired in human CETP-expressing transgenic mice, compared to their non-transgenic littermates. However, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation was enhanced. The generation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide was increased in aortas from CETP transgenic mice, while silencing CETP in cultured human aortic endothelial cells effectively decreased oxidative stress promoted by all major sources of ROS: mitochondria and NOX2. The endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, known as GADD153, PERK, and ARF6, and unfolded protein response effectors, were also diminished. Silencing CETP reduced endothelial tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α levels, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression, diminishing monocyte adhesion. These results support the notion that CETP expression negatively impacts endothelial cell function, revealing a new mechanism that might contribute to atherosclerosis.
    Keywords:  CETP; Icam-1; Vcam-1; endoplasmic reticulum stress; endothelial dysfunction; hydrogen peroxide; mitochondria; monocytes; oxidative stress; superoxide