bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2020‒08‒09
ten papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University


  1. Free Radic Biol Med. 2020 Aug 03. pii: S0891-5849(20)31157-6. [Epub ahead of print]
    Raad H, Mouawia H, Hassan H, Mohamed El Seblani , Derkawi RA, Boussetta T, Gougerot-Pocidalo MA, My-Chan Dang P, El-Benna J.
      Superoxide anion production by neutrophils is essential for host defense against microbes. Superoxide anion generates other reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are very toxic for microbes and host cells, therefore their excessive production could induce inflammatory reactions and tissue injury. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) elevating agents are considered to be physiological inhibitors of superoxide production by neutrophils but the mechanisms involved in this inhibitory effect are poorly understood. Superoxide is produced by the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, a complex enzyme composed of two membrane subunits, gp91phox or NOX2 and p22phox, and four cytosolic components p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and Rac2. Except Rac2, these proteins are known to be phosphorylated upon neutrophils stimulation. Here we show that forskolin, an activator of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP-PKA pathway, induced phosphorylation of gp91phox/NOX2 and inhibited fMLF-induced NADPH oxidase activation in human neutrophils. H89, a PKA inhibitor prevented the forskolin-induced phosphorylation of gp91phox and restored NADPH oxidase activation. Furthermore, PKA phosphorylated the recombinant gp91phox/NOX2-cytosolic C-terminal region in vitro only on a few specific peptides containing serine residues, as compared to PKC. Interestingly, phosphorylation of NOX2-Cterby PKA alone did not induce interaction with the cytosolic components p47phox, p67phox and Rac2, however it induced inhibition of PKC-induced interaction. Furthermore, PKA alone did not induce NOX2 electron transfer activity, however it inhibited PKC-induced activation. These results suggest that PKA phosphorylates NOX2 in human neutrophils, a process essential to limit ROS production and inflammation under physiological conditions. Our data identify cAMP-PKA-NOX2-axis as a critical gatekeeper of neutrophil ROS production.
    Keywords:  Inflammation; NADPH-oxidase; Neutrophils; PKA; ROS; gp91phox/NOX2
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.07.021
  2. Eur Respir J. 2020 Aug 06. pii: 1901949. [Epub ahead of print]
    Louzada RA, Corre R, Ameziane El Hassani R, Meziani L, Jaillet M, Cazes A, Crestani B, Deutsch E, Dupuy C.
      Interstitial lung fibroblast activation coupled with extracellular matrix production is a pathological signature of pulmonary fibrosis, and is governed by transforming growth factor (TGF-β1)/Smad signalling. TGF-β1 and oxidative stress cooperate to drive fibrosis. Cells can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) through activation and/or induction of NADPH oxidases, such as dual oxidase (DUOX1/2). Since DUOX enzymes, as extracellular H2O2-generating systems, are involved in extracellular matrix formation and in wound healing in different experimental models, we hypothesised that DUOX-based NADPH oxidase plays a role in the pathophysiology of pulmonary fibrosis.Our in vivo data (IPF patients and mouse models of lung fibrosis) showed that the NADPH oxidase DUOX1 is induced in response to lung injury. DUOX1-deficient mice (DUOX1+/- and DUOX1-/-) had an attenuated fibrotic phenotype. In addition to being highly expressed at the epithelial surface of airways, DUOX1 appears to be also well expressed in the fibroblastic foci of remodelled lungs. By using primary human and mouse lung fibroblasts, we showed that TGF-β1 upregulates DUOX1 and its maturation factor DUOXA1 and that DUOX1-derived H2O2 promoted the duration of TGF-β1-activated Smad3 phosphorylation by preventing phospho-Smad3 degradation. Analysis of the mechanism revealed that DUOX1 inhibited the interaction between phospho-Smad3 and the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4L, preventing NEDD4L-mediated ubiquitination of phospho-Smad3 and its targeting for degradation.These findings highlight a role for DUOX1-derived H2O2 in a positive feedback that amplifies the signalling output of the TGF-β1 pathway and identify DUOX1 as a new therapeutic target in pulmonary fibrosis.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.01949-2019
  3. Redox Biol. 2020 Jul 25. pii: S2213-2317(20)30860-0. [Epub ahead of print]36 101655
    Violi F, Oliva A, Cangemi R, Ceccarelli G, Pignatelli P, Carnevale R, Cammisotto V, Lichtner M, Alessandri F, De Angelis M, Miele MC, D'Ettorre G, Ruberto F, Venditti M, Pugliese F, Mastroianni CM.
