bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2020‒11‒15
six papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University

  1. PLoS Biol. 2020 Nov;18(11): e3000885
      Hypertension is the most important cause of death and disability in the elderly. In 9 out of 10 cases, the molecular cause, however, is unknown. One mechanistic hypothesis involves impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation through reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Indeed, ROS forming NADPH oxidase (Nox) genes associate with hypertension, yet target validation has been negative. We re-investigate this association by molecular network analysis and identify NOX5, not present in rodents, as a sole neighbor to human vasodilatory endothelial nitric oxide (NO) signaling. In hypertensive patients, endothelial microparticles indeed contained higher levels of NOX5-but not NOX1, NOX2, or NOX4-with a bimodal distribution correlating with disease severity. Mechanistically, mice expressing human Nox5 in endothelial cells developed-upon aging-severe systolic hypertension and impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation due to uncoupled NO synthase (NOS). We conclude that NOX5-induced uncoupling of endothelial NOS is a causal mechanism and theragnostic target of an age-related hypertension endotype. Nox5 knock-in (KI) mice represent the first mechanism-based animal model of hypertension.
  2. Pharmacol Res. 2020 Nov 05. pii: S1043-6618(20)31588-7. [Epub ahead of print] 105280
      Neuropathic pain (NP) is a chronic condition that results from a lesion or disease of the nervous system, greatly impacting patients' quality of life. Current pharmacotherapy options deliver inadequate and/or insufficient responses and thus a significant unmet clinical need remains for alternative treatments in NP. Neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and their reciprocal relationship are critically involved in NP pathophysiology. In this context, new pharmacological approaches, aiming at enhancing the resolution phase of inflammation and/or restoring redox balance by targeting specific reactive oxygen species (ROS) sources, are emerging as potential therapeutic strategies for NP, with improved efficacy and safety profiles. Several reports have demonstrated that administration of exogenous specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) ameliorates NP pathophysiology. Likewise, deletion or inhibition of the ROS-generating enzyme NADPH oxidase (NOX), particularly its isoforms 2 and 4, results in beneficial effects in NP models. Notably, SPMs also modulate oxidative stress and NOX also regulate neuroinflammation. By targeting neuroinflammatory and oxidative pathways, both SPMs analogues and isoform-specific NOX inhibitors are promising therapeutic strategies for NP.
    Keywords:  isoform-specific NADPH oxidase inhibitors; neuroinflammation; neuropathic pain; oxidative stress; specialized pro-resolving mediators
  3. Int Immunopharmacol. 2020 Nov 07. pii: S1567-5769(20)33590-6. [Epub ahead of print] 107123
      Sepsis is a life-threatening condition which affects multiple organs including the kidney. Sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major health burden throughout the globe. Pathogenesis of sepsis-induced AKI is complex; however, it involves both innate and adaptive immune cells such as B cells, T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages, and neutrophils. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is reportedly involved in inflammatory and oxidative signaling in different immune cells, however its contribution with respect to sepsis-induced AKI has not been delineated. This study attempted to investigate the role of BTK and its inhibition on oxidizing enzymes NADPH oxidase (NOX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in DCs, neutrophils, and B cells during AKI. Our data reveal that BTK is activated in DCs, neutrophils, and B cells which causes an increase in AKI associated biochemical markers such as serum creatinine/blood urea nitrogen, renal myeloperoxidase activity, and histopathological disturbances in renal tubular structures. Activation of BTK causes upregulation of NOX-2/iNOS/nitrotyrosine in these immune cells and kidney. Treatment with BTK inhibitor, Ibrutinib causes attenuation in AKI associated dysfunction in biochemical parameters (serum creatinine/blood urea nitrogen, renal myeloperoxidase activity) and oxidative stress in immune cells and kidney (iNOS/NOX2/lipid peroxides/nitrotyrosine/protein carbonyls). In summary, the current investigation reveals a compelling role of BTK signaling in sepsis-induced AKI which is evident from amelioration of AKI associated renal dysfunction after its inhibition.
