bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2021‒01‒03
nine papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University

  1. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2020 Dec 24. pii: gfaa376. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: The NADPH oxidase isoform, Nox4, mediates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and renal fibrosis in diabetic kidney disease at the level of the podocyte. However, the mitochondrial localization of Nox4 and its role as a mitochondrial bioenergetic sensor has recently been reported. Whether Nox4 drives pathology in diabetic kidney disease within the proximal tubular compartment, which is densely packed with mitochondria, is not yet known.METHODS: We generated a proximal tubular specific Nox4 knockout mouse model by breeding Nox4flox/flox mice with mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the Sglt2 promoter. Subsets of Nox4ptKO mice and their Nox4flox/flox littermates were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes. Mice were followed for 20 weeks and renal injury was assessed.
    RESULTS: Genetic ablation of proximal tubular Nox4 (Nox4ptKO) resulted in no change in renal function and histology. Nox4ptKO mice and Nox4flox/flox littermates injected with STZ exhibited the hallmarks of diabetic kidney disease including hyperfiltration, albuminuria, renal fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis. Surprisingly, diabetes-induced renal injury was not improved in Nox4ptKOSTZ mice compared to Nox4flox/flox STZ mice. Although diabetes conferred ROS overproduction and increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate, proximal tubular deletion of Nox4 did not normalize oxidative stress or mitochondrial bioenergetics.
    CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results demonstrate that genetic deletion of Nox4 from the proximal tubules does not influence diabetic kidney disease development, indicating that Nox4 localization within this highly energetic compartment is dispensable for chronic kidney disease pathogenesis in the setting of diabetes.
    Keywords:  NADPH oxidase; Nox4; diabetic kidney disease; proximal tubules
  2. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020 ;2020 3404168
      Silicosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease caused by the accumulation of silica dust in the distal lung. Canonical Wnt signaling and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis including silicosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of crosstalk between these two signalings are not fully understood. In the present study, we aimed to explore the interaction of Wnt/β-catenin and NOX4 of human epithelial cells in response to an exposure of silica dust. Results demonstrated an elevated expression of key components of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and NOX4 in the lungs of silicon dioxide- (SiO2-) induced silicosis mice. Furthermore, the activated Wnt/β-catenin and NOX4 signaling are accompanied by an inhibition of cell proliferation, an increase of ROS production and cell apoptosis, and an upregulation of profibrogenic factors in BEAS-2B human lung epithelial cells exposed to SiO2. A mechanistic study further demonstrated that the Wnt3a-mediated activation of canonical Wnt signaling could augment the SiO2-induced NOX4 expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production but reduced glutathione (GSH), while Wnt inhibitor DKK1 exhibited an opposite effect to Wnt3a. Vice versa, an overexpression of NOX4 further activated SiO2-induced Wnt/β-catenin signaling and NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant response along with a reduction of GSH, whereas the shRNA-mediated knockdown of NOX4 showed an opposite effect to NOX4 overexpression. These results imply a positive feed forward loop between Wnt/β-catenin and NOX4 signaling that may promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lung epithelial cells in response to an exposure of silica dust, which may thus provide an insight into the profibrogenic role of Wnt/β-catenin and NOX4 crosstalk in lung epithelial cell injury and pathogenesis of silicosis.
  3. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 ;8 608600
      Neutrophils are the first cells recruited at the site of infections, where they phagocytose the pathogens. Inside the phagosome, pathogens are killed by proteolytic enzymes that are delivered to the phagosome following granule fusion, and by reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the NADPH oxidase. The NADPH oxidase complex comprises membrane proteins (NOX2 and p22phox), cytoplasmic subunits (p67phox, p47phox, and p40phox) and the small GTPase Rac. These subunits assemble at the phagosomal membrane upon phagocytosis. In resting neutrophils the catalytic subunit NOX2 is mainly present at the plasma membrane and in the specific granules. We show here that NOX2 is also present in early and recycling endosomes in human neutrophils and in the neutrophil-like cell line PLB-985 expressing GFP-NOX2. In the latter cells, an increase in NOX2 at the phagosomal membrane was detected by live-imaging after phagosome closure, probably due to fusion of endosomes with the phagosome. Using super-resolution microscopy in PLB-985 WT cells, we observed that NOX2 forms discrete clusters in the plasma membrane. The number of clusters increased during frustrated phagocytosis. In PLB-985NCF1ΔGT cells that lack p47phox and do not assemble a functional NADPH oxidase, the number of clusters remained stable during phagocytosis. Our data suggest a role for p47phox and possibly ROS production in NOX2 recruitment at the phagosome.
