bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2020‒10‒18
six papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University

  1. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Oct 10. pii: E7474. [Epub ahead of print]21(20):
      Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the most common genetic inherited trait among humans, affects ~7% of the global population, and is associated with excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) regulates immune function, proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, fibrosis, cancer, and vascular dysfunction. This study examined whether G6PD deficiencies can alter TGF-β-mediated NADPH oxidases (NOX) and cell adhesion molecules (CAM) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Results show that treatment with high glucose and the saturated free fatty acid palmitate significantly downregulated G6PD; in contrast, mRNA levels of TGF-β components, NOX and its activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly upregulated in HAEC. The expression levels of TGF-β and its receptors, NOX and its activity, and ROS were significantly higher in HG-exposed G6PD-deficient cells (G6PD siRNA) compared to G6PD-normal cells. The protein levels of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) and inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1 and TNF) were significantly increased in HG-exposed G6PD-deficient cells compared to G6PD-normal cells. The adherence of monocytes (SC cells) to HAEC was significantly elevated in HG-treated G6PD-deficient cells compared to control cells. Pharmacological inhibition of G6PD enhances ROS, NOX and its activity, and endothelial monocyte adhesion; these effects were impeded by NOX inhibitors. The inhibition of TGF-β prevents NOX2 and NOX4 mRNA expression and activity, ROS, and adhesion of monocytes to HAEC. L-Cysteine ethyl ester (cell-permeable) suppresses the mRNA levels of TGF-β and its receptors, along with NOX2 and NOX4, and decreases NOX activity, ROS, and adhesion of monocytes to HAEC. This suggests that G6PD deficiency promotes TGF-β/NADPH oxidases/ROS signaling, the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and the adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelial monolayer, which can contribute to a higher risk for CVD.
    Keywords:  ICAM-1; NADPH oxidase; VCAM-1; endothelial dysfunction; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; leukocyte adhesion; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; transforming growth factor-beta
  2. Free Radic Res. 2020 Oct 16. 1-63
      Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in many physiological processes. However, ROS overproduction leads to oxidative stress, which plays a critical role in cell injury/death and the pathogenesis of many diseases. Members of NADPH oxidase (NOX) family, most of which are comprised of membrane and cytosolic components, are known to be the major non-mitochondrial sources of ROS in many cells. NOX2 is a widely-expressed and well-studied NOX family member, which is activated upon assembly of its membrane subunits gp91phox and p22phox with its cytosolic subunits p40phox, p47phox, p67phox, and Rac, facilitating ROS production. NOX2 activation is also enhanced by GTP and inhibited by GDP. However, there remains a lack of a mechanistic, quantitative, and integrated understanding of the kinetics and regulation of the assembly of these subunits and their relative contributions towards NOX2 activation and ROS production. Towards this end, we have developed a mechanistic computational model, which incorporates a generalized random rapid equilibrium binding mechanism for NOX2 assembly and activation as well as regulations by GTP (activation), GDP (inhibition), and individual subunits enhancing the binding of other subunits (mutual binding enhancement). The resulting model replicates diverse published kinetic data, including subunit concentration-dependent NOX2 activation and ROS production, under different assay conditions, with appropriate estimates of the unknown model parameters. The model provides a mechanistic, quantitative, and integrated framework for investigating the critical roles of NOX2 subunits in NOX2 assembly and activation facilitating ROS production in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions. However, there is also a need for better quantitative kinetic data based on current understanding of NOX2 assembly and activation in order to test and further develop this model.
    Keywords:  Cell membrane oxidase; Enzyme kinetics; NADPH oxidase 2; NOX2 assembly and activation; Phagocyte oxidase; Reactive oxygen species production
  3. Redox Biol. 2020 Oct 07. pii: S2213-2317(20)30957-5. [Epub ahead of print]37 101752
      Dysregulated redox signaling and oxidative injury are associated with inflammatory processes and fibrosis. H2O2 generation by NOX4 has been suggested as a key driver in the development of fibrosis and a small molecule drug is under evaluation in clinical trials for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and primary biliary cholangitis. Fibrosis is a common complication in Crohn's disease (CD) leading to stricture formation in 35-40% of patients, who require surgical interventions in the absence of therapeutic options. Here we assess NOX4 expression in CD patients with inflammatory or stricturing disease and examine whether loss of NOX4 is beneficial in acute and fibrotic intestinal disease. NOX4 was upregulated in inflamed mucosal tissue of CD and ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, in CD ileal strictures, and in mice with intestinal inflammation. Nox4 deficiency in mice promoted pathogen colonization and exacerbated tissue injury in acute bacterial and chemical colitis. In contrast, in two chronic injury models aberrant tissue remodeling and fibrosis-related gene expression did not differ substantially between Nox4-/- mice and wildtype mice, suggesting that Nox4 is dispensable in TGF-β1-driven intestinal fibrogenesis. While animal models do not recapitulate all the hallmarks of CD fibrosis, the tissue-protective role of Nox4 warrants a cautious approach to pharmacological inhibitors.
    Keywords:  Crohn's disease; Fibrosis; Intestinal inflammation; NADPH oxidase; NOX4
  4. Biol Open. 2020 Oct 12. pii: bio.055012. [Epub ahead of print]
      Podocyte is the major target in proteinuric kidney disease such as diabetic nephropathy. The underlying molecular mechanisms by which high glucose (HG) results in podocyte damage remain unclear. This study investigated the regulatory role of Smad3, ezrin, and protein kinase A (PKA) in NADPH oxidase (Nox4) expression, reactive oxidative species (ROS) production, and apoptosis in HG-treated podocytes. Human podocyte cell line was cultured and differentiated, then treated with 30 mM HG. Apoptosis and intracellular ROS level was assessed using TUNEL and DCF assay, respectively. Expressions of Nox4, phospho-Smad3Ser423/425, phospho-PKAThr197, and phospho-ezrinThr567 were evaluated using Western blotting. ELISA was used to quantify intracellular cAMP concentration and PKA activity. Knockdown assay was used to inhibit the expressions of Smad3, Nox4, and ezrin by lentiviral shRNA. In HG-treated podocytes, the level of phospho-Smad3Ser423/425 and phospho-ezrinThr567 was increased significantly, which was accompanied by the reduction of cAMP and phospho-PKAThr197 HG-induced apoptosis was significantly prevented by the Smad3 inhibitor SIS3 or shRNA-Smad3. In podocytes expressing shRNA-ezrin or shRNA-Nox4, apoptosis was remarkably mitigated following HG treatment. HG-induced upregulation of phospho-ezrinThr567 and downregulation of phospho-PKAThr197 was significantly prevented by SIS3, shRNA-ezrin or shRNA-Smad3. Forskolin, a PKA activator, significantly inhibited HG-mediated upregulation of Nox4 expression, ROS generation, and apoptosis. Additionally, an increase in the ROS level was prohibited in HG-treated podocytes with the knockdown of Nox4, Smad3, or ezrin. Taken together, our findings provided evidence that Smad3-mediated ezrin activation upregulates Nox4 expression and ROS production, by suppressing PKA activity, which may at least in part contribute to HG-induced podocyte apoptosis.
    Keywords:  Ezrin; High glucose; Nox4; PKA; Podocyte apoptosis; Smad3
  5. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2020 Oct 15. ATVBAHA120315322
      OBJECTIVE: The superoxide-generating Nox2 (NADPH oxidase-2) is expressed in multiple cell types. Previous studies demonstrated distinct roles for cardiomyocyte, endothelial cell, and leukocyte cell Nox2 in ANG II (angiotensin II)-induced cardiovascular remodeling. However, the in vivo role of fibroblast Nox2 remains unclear. Approach and Results: We developed a novel mouse model with inducible fibroblast-specific deficiency of Nox2 (Fibro-Nox2KO mice) and investigated the responses to chronic ANG II stimulation. Fibro-Nox2KO mice showed no differences in basal blood pressure or vessel wall morphology, but the hypertensive response to ANG II infusion (1.1 mg/[kg·day] for 14 days) was substantially reduced as compared to control Nox2-Flox littermates. This was accompanied by a significant attenuation of aortic and resistance vessel remodeling. The conditioned medium of ANG II-stimulated primary fibroblasts induced a significant increase in vascular smooth muscle cell, which was inhibited by the shRNA-mediated knockdown of fibroblast Nox2. Mass spectrometric analysis of the secretome of ANG II-treated primary fibroblasts identified GDF6 (growth differentiation factor 6) as a potential growth factor that may be involved in these effects. Recombinant GDF6 induced a concentration-dependent increase in vascular smooth muscle cell growth while chronic ANG II infusion in vivo significantly increased aortic GDF6 protein levels in control mice but not Fibro-Nox2KO animals. Finally, silencing GDF6 in fibroblasts prevented the induction of vascular smooth muscle cell growth by fibroblast-conditioned media in vitro.CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that fibroblast Nox2 plays a crucial role in the development of ANG II-induced vascular remodeling and hypertension in vivo. Mechanistically, fibroblast Nox2 may regulate paracrine signaling to medial vascular smooth muscle cells via factors, such as GDF6.
    Keywords:  NADPH oxidase-2; angiotensin II; fibroblast; hypertension; vascular remodeling
  6. Theranostics. 2020 ;10(25): 11637-11655
      Rationale: Amyloid β (Aβ) deposition, an essential pathological process in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), causes retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration driven mostly by oxidative stress. However, despite intense investigations, the extent to which overoxidation contributes to Aβ-mediated RPE damage and its potential mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Methods: We performed tandem mass-tagged (TMT) mass spectrometry (MS) and bioinformatic analysis of the RPE-choroid complex in an Aβ1-40-induced mouse model of retinal degeneration to obtain a comprehensive proteomic profile. Key regulators in this model were confirmed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, mitochondrial ROS assay, oxygen consumption rate (OCR) measurement, gene knockout experiment, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and luciferase assay. Results: A total of 4243 proteins were identified, 1069 of which were significantly affected by Aβ1-40 and found to be enriched in oxidation-related pathways by bioinformatic analysis. Moreover, NADPH oxidases were identified as hub proteins in Aβ1-40-mediated oxidative stress, as evidenced by mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species overproduction. By motif and binding site analyses, we found that the transcription factor PU.1/Spi1 acted as a master regulator of the activation of NADPH oxidases, especially the NOX4-p22phox complex. Also, PU.1 silencing impeded RPE oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction and rescued the retinal structure and function. Conclusion: Our study suggests that PU.1 is a novel therapeutic target for AMD, and the regulation of PU.1 expression represents a potentially novel approach against excessive oxidative stress in Aβ-driven RPE injury.
    Keywords:  NADPH oxidases; PU.1; age-related macular degeneration; amyloid β; retinal pigment epithelial cells