      Nox2 is responsible for artery dysfunction via production of reactive oxidant species. RNA viruses may activate Nox2, but it is unknown if this occurs in coronavirus 2019(Covid-19). Nox2 activation by soluble Nox2-derived peptide(sNox2-dp) was measured in patients hospitalized for Covid-19 (n = 182) and controls (n = 91). sNox2-dp values were higher in Covid-19 patients versus controls and in severe versus non severe Covid-19. Patients with thrombotic events(n = 35,19%) had higher sNox2-dp than thrombotic event-free ones. A logistic regression analysis showed that sNox2 and coronary heart disease predicted thrombotic events. Oxidative stress by Nox2 activation is associated severe disease and thrombotic events in Covid-19 patients.
    Keywords:  Covid-19; NADPH oxidase; Nox-2; Thrombosis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2020.101655
  4. Mol Neurobiol. 2020 Aug 02.
    Loth MK, Guariglia SR, Re DB, Perez J, de Paiva VN, Dziedzic JL, Chambers JW, Azzam DJ, Guilarte TR.
      In the brain neuropil, translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is a stress response protein that is upregulated in microglia and astrocytes in diverse central nervous system pathologies. TSPO is widely used as a biomarker of neuroinflammation in preclinical and clinical neuroimaging studies. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on the function(s) of TSPO in glial cells. In this study, we explored a putative interaction between TSPO and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) in microglia. We found that TSPO associates with gp91phox and p22phox, the principal subunits of NOX2 in primary murine microglia. The association of TSPO with gp91phox and p22phox was observed using co-immunoprecipitation, confocal immunofluorescence imaging, and proximity ligation assay. We found that besides gp91phox and p22phox, voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) also co-immunoprecipitated with TSPO consistent with previous reports. When we compared lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated microglia to vehicle control, we found that a lower amount of gp91phox and p22phox protein co-immunoprecipitated with TSPO suggesting a disruption of the TSPO-NOX2 subunits association. TSPO immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed that TSPO is present in the outer mitochondrial membrane but it is also found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM), and in the plasma membrane. TSPO localization at the MAM may represent a subcellular site where TSPO interacts with gp91phox and p22phox since the MAM is a point of communication between outer mitochondria membrane proteins (TSPO) and ER proteins (gp91phox and p22phox) where they mature and form the cytochrome b558 (Cytb558) heterodimer. We also found that an acute burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased TSPO levels on the surface of microglia and this effect was abrogated by a ROS scavenger. These results suggest that ROS production may alter the subcellular distribution of TSPO. Collectively, our findings suggest that in microglia, TSPO is associated with the major NOX2 subunits gp91phox and p22phox. We hypothesize that this interaction may regulate Cytb558 formation and modulate NOX2 levels, ROS production, and redox homeostasis in microglia.
    Keywords:  Heme; Microglia; NOX2; ROS; Redox homeostasis; TSPO
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-020-02042-w
  5. Redox Biol. 2020 Jul 26. pii: S2213-2317(20)30861-2. [Epub ahead of print]36 101656
    Sweeny EA, Schlanger S, Stuehr DJ.
      NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5) is a transmembrane signaling enzyme that produces superoxide in response to elevated cytosolic calcium. In addition to its association with numerous human diseases, NOX5 has recently been discovered to play crucial roles in the immune response and cardiovascular system. Details of NOX5 maturation, and specifically its response to changes in intracellular heme levels have remained unclear. Here we establish an experimental system in mammalian cells that allows us to probe the influence of heme availability on ROS production by NOX5. We identified a mode of dynamic regulatory control over NOX5 activity through modulation of its heme saturation and oligomeric state by intracellular heme levels and Hsp90 binding. This regulatory mechanism allows for fine-tuning and reversible modulation of NOX5 activity in response to stimuli.
    Keywords:  Heme; Hsp90; NADPH Oxidase; NOX5; Superoxide
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2020.101656
  6. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jul 30. pii: E5415. [Epub ahead of print]21(15):
    Vielma AZ, Boric MP, Gonzalez DR.
      Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease that causes cardiomyopathy and is associated with oxidative stress. In the heart, oxidative stress interferes with the location of connexin 43 (Cx43) to the intercalated discs causing its lateralization to the plasma membrane where Cx43 forms hemichannels. We tested the hypothesis that in DMD cardiomyopathy, increased oxidative stress is associated with the formation and activation of Cx43 hemichannels. For this, we used mdx mice as a DMD model and evaluated cardiac function, nitroso-redox changes and Cx43 hemichannels permeability. Mdx hearts presented increased NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress and increased Cx43 S-nitrosylation compared to controls. These redox changes were associated with increased Cx43 lateralization, decreased cardiac contractility and increased arrhythmic events. Pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase using apocynin (one month) reduced systemic oxidative stress and reversed the aforementioned changes towards normal, except Cx43 lateralization. Opening of Cx43 hemichannels was blocked by apocynin treatment and by acute hemichannel blockade with carbenoxolone. NADPH oxidase inhibition also prevented the occurrence of apoptosis in mdx hearts and reversed the ventricular remodeling. These results show that NADPH oxidase activity in DMD is associated with S-nitrosylation and opening of Cx43 hemichannels. These changes lead to apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction and were prevented by NADPH oxidase inhibition.
    Keywords:  Duchenne; NADPH oxidase; NOX2; S-nitrosylation; heart
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155415
  7. J Inflamm Res. 2020 ;13 325-341
    Yang CC, Hsiao LD, Tseng HC, Kuo CM, Yang CM.
      Purpose: Neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in neurodegenerative diseases. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a landmark of neuroinflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been demonstrated to induce MMP-9 expression. The mechanisms underlying LPS-induced MMP-9 expression have not been completely elucidated in astrocytes. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) is well known as one of the crucial transcription factors in MMP-9 induction. Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS) could be an important mediator of neuroinflammation. Here, we differentiated whether ROS and NF-κB contributed to LPS-mediated MMP-9 expression in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1). Besides, pristimerin has been revealed to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We also evaluated the effects of pristimerin on LPS-induced inflammatory responses.Methods: RBA-1 cells were used for analyses. Pharmacological inhibitors and siRNAs were used to evaluate the signaling pathway. Western blotting and gelatin zymography were conducted to evaluate protein and MMP-9 expression, respectively. Real-time PCR was for mRNA expression. Wound healing assay was for cell migration. 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA) and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining were for ROS generation. Immunofluorescence staining was conducted to assess NF-κB p65. Promoter-reporter gene assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay were used to detect promoter activity and the association of nuclear proteins with the promoter.
    Results: Our results showed that the increased level of ROS generation was attenuated by edaravone (a ROS scavenger), apocynin (APO; an inhibitor of p47Phox), diphenyleneiodonium (DPI; an inhibitor of NOX), and pristimerin in RBA-1 cells exposed to LPS. Besides, pretreatment with APO, DPI, edaravone, Bay11-7082, and pristimerin also inhibited the phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, promoter binding activity of NF-κB p65 as well as upregulation of MMP-9 expression-mediated cell migration in RBA-1 cells challenged with LPS.
    Conclusion: These results suggested that LPS enhances the upregulation of MMP-9 through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX)/ROS-dependent NF-κB activity. These results also provide new insights into the mechanisms by which pristimerin attenuates LPS-mediated MMP-9 expression and neuroinflammatory responses.
    Keywords:  LPS; MMP-9; NOX; ROS; astrocytes; neuroinflammation; pristimerin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S252659
  8. Exp Ther Med. 2020 Aug;20(2): 1682-1692
    Zhou Y, You H, Zhang A, Jiang X, Pu Z, Xu G, Zhao M.
