bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2020‒11‒08
seven papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University

  1. Pharmacol Res. 2020 Oct 22. pii: S1043-6618(20)31543-7. [Epub ahead of print] 105235
      Hypertension is associated with oxidative stress and perivascular inflammation, critical contributors to perivascular fibrosis and accelerated vascular ageing. Oxidative stress can promote vascular inflammation, creating options for potential use of NADPH oxidase inhibitors in pharmacological targeting of perivascular inflammation and its consequences. Accordingly, we characterized age-related changes in oxidative stress and immune cell infiltration in normotensive (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Subsequently, we used pharmacological inhibitors of Nox1 (ML171) and Nox1/Nox4 (GKT137831; 60 mg/kg), to modulate NADPH oxidase activity at the early stage of spontaneous hypertension and investigated their effects on perivascular inflammation and fibrosis. RESULTS: Ageing was associated with a progressive increase of blood pressure as well as an elevation of the total number of leukocytes, macrophages and NK cells infiltrating perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in SHRs but not in WKY. At 1 month of age, when blood pressure was not yet different, only perivascular NK cells were significantly higher in SHR. Spontaneous hypertension was also accompanied by the higher perivascular T cell accumulation, although this increase was age independent. Aortic Nox1 and Nox2 mRNA expression increased with age only in SHR but not in WKY, while age-related increase of Nox4 mRNA in the vessels has been observed in both groups, it was more pronounced in SHRs. At early stage of hypertension (3-months) the most pronounced differences were observed in Nox1 and Nox4. Surprisingly, GKT137831, dual inhibitor of Nox1/4, therapy increased both blood pressure and perivascular macrophage infiltration. Mechanistically, this was linked to increased expression of proinflammatory chemokines expression (CCL2 and CCL5) in PVAT. This inflammatory response translated to increased perivascular fibrosis. This effect was likely Nox4 dependent as the Nox1 inhibitor ML171 did not affect the development of spontaneous hypertension, perivascular macrophage accumulation, chemokine expression nor adventitial collagen deposition. In summary, spontaneous hypertension promotes ageing-associated perivascular inflammation which is exacerbated by Nox4 but not Nox1 pharmacological inhibition.
    Keywords:  Ageing; GKT137831; Hypertension; NOX4; Perivascular inflammation; SHR
  2. Redox Biol. 2020 Nov 01. pii: S2213-2317(20)30979-4. [Epub ahead of print]38 101774
      Skeletal muscle atrophy with high prevalence can induce weakness and fatigability and place huge burden on both health and quality of life. During skeletal muscle degeneration, excessive fibroblasts and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulated to replace and impair the resident muscle fiber and led to loss of muscle mass. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the rate-limiting enzyme in synthesis of prostaglandin, has been identified as a positive regulator in pathophysiological process like inflammation and oxidative stress. In our study, we found injured muscles of human subjects and mouse model overexpressed COX-2 compared to the non-damaged region and COX-2 was also upregulated in fibroblasts following TGF-β stimulation. Then we detected the effect of selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib on fibrogenesis. Celecoxib mediated anti-fibrotic effect by inhibiting fibroblast differentiation, proliferation and migration as well as inactivating TGF-β-dependent signaling pathway, non-canonical TGF-β pathways and suppressing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. In vivo pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 by celecoxib decreased tissue fibrosis and increased skeletal muscle fiber preservation reflected by less ECM formation and myofibroblast accumulation with decreased p-ERK1/2, p-Smad2/3, TGF-βR1, VEGF, NOX2 and NOX4 expression. Expression profiling further found that celecoxib could suppress PDK1 expression. The interaction between COX-2 and PDK1/AKT signaling remained unclear, here we found that COX-2 could bind to PDK1/AKT to form compound. Knockdown of COX-2 in fibroblasts by pharmacological inactivation or by siRNA restrained PDK1 expression and AKT phosphorylation induced by TGF-β treatment. Besides, si-COX-2 prevented TGF-β-induced K63-ubiquitination of AKT by blocking the interaction between AKT and E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF4. In summary, we found blocking COX-2 inhibited fibrogenesis after muscle atrophy induced by injury and suppressed AKT signaling pathway by inhibiting upstream PDK1 expression and preventing the recruitment of TRAF4 to AKT, indicating that COX-2/PDK1/AKT signaling pathway promised to be target for treating muscle atrophy in the future.
    Keywords:  COX-2; Fibrogenesis; PDK1/AKT; Skeletal muscle atrophy; TRAF4
  3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Nov 02. pii: 202017830. [Epub ahead of print]
      Akt activation up-regulates the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by inhibiting ROS scavenging. Of the Akt isoforms, Akt3 has also been shown to up-regulate ROS by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis. Here, we employ a set of isogenic cell lines that express different Akt isoforms, to show that the most robust inducer of ROS is Akt3. As a result, Akt3-expressing cells activate the DNA damage response pathway, express high levels of p53 and its direct transcriptional target miR-34, and exhibit a proliferation defect, which is rescued by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. The importance of the DNA damage response in the inhibition of cell proliferation by Akt3 was confirmed by Akt3 overexpression in p53 -/- and INK4a -/-/Arf -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), which failed to inhibit cell proliferation, despite the induction of high levels of ROS. The induction of ROS by Akt3 is due to the phosphorylation of the NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox, which results in NADPH oxidase activation. Expression of Akt3 in p47 phox-/- MEFs failed to induce ROS and to inhibit cell proliferation. Notably, the proliferation defect was rescued by wild-type p47phox, but not by the phosphorylation site mutant of p47phox In agreement with these observations, Akt3 up-regulates p53 in human cancer cell lines, and the expression of Akt3 positively correlates with the levels of p53 in a variety of human tumors. More important, Akt3 alterations correlate with a higher frequency of mutation of p53, suggesting that tumor cells may adapt to high levels of Akt3, by inactivating the DNA damage response.
