bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2020‒07‒05
six papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University

  1. Cells. 2020 Jun 26. pii: E1555. [Epub ahead of print]9(6):
    Kim YM, Muthuramalingam K, Cho M.
      Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) promulgates epithelial cell associated disease-defining characteristics in tumorigenesis and organ fibrosis. Growth factors such as epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor in addition to cytokines such as transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is said to play a prominent role in remodeling related pathological events of cancer progression such as invasion, metastasis, apoptosis, EMT, etc. through redox related cellular secondary messengers, in particular the reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the signaling cascade underlying the redox mechanism and thereby the progression of EMT remains largely unknown. In this study, upon TGF-β1 treatment, we observed an induction in NOX isoforms-NOX2 and NOX4-that have time (early and late) and cellular localization (nucleus and autophagosome co-localized) dependent effects in mediating EMT associated cell proliferation and migration through activation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/SRC pathway in HeLa, human cervical cancer cells. Upon silencing NOX2/4 gene expression and using the SRC inhibitor (AZD0530), progression of TGF-β1 induced EMT related cellular remodeling, extra cellular matrix (ECM) production, cell migration and invasion, got significantly reverted. Together, these results indicate that NOX2 and NOX4 play important, albeit distinct, roles in the activation of cytokine mediated EMT and its associated processes via tyrosine phosphorylation of the FAK/SRC pathway.
    Keywords:  NAPDH oxidase; Sirt1; TGF-β1; integrins; pSRC (Y416)
  2. Korean J Parasitol. 2020 Jun;58(3): 237-247
    Choi HG, Gao FF, Zhou W, Sun PR, Yuk JM, Lee YH, Cha GH.
      Dendritic cell is one of the first innate immune cell to encounter T. gondii after the parasite crosses the host intestinal epithelium. T. gondii requires intact DC as a carrier to infiltrate into host central nervous system (CNS) without being detected or eliminated by host defense system. The mechanism by which T. gondii avoids innate immune defense of host cell, especially in the dendritic cell is unknown. Therefore, we examined the role of host PI3K/AKT signaling pathway activation by T. gondii in dendritic cell. T. gondii infection or T. gondii excretory/secretory antigen (TgESA) treatment to the murine dendritic cell line DC2.4 induced AKT phosphorylation, and treatment of PI3K inhibitors effectively suppressed the T. gondii proliferation but had no effect on infection rate or invasion rate. Furthermore, it is found that T. gondii or TgESA can reduce H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as host endogenous ROS via PI3K/AKT pathway activation. While searching for the main source of the ROS, we found that NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) expression was controlled by T. gondii infection or TgESA treatment, which is in correlation with previous observation of the ROS reduction by identical treatments. These findings suggest that the manipulation of the host PI3K/AKT signaling pathway and NOX4 expression is an essential mechanism for the down-regulation of ROS, and therefore, for the survival and the proliferation of T. gondii.
    Keywords:  DC2.4 cell; PI3K/AKT signaling pathway; ROS; Toxoplasma gondii
  3. J Biol Chem. 2020 Jul 02. pii: jbc.RA120.014723. [Epub ahead of print]
    Miyano K, Okamoto S, Yamauchi A, Kawai C, Kajikawa M, Kiyohara T, Tamura M, Taura M, Kuribayashi F.
      Directed migration of endothelial cells (ECs) is an important process during both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. The binding of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) on the EC surface is necessary for directed migration of these cells. Here, we used TAXIScan, an optically accessible real-time horizontal cell dynamics assay approach, and demonstrate that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), which is abundantly expressed in ECs, mediates VEGF/VEGFR-2-dependent directed migration. We noted that a continuous supply of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-retained VEGFR-2 to the plasma membrane is required to maintain VEGFR-2 at the cell surface. siRNA-mediated NOX4 silencing decreased the ER-retained form of VEGFR-2, resulting in decreased cell-surface expression levels of the receptor. We also found that ER-localized NOX4 interacts with ER-retained VEGFR-2 and thereby stabilizes this ER-retained form at the protein level in the ER. We conclude that NOX4 contributes to the directed migration of ECs by maintaining VEGFR-2 levels at their surface.
    Keywords:  NADPH oxidase; Nox4; angiogenesis; capillary formation; endoplasmic reticulum (ER); endothelial cell migration; reactive oxygen species (ROS); redox signaling; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2)
  4. Cell Tissue Bank. 2020 Jul 01.
    Keshtgar S, Ebrahimi B, Shid-Moosavi SM, Erfani N.
      Sperm cryopreservation leads to various structural and functional damages, some of which induce by oxidative stress. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generates by mitochondria and membrane NADPH oxidases (NOXs). Among the NOXs, only NOX5 has been identified in the cell membrane of human sperm. This study was designed to clarify the possible role of NOX5 on sperm cryoinjury. Forty human semen samples were washed and randomly divided into fresh and cryopreserved groups. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups containing Ham's F10 (control), 0.1% DMSO (vehicle), 100 nM of PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) and 1 µM of DPI (diphenyleneiodonium), as NOX5 activator and inhibitor. The samples of cryopreserved groups were preserved in liquid nitrogen for 1 month. The sperm kinematics, membrane integrity, ROS production, apoptosis rate, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular ATP and calcium concentration [Ca2+]i were evaluated. The percent of sperm with intact membrane and motile sperm reduced significantly after thawing (p ≤ 0.01). The ROS production (p ≤ 0.01) and the apoptotic rate increased, MMP dissipated, and the percentage of live cells with high [Ca2+]i decreased significantly in the cryopreserved control group relative to the fresh control group. DPI, in contrast to PMA, improved sperm progressive motility (p ≤ 0.01), membrane integrity in fresh and cryopreserved groups