    Keywords:  Acute kidney injury; B cells; Dendritic cells; NOX2; Neutrophils; iNOS
  4. Front Physiol. 2020 ;11 566410
      Increasing evidences suggest that angiotensin (Ang) II participates in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction (ED) through multiple signaling pathways, including angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) mediated NADPH oxidase (Nox)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal transduction. However, the detailed mechanism is not completely understood. In this study, we reported that AngII/AT1R-mediated activated protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) downregulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation via Nox/ROS pathway. AngII treatment reduced the levels of phosphorylation of eNOS Ser1177 and nitric oxide (NO) content along with phosphorylation of PP2Ac (PP2A catalytic subunit) Tyr307, meanwhile increased the PP2A activity and ROS production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These changes could be impeded by AT1R antagonist candesartan (CAN). The pretreatment of 10-8 M PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid (OA) reversed the levels of eNOS Ser1177 and NO content. Similar effects of AngII on PP2A and eNOS were also observed in the mesenteric arteries of Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to AngII infusion via osmotic minipumps for 2 weeks. We found that the PP2A activity was increased, but the levels of PP2Ac Tyr307 and eNOS Ser1177 as well as NO content were decreased in the mesenteric arteries. The pretreatments of antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and apocynin (APO) abolished the drop of the levels of PP2Ac Tyr307 and eNOS Ser1177 induced by AngII in HUVECs. The knockdown of p22phox by small interfering RNA (siRNA) gave rise to decrement of ROS production and increment of the levels of PP2Ac Tyr307 and eNOS Ser1177. These results indicated that AngII/AT1R pathway activated PP2A by downregulating its catalytic subunit Tyr307 phosphorylation, which relies on the Nox activation and ROS production. In summary, our findings indicate that AngII downregulates PP2A catalytic subunit Tyr307 phosphorylation to activate PP2A via AT1R-mediated Nox/ROS signaling pathway. The activated PP2A further decreases levels of eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation and NO content leading to endothelial dysfunction.
    Keywords:  NADPH oxidase; angiotensin II; angiotensin II type 1 receptor; endothelial nitric oxide synthase; protein phosphatase 2A
  5. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2020 Nov 12. 12(1): 146
      BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive impairment. The aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau protein are two major pathological features of AD. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase, NOX) has been indicated in Aβ pathology; however, whether and how it affects tau pathology are not yet clear.METHODS: The role of NOX2 in cognitive function, amyloid plaque formation, and tau hyperphosphorylation were examined in APP/PS1 transgenic mice mated with p47phox-deficient mice (with deletion of the gene of neutrophil cytosolic factor 1, Ncf1) and/or in p47phox-deficient mice receiving intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The cognitive and non-cognitive functions in these mice were assessed by Morris water maze, Rotarod test, open field, and elevated plus maze. Aβ levels, amyloid plaques, p47phox expression, and astrocyte activation were evaluated using immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, and/or Western blotting. Cultured primary neuronal cells were treated with okadaic acid or conditioned media (CM) from high glucose-stimulated primary astrocytes. The alteration in tau pathology was determined using Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining.
    RESULTS: Deletion of the gene coding for p47phox, the organizer subunit of NOX2, significantly attenuated cognitive impairment and tau pathology in these mice. p47phox deficiency decreased the activation of astrocytes but had no effect on Aβ levels and amyloid plaque formation in the brains of aged APP/PS1 mice, which displayed markedly increased expression of p47phox in neurons and astrocytes. Cell culture studies found that neuronal p47phox deletion attenuated okadaic acid-induced tau hyperphosphorylation at specific sites in primary cultures of neurons. CM from high glucose-treated WT astrocytes increased tau hyperphosphorylation in primary neurons, whereas this effect was absent from p47phox-deficient astrocytes.
    CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that p47phox is associated with cognitive function and tau pathology in AD. p47phox expressed in neurons contributes to tau hyperphosphorylation directly, while p47phox in astrocytes affect tau hyperphosphorylation by activating astrocytes indirectly. Our results provide new insights into the role of NOX2 in AD and indicate that targeted inhibition of p47phox may be a new strategy for the treatment of AD.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; Astrocytes; Cognition; NOX2; Ncf1; Neurons; Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase; Tau; p47phox
  6. Aging (Albany NY). 2020 Nov 07. 12
      In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which puerarin alleviates osteoclast-related loss of bone mass in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis model mice. Puerarin-treated OVX mice exhibited higher bone density, fewer tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP)-positive osteoclasts, and levels of lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) within bone tissues than vehicle-treated OVX mice. Puerarin suppressed in vitro osteoclast differentiation, hydroxyapatite resorption activity, and expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes, such as NFATc1, MMP9, CTSK, Acp5 and c-Fos, in RANKL-induced bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and RAW264.7 cells. It also reduced intracellular ROS levels by suppressing expression of TRAF6 and NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) and increasing expression of antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Puerarin inhibited TRAF6/ROS-dependent activation of the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in RANKL-induced RAW264.7 cells, and these effects were partially reversed by HO-1 silencing or TRAF6 overexpression. These findings suggest puerarin alleviates loss of bone mass in the OVX-model mice by suppressing osteoclastogenesis via inhibition of the TRAF6/ROS-dependent MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway.
    Keywords:  osteoclast; osteoporosis; puerarin; reactive oxygen species