bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2020‒12‒13
six papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University

  1. Free Radic Biol Med. 2020 Dec 03. pii: S0891-5849(20)31656-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      Activation of innate immune components promotes cell autonomous inflammation in adipocytes. Oxidative stress links pattern recognition receptor-mediated detection of inflammatory ligands and the immune response. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may mediate the effect of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein-1 (NOD1) activation on inflammation in adipocytes. Here, we define the potential role of NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived ROS in NOD1-mediated inflammatory response in adipocytes. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with NOD1 activating ligand D-gamma-Glu-meso-diaminopimelic acid (iE-DAP) to evaluate the oxidative stress and contribution of NOX as source of intracellular ROS. NOD1 activation potently induced ROS generation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Of the NOX family members, expression of NOX1 and NOX4 was increased upon NOD1 activation, in a PKCδ-dependent manner. siRNA-mediated down-regulation of NOX1 or NOX4 inhibited NOD1-mediated ROS production and increased the expression of antioxidant defense enzyme catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD). siRNA-mediated lowering of NOX1 or NOX4 also suppressed NOD1-mediated activation of JNK1/2 and NF-κB, and consequent activation of inflammatory response in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In summary, our findings demonstrate that NOD1 activation provokes oxidative stress in adipocytes via NOX1/4 and that oxidative stress, at least in part, contributes to induction of inflammatory response. Defining the source of ROS after immune response engagement may lead to new therapeutic strategies for adipose tissue inflammation.
    Keywords:  Oxidative stress; adipocytes; inflammation; innate immune components; reactive oxygen species
  2. Front Cell Neurosci. 2020 ;14 578060
      Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common and severe neurological disorder that can effectively induce oxidative stress responses. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is a member of the NOX family of oxidases. It is expressed in the brain normally and involved in cell signal transduction and the removal of harmful substances. In some pathological conditions, it mediates inflammation and the aging of cells. However, few studies have focused on whether NOX4 is involved in brain injury caused by ICH. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the role of NOX4 in the pathological process that occurs after ICH and the potential mechanism underlying its role. A rat model of ICH was established by the injection of collagenase type IV, and the expression of NOX4 was then determined. Further, siRNA-mediated protein expression knockdown technology was used for NOX4 knockdown, and western immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and other molecular biological techniques were performed to assess the effects of NOX4 knockdown. Neurobiological scoring, brain water content determination, and other brain injury detection methods were also performed to assess the role of NOX4 following ICH. We found that the expression of NOX4 increased in the brains of rats after ICH, and that it was mainly expressed in neurons, astrocytes, vascular endothelial cells and microglia. Following NOX4 knockdown, the level of oxidative stress in the brain decreased considerably, the neurobehavioral scores improved, the levels of neuronal apoptosis reduced markedly, and the impairment of blood-brain barrier function was significantly ameliorated in rats with ICH. In conclusion, this study suggests that NOX4 expression is upregulated after ICH, which may cause an imbalance in the oxidative stress of relevant cells in the brain, leading to subsequent apoptosis of neurons and damage to the blood-brain barrier due to secondary brain injury following ICH.
    Keywords:  ICH = intracerebral hemorrhage; NOX4 NADPH oxidase; apoptosis; blood-brain barrier; oxidative stress
  3. Alcohol. 2020 Dec 02. pii: S0741-8329(20)30309-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      Excessive alcohol users have increased risk of developing respiratory infections in part due to oxidative stress-induced alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytic dysfunction. Chronic ethanol exposure increases cellular oxidative stress in AM via upregulation of NADPH oxidase (Nox) 4, and treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligand, rosiglitazone, decreased ethanol-induced Nox4. However, the mechanism by which ethanol induces Nox4 expression and PPARγ ligand reverses this defect has not been elucidated. Since microRNA (miR)-92a has been predicted to target Nox4 for destabilization, we hypothesized that ethanol exposure decreases miR-92a expression and leads to Nox4 upregulation. Previous studies have implicated mitochondrial-derived oxidative stress in AM dysfunction. We further hypothesized that ethanol increases mitochondrial-derived AM oxidative stress and dysfunction via miR-92a and that treatment with the PPARγ ligand, pioglitazone, could reverse these derangements. To test these hypotheses, a mouse AM cell line, MH-S cells, were exposed to ethanol in vitro and primary AM were isolated from a mouse model of chronic ethanol consumption to measure Nox4, mitochondrial target mRNA (qRT-PCR) and protein levels (confocal microscopy), mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (confocal immunofluorescence), mitochondrial fission (electron microscopy), and mitochondrial bioenergetics (extracellular flux analyzer). Ethanol exposure increased Nox4, enhanced mitochondria-derived oxidative stress, augmented mitochondrial fission, and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics. Transfection with miR-92a mimic in vitro or pioglitazone treatment in vivo diminished Nox4 levels, resulting in improvements in these ethanol-mediated derangements. These findings provide support that pioglitazone may provide a novel therapeutic approach to mitigate ethanol-induced AM mitochondrial derangements.
    Keywords:  Ethanol; Nox4; alveolar macrophage; miR-92a; mitochondria; pioglitazone
  4. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Dec 08. pii: E1248. [Epub ahead of print]9(12):
      NADPH oxidases (NOX) are commonly expressed ROS-producing enzymes that participate in the regulation of many signaling pathways, which influence cell metabolism, survival, and proliferation. Due to their high expression in several different types of cancer it was postulated that NOX promote tumor progression, growth, and survival. Thus, the inhibition of NOX activity was considered to have therapeutic potential. One of the possible outcomes of anticancer therapy, which has recently gained much interest, is cancer cell senescence. The induction of senescence leads to prolonged inhibition of proliferation and contributes to tumor growth restriction. The aim of our studies was to investigate the influence of low, non-toxic doses of diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), a potent inhibitor of flavoenzymes including NADPH oxidases, on p53-proficient and p53-deficient HCT116 human colon cancer cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We demonstrated that the temporal treatment of HCT116 and MCF-7 cancer cells (both p53 wild-type) with DPI caused induction of senescence, that was correlated with decreased level of ROS and upregulation of p53/p21 proteins. On the contrary, in the case of p53-/- HCT116 cells, apoptosis was shown to be the prevailing effect of DPI treatment. Thus, our studies provided a proof that inhibiting ROS production, and by this means influencing ROS sensitive pathways, remains an alternative strategy to facilitate so called therapy-induced senescence in cancers.
    Keywords:  DPI; NADPH oxidases; ROS; apoptosis; cancer; senescence
  5. J Immunol. 2020 Dec 07. pii: ji2000694. [Epub ahead of print]
      The NOX2 NADPH oxidase (NOX2) produces reactive oxygen species to kill phagosome-confined bacteria. However, we previously showed that Listeria monocytogenes is able to avoid the NOX2 activity in phagosomes and escape to the cytosol. Thus, despite the established role of NOX2 limiting L. monocytogenes infection in mice, the underlying mechanisms of this antibacterial activity remain unclear. In this article, we report that NOX2 controls systemic L. monocytogenes spread through modulation of the type I IFN response, which is known to be exploited by L. monocytogenes during infection. NOX2 deficiency results in increased expression of IFN-stimulated genes in response to type I IFN and leads to 1) promotion of cell-to-cell spread by L. monocytogenes, 2) defective leukocyte recruitment to infection foci, and 3) production of anti-inflammatory effectors IL-10 and thioredoxin 1. Our findings report a novel antimicrobial role for NOX2 through modulation of type I IFN responses to control bacterial dissemination.
  6. JCI Insight. 2020 Dec 10. pii: 142189. [Epub ahead of print]
      COPD is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by small airway remodeling and alveolar emphysema due to environmental stresses such as cigarette smoking (CS). Oxidative stress is commonly implicated in COPD pathology, but recent findings suggest that one oxidant-producing NADPH oxidase homolog, dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1), is downregulated in the airways of COPD patients. We evaluated lung tissue sections from COPD patients for small airway epithelial DUOX1 protein expression, in association with measures of lung function and small airway and alveolar remodeling. We also addressed the impact of DUOX1 for lung tissue remodeling in mouse models of COPD. Small airway DUOX1 levels were decreased in advanced COPD, and correlated with loss of lung function and markers of emphysema and remodeling. Similarly, DUOX1 downregulation in correlation with extracellular matrix remodeling was observed in a genetic model of COPD, transgenic SPC-TNF-α mice. Finally, development of subepithelial airway fibrosis in mice due to exposure to the CS-component acrolein, or alveolar emphysema induced by administration of elastase, were in both cases exacerbated in Duox1-deficient mice. Collectively, our studies highlight that downregulation of DUOX1 may be a contributing feature of COPD pathogenesis, likely related to impaired DUOX1-mediated innate injury responses involved in epithelial homeostasis.
    Keywords:  COPD; Cell Biology; Extracellular matrix; Pulmonology