    Keywords:  NOX2; dSTORM; nanoclusters; phagocytosis; super-resolution imaging
  4. Anat Cell Biol. 2020 Dec 31. 53(4): 471-480
      Over-expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox) isoform enzymes was recently reported in various cancers including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL). However, the functions of Nox isoform enzymes in BL remain poorly understood. In this study, Nox isoform expression and the effects of a Nox-specific inhibitor were evaluated in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive Raji BL cells in comparison with EBV-negative Ramos BL cells. To evaluate Nox enzyme expression in Raji and Ramos BL cells, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analysis were performed. To verify the intracellular signaling mechanism of the Nox inhibitor-induced apoptosis of Raji cells, WST-1 assay, trypan blue exclusion method, flow cytometry, PCR, western blotting, and bromodeoxyuridine staining were conducted. Experiments using the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD, reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and Bim inhibitor 1 were performed. PCR and western blot results showed that Nox isoform enzymes were highly expressed in EBV-positive BL Raji cells compared with EBV-negative BL Ramos cells. The Nox2 inhibitor induced apoptosis of Raji cells in time- and dose-dependent manners. The Nox2 inhibitor also caused up-regulation of Bim and Noxa, down-regulation of Mcl-1, translocation of Bax, release of cytochrome c, and caspase cascade activation, resulting in apoptosis. Furthermore, z-VAD, NAC, and BI-1 effectively blocked the Nox2 inhibitor-induced apoptosis of Raji cells. Taken together, these results provide a novel insight into the mechanism of Nox inhibitor-induced apoptosis and evidence for Nox as a therapeutic target to treat EBV-positive malignancies.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Burkitt lymphoma; Epstein-Barr virus; Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase
  5. Pharmaceutics. 2020 Dec 23. pii: E10. [Epub ahead of print]13(1):
      Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have recently been recognized as important signal transducers, particularly regulating proliferation and differentiation of cells. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) is known as an inhibitor of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) and is also affecting mitochondrial function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DPI on ROS metabolism and mitochondrial function in human amniotic membrane mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs), human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs), hBMSCs induced into osteoblast-like cells, and osteosarcoma cell line MG-63. Our data suggested a combination of a membrane potential sensitive fluorescent dye, tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), and a ROS-sensitive dye, CM-H2DCFDA, combined with a pretreatment with mitochondria-targeted ROS scavenger MitoTEMPO as a good tool to examine effects of DPI. We observed critical differences in ROS metabolism between hAMSCs, hBMSCs, osteoblast-like cells, and MG-63 cells, which were linked to energy metabolism. In cell types using predominantly glycolysis as the energy source, such as hAMSCs, DPI predominantly interacted with NOX, and it was not toxic for the cells. In hBMSCs, the ROS turnover was influenced by NOX activity rather than by the mitochondria. In cells with aerobic metabolism, such as MG 63, the mitochondria became an additional target for DPI, and these cells were prone to the toxic effects of DPI. In summary, our data suggest that undifferentiated cells rather than differentiated parenchymal cells should be considered as potential targets for DPI.
    Keywords:  NADPH-oxidase; differentiation; diphenyleneiodonium; mitochondria; proliferation; reactive oxygen species
  6. Front Pharmacol. 2020 ;11 579178
      Cisplatin (CDDP) is a widely used drug for cancer treatment that exhibits major side effects in normal tissues, such as nephrotoxicity in kidneys. The Nrf2 signaling pathway, a regulator of mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation, is a potential therapeutic target in CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity. We explored the underlying mechanisms in wild-type (WT) and Nrf2-/- mice on CDDP-induced renal dysfunction in vivo. We found that Nrf2 deficiency aggravated CDDP-induced nephrotoxicity, and Daph treatment significantly ameliorated the renal injury characterized by biochemical markers in WT mice and reduced the CDDP-induced cell damage. In terms of the mechanism, Daph upregulated the SIRT1 and SIRT6 expression in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, Daph inhibited the expression level of NOX4, whereas it activated Nrf2 translocation and antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and NQO1, and alleviated oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, Daph suppressed CDDP-induced NF-κB and MAPK inflammation pathways, as well as p53 and cleaved caspase-3 apoptosis pathways. Notably, the protective effects of Daph in WT mice were completely abrogated in Nrf2-/- mice. Moreover, Daph enhanced, rather than attenuated, the tumoricidal effect of CDDP.
