bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2020‒10‒11
three papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University

  1. Redox Biol. 2020 Sep 14. pii: S2213-2317(20)30932-0. [Epub ahead of print]37 101727
      Oxidative stress attributable to the activation of a Nox4-containing NADPH oxidase is involved in aging-associated vascular dysfunction. However, the Nox4-induced signaling mechanism for the vascular alteration in aging remains unclear. In an aged aorta, the expression of Nox4 mRNA and protein by Nox family of genes was markedly increased compared with a young aorta. Nox4 localization mainly to ER was also established. In the aorta of Nox4 WT mice aged 23-24 months (aged), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/oxidative stress were markedly increased compared with the counter KO mice. Furthermore, endothelial functions including eNOS coupling process and acetylcholine-induced vasodilation were significantly disturbed in the aged WT, slightly affected in the counter KO aorta. Consistently, in d-galactose-induced in vitro aging condition, ER-ROS and its associated ER Nox4 expression and activity were highly increased. Also, in chronic d-galactose-treated condition, IRE1α phosphorylation and XBP-1 splicing and were transiently increased, but IRE1α sulfonation was robustly increased in the aging Nox4 WT condition when compared to the counter KO condition. In vitro D-gal-induced aging study, the phenomenon were abrogated with Nox4 knock-down condition and was significantly decreased in GKT, Nox4 inhibitor and 4-PBA, ER chemical chaperone-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The state of Nox4-based ER redox imbalance/ROS accumulation is suggested to determine the pathway "the UPR; IRE1α phosphorylation and XBP-1 splicing and the UPR failure; IRE1α cysteine-based oxidation, especially sulfonation, finally controlling aging-associated vascular dysfunction.
    Keywords:  Endoplasmic reticulum; NADPH oxidase 4; Oxidative stress; Reactive oxygen species; Vascular dysfunction
  2. Free Radic Biol Med. 2020 Oct 01. pii: S0891-5849(20)31268-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are comprised of different isoforms, NOX1 to 5 and Duox1 and 2, and they trigger diabetic nephropathy (DN) in the patients with diabetes mellitus. Recently, it was shown that, compared to the other isoforms, the expression of NOX5 increased in the patients with DN and, thus, NOX5 has been suggested to be important in the development of therapeutic agents. The effect of pan-NOX inhibition by APX-115 has also been investigated in type 2 diabetic mice. However, since NOX5 is absent in mice, we evaluated the effect of pan-NOX inhibition by APX-115 in Nox5 transgenic mouse. Wild type and renal podocyte specific NOX5 transgenic mice (NOX5 pod+) were fed with high-fat diet (60% kcal fat) and treated with APX-115 (60 mg/kg) by oral gavage for 14 weeks. APX-115 significantly improved pancreatic beta cell function by decreased fasting blood glucose levels and increased insulin levels. Further, the total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and urinary albumin/creatinine levels also significantly decreased by APX-115 treatment. Increased NOX5 mRNA expressions, increased desmin levels, and reduced podocin protein expressions in the kidney of NOX5 pod+ mice were also significantly restored to normal levels by APX-115 treatment. Moreover, APX-115 inhibited the expression of inflammation-related proteins such as TRAF6. Collectively, these data suggest that APX-115 might be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of DN because of its pan-NOX inhibitory activity, including its NOX5 inhibitory activity, and also owing to its anti-inflammatory effects.
    Keywords:  Diabetic nephropathy; Inflammation; NADPH oxidase; Oxidative stress
  3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Oct 05. pii: 202009495. [Epub ahead of print]
      Changes in the mechanical microenvironment and mechanical signals are observed during tumor progression, malignant transformation, and metastasis. In this context, understanding the molecular details of mechanotransduction signaling may provide unique therapeutic targets. Here, we report that normal breast epithelial cells are mechanically sensitive, responding to transient mechanical stimuli through a two-part calcium signaling mechanism. We observed an immediate, robust rise in intracellular calcium (within seconds) followed by a persistent extracellular calcium influx (up to 30 min). This persistent calcium was sustained via microtubule-dependent mechanoactivation of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2)-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), which acted on transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8) channels to prolong calcium signaling. In contrast, the introduction of a constitutively active oncogenic KRas mutation inhibited the magnitude of initial calcium signaling and severely blunted persistent calcium influx. The identification that oncogenic KRas suppresses mechanically-induced calcium at the level of ROS provides a mechanism for how KRas could alter cell responses to tumor microenvironment mechanics and may reveal chemotherapeutic targets for cancer. Moreover, we find that expression changes in both NOX2 and TRPM8 mRNA predict poor clinical outcome in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer patients, a population with limited available treatment options. The clinical and mechanistic data demonstrating disruption of this mechanically-activated calcium pathway in breast cancer patients and by KRas activation reveal signaling alterations that could influence cancer cell responses to the tumor mechanical microenvironment and impact patient survival.
    Keywords:  X-ROS; detyrosination; breast cancer; calcium; mechanotransduction