      LipoxinA4 (LXA4) is a well-known key mediator of endogenous anti-inflammation and of the resolution of inflammation. Considerable oxidative stress occurs during inflammation due to the generation of reactive oxidative species (ROS). Moreover, high levels of uric acid (UA) contribute to endothelial cell dysfunction, which can promote disease-related morbidity, and NADPH oxidase-derived ROS are crucial regulatory factors in these responses. However, LXA4 also has the potential to reduce oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to examine whether LXA4 could suppress UA-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to investigate its mechanisms of action in vitro. HUVECs were incubated with or without LXA4, followed by the addition of UA. ROS levels were then measured using 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence was used to evaluate NADPH oxidase activity. p47phox or p22phox small interfering (si)RNA were transfected into HUVECs and protein levels of p47phox were detected using western blot analysis. LXA4 significantly inhibited UA-induced generation of ROS to the same extent as the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium chloride. Notably, transfection of p47phox siRNA attenuated the generation of ROS and the activation of NADPH oxidase. Cells transfected with p22phox siRNA demonstrated a significant reduction in the expression of p47phox on the membrane. Further experiments demonstrated that LXA4 interfered with the transfer of p47phox from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane. These findings suggested that LXA4 inhibited the release of NADPH oxidase derived ROS in HUVECs stimulated by UA. A potential mechanism of action underlying this effect could be LXA4-mediated suppression of NADPH oxidase activity, leading to inhibition of p47phox translocation from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane.
    Keywords:  NADPH; human umbilical vein endothelial cells; lipoxinA4; reactive oxidative species; uric acid
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8812
  9. Toxicol Lett. 2020 Jul 29. pii: S0378-4274(20)30345-3. [Epub ahead of print]
    Júnior JEGP, Moraes PZ, Rodriguez MD, Simões MR, Cibin F, Pinton S, Junior FB, Peçanha FM, Vassallo DV, Miguel M, Wiggers GA.
      Exposure to high concentrations of cadmium (Cd), widely used in many industries and found in air, food and contaminated water, is not uncommon. Cd damages the cardiovascular system, but the vascular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the mechanisms involved in cardiovascular damage after exposure to high Cd concentrations. Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally for 14 days with distilled water (Untreated group) or 1 mg/kg cadmium chloride (Cd group). We investigated the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and vascular reactivity of mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) and the aorta by analysing contractile and relaxation responses in the absence and presence of the endothelium; we also evaluated pathways involved in vascular tone regulation. Superoxide anion production, COX-2 protein expression and in situ detection of COX-2, AT-1, and NOX-1 were evaluated. Oxidative status, creatinine level and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in plasma were also evaluated. Fourteen-day exposure to a high Cd concentration induced hypertension associated with vascular dysfunction in MRA and the aorta. In both vessels, there was increased participation of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor and NOX1. MRA also presented endothelial dysfunction, denoted by impaired acetylcholine-mediated relaxation. All vascular changes were accompanied by increased reactive oxygen species production and COX2, NOX1 and AT1 receptor expression in vascular tissue. Overall, high Cd concentrations induced cardiovascular damage: hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and vascular damage in conductance and resistance arteries, NADPH oxidase, renin-angiotensin system and COX2 pathway activation.
    Keywords:  COX-2; Cadmium; Hypertension; NADPH oxidase; Oxidative stress; Renin-angiotensin system (RAS); Vascular dysfunction
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2020.07.027
  10. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jul 31. pii: E5470. [Epub ahead of print]21(15):
    El Dor M, Dakik H, Polomski M, Haudebourg E, Brachet M, Gouilleux F, Prié G, Zibara K, Mazurier F.
      Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOX) involvement has been established in the oncogenic cell signaling of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and in the crosstalk with their niche. We have shown an expression of NOX subunits in AML cell lines while NOX activity is lacking in the absence of exogenous stimulation. Here, we used AML cell lines as models to investigate the specificity of VAS3947, a current NOX inhibitor. Results demonstrated that VAS3947 induces apoptosis in AML cells independently of its anti-NOX activity. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry analyses revealed that VAS3947 thiol alkylates cysteine residues of glutathione (GSH), while also interacting with proteins. Remarkably, VAS3947 decreased detectable GSH in the MV-4-11 cell line, thereby suggesting possible oxidative stress induction. However, a decrease in both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels was observed by flow cytometry without disturbance of mitochondrial mass and membrane potential. Thus, assuming the consequences of VAS3947 treatment on protein structure, we examined its impact on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. An acute unfolded protein response (UPR) was triggered shortly after VAS3947 exposure, through the activation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) and PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) pathways. Overall, VAS3947 induces apoptosis independently of anti-NOX activity, via UPR activation, mainly due to aggregation and misfolding of proteins.
    Keywords:  NADPH oxidases; VAS3947; cysteine thiol alkylation; endoplasmic reticulum; leukemia; oxidative stress; unfolded protein response
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155470