    Keywords:  Nrf2; SIRT1; SIRT6; cisplatin; nephrotoxicity; oxidative stress
  7. J Biol Chem. 2020 Dec 30. pii: jbc.RA120.015188. [Epub ahead of print]
      Oncogenic K-Ras (K-RasG12V) promotes senescence in normal cells but fuels transformation of cancer cells after the senescence barrier is bypassed. The mechanisms regulating this pleiotropic function of K-Ras remain to be fully established and bear high pathological significance. We find that K-RasG12V activates the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene promoter and promotes AGT protein expression in a Kruppel Like Factor 6 (KLF6)-dependent manner in normal cells. We show that AGT is then converted to angiotensin II (Ang II) in a cell-autonomous manner by cellular proteases. We show that blockade of the Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1-R) in normal cells inhibits oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). We provide evidence that the oncogenic K-Ras-induced synthesis of Ang II and AT1-R activation promote senescence through caveolin-1-dependent and NOX2-mediated oxidative stress. Interestingly, we find that expression of AGT remains elevated in lung cancer cells but in a KLF6-independent and High Mobility Group AT-Hook 1 (HMGA1)-dependent manner. We show that Ang II-mediated activation of the AT1-R promotes cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of lung cancer cells through a STAT3-dependent pathway. Finally, we find that expression of AGT is elevated in lung tumors of K-RasLA2-G12D mice, a mouse model of lung cancer, and human lung cancer. Treatment with the AT1-R antagonist losartan inhibits lung tumor formation in K-RasLA2-G12D mice. Together, our data provide evidence of the existence of a novel cell-autonomous and pleiotropic Ang II-dependent signaling pathway through which oncogenic K-Ras promotes OIS in normal cells while fueling transformation in cancer cells.
    Keywords:  Ras protein; angiotensin II; caveolin; cellular senescence; oncogene
  8. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2020 Dec 28. pii: S0303-7207(20)30446-9. [Epub ahead of print] 111144
      In this study, we aimed to clarify the role of PIM-1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in vitro and investigate the relationship between PIM-1 and redox proteins (NOX4, SOD2, and GPX2) at the tissue and cellular levels. As a PIM-1 inhibitor, SGI-1776 inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and induced an increase in apoptosis and reactive oxygen species in two PTC cell lines (BCPAP and TPC-1). The expressions of PIM-1, SOD2 and GPX2 were downregulated after siNOX4 exposure. Immunohistochemistry in 120 PTC patients showed that all four proteins exhibited higher expression levels in PTC tissues than in adjacent normal tissues. PIM-1 expression was related to NOX4, SOD2, and GPX2 expressions. The Cancer Genome Atlas database analysis showed the significant correlation between the expression of NOX4 and PIM-1. Our results demonstrated that PIM-1 played an important oncogenic role in PTC carcinogenesis that may be related to oxidative stress.
    Keywords:  NOX4; PIM-1; Papillary thyroid carcinoma; oxidative stress
  9. Oncol Lett. 2021 Feb;21(2): 116
      Glioma is the most common type of primary brain cancer, and the prognosis of most patients with glioma, and particularly that of patients with glioblastoma, is poor. Tumor immunity serves an important role in the development of glioma. However, immunotherapy for glioma has not been completely successful, and thus, comprehensive examination of the immune-related genes (IRGs) of glioma is required. In the present study, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed IRGs (DEIRGs) were identified using the edgeR package. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis was used for functional enrichment analysis of DEIRGs. Survival-associated IRGs were selected via univariate Cox regression analysis. A The Cancer Genome Atlas prognostic model and GSE43378 validation model were established using lasso-penalized Cox regression analysis. Based on the median risk score value, patients were divided into high-risk and low-risk groups for clinical analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curve and nomogram analyses were used to assess the accuracy of the models. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was performed to measure the expression levels of relevant genes, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), interleukin 24 (IL24), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5 (BIRC5). A total of 3,238 DEGs, including 1,950 upregulated and 1,288 downregulated DEGs, and 97 DEIRGs, including 60 upregulated and 37 downregulated DEIRGs, were identified. 'Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction' and 'Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction' were the most significantly enriched pathways according to KEGG pathway analysis. A prognostic model and a validation prognostic model were created for glioma, including 15 survival-associated IRGs (FCER1G, NOX4, TRIM5, SOCS1, APOBEC3C, BIRC5, VIM, TNC, BMP2, CMTM3, IL24, JAG1, CALCRL, HNF4G and CDK4). Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analysis results suggested that age, high WHO Grade by histopathology, wild type isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and high risk score were independently associated with poor overall survival. The infiltration of B cells, CD8+ T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and neutrophils was positively associated with the prognostic risk score. In the present study, several clinically significant survival-associated IRGs were identified, and a prognosis evaluation model of glioma was established.
    Keywords:  GSE43378; The Cancer Genome Atlas; glioma; immune cells; immune-related gene; prognostic model