    Keywords:  Akt isoforms; DNA damage; NADPH oxidase; cancer; oxidative stress
  4. Cancer Manag Res. 2020 ;12 10929-10938
      Introduction: Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is very common in patients with advanced cancer. Recent studies have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can sense and regulate pain response process through spinal cord mechanism, and play a role in CIBP. NADPH oxidase (NOX) is a group of protease complexes that produce ROS. In the current study, we investigated the expression of NOX4 in the spinal dorsal horn of rats with CIBP and its related role and molecular mechanism.Materials and Methods: A rat CIBP model was established by injecting Walker-256 cells into the tibia medullary cavity, and the expression of NOX4 in spinal dorsal horn was down-regulated by injecting lentivirus into spinal cord. RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the expression of NOX4 in CIBP rats, cell localization and its effect on CIBP rats, and the effect of down-regulating the expression of NOX4 on the expression of H2O2, nitric oxide synthase nNO, antioxidant enzyme SOD, and the activity of neuro-receptor in spinal dorsal horn of rats.
    Results: In rats with CIBP, the expression of NOX4 was significantly increased, and immunofluorescence showed that NOX4 was mainly expressed in microglia in the dorsal horn of spinal cord. Down-regulating the expression of NOX4 in rats can reduce the level of H2O2 and nNO in dorsal horn tissue, and increase the expression of SOD to reduce the oxidative stress response. At the same time, down-regulating NOX4 can reduce the sensitivity of spinal cord and relieve the pain of bone cancer by inhibiting the expression of NMDAR and GABAA-γ2 in dorsal horn tissue.
    Conclusion: NOX4 is a promising therapeutic target in CIBP, and down-regulation of NOX4 expression can alleviate CIBP in rats by reducing oxidative stress and weakening spinal cord sensitization.
    Keywords:  NOX4; cancer-induced bone pain; reactive oxygen species; spinal cord sensitization
  5. Front Genet. 2020 ;11 997
      SETDB1, a histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase, is crucial in meiosis and embryo development. This study aimed to investigate whether SETDB1 was associated with spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) homeostasis. We found that knockdown of Setdb1 impaired cell proliferation, led to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level through NADPH oxidase, and Setdb1 deficiency activated ROS downstream signaling pathways, including JNK and p38 MAPK, which possibly contributed to SSC apoptosis. Melatonin scavenged ROS and rescued the phenotype of Setdb1 KD. In addition, we demonstrated that SETDB1 regulated NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) and E2F1. Therefore, this study uncovers the new roles of SETDB1 in mediating intracellular ROS homeostasis for the survival of SSC.
    Keywords:  H3K9me3; NOX4; ROS; SETDB1; spermatogonial stem cell
  6. J Biol Chem. 2020 Nov 06. pii: jbc.RA120.014793. [Epub ahead of print]
      With the improvement of people's living standards, the number of obese patients has also grown rapidly. It is reported that the level of oxidative stress in obese patients has significantly increased, mainly caused by the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in adipose tissue. Studies have shown that the use of siRNA to interfere with BMP and Activin Membrane-Bound Inhibitor (BAMBI) expression could promote adipocyte differentiation, and under hypoxic conditions, BAMBI could act as a regulator of HIF1α to regulate the polarity damage of epithelial cells. In view of these results, we speculated that BAMBI may regulate adipogenesis by regulating the level of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we generated adipose-specific BAMBI knockout mice (BAMBI AKO) and found that compared with control mice, BAMBI AKO mice showed obesity when fed with high-fat diet, accompanied by insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypercholesterolemia and increased inflammation in adipose tissue. Interestingly, adipose-specific deficiency of BAMBI could cause an increase in the expression level of Nox4, thereby promoting ROS production in cytoplasm and mitochondria and the DNA-binding activity of C/EBPβ, and ultimately promoting adipogenesis. Consistently, our findings indicated that BAMBI may be a reactive oxygen regulator to affect adipogenesis, thereby controlling obesity and metabolic syndrome.
    Keywords:  adipocyte; adipogenesis; gene expression; gene knockout; gene regulation; redox regulation
  7. Cell Death Dis. 2020 Nov 06. 11(11): 954
      Parp3 is a member of the Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (Parp) family that has been characterized for its functions in strand break repair, chromosomal rearrangements, mitotic segregation and tumor aggressiveness. Yet its physiological implications remain unknown. Here we report a central function of Parp3 in the regulation of redox homeostasis in continuous neurogenesis in mice. We show that the absence of Parp3 provokes Nox4-induced oxidative stress and defective mTorc2 activation leading to inefficient differentiation of post-natal neural stem/progenitor cells to astrocytes. The accumulation of ROS contributes to the decreased activity of mTorc2 as a result of an oxidation-induced and Fbxw7-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of Rictor. In vivo, mTorc2 signaling is compromised in the striatum of naïve post-natal Parp3-deficient mice and 6 h after acute hypoxia-ischemia. These findings reveal a physiological function of Parp3 in the tight regulation of striatal oxidative stress and mTorc2 during astrocytic differentiation and in the acute phase of hypoxia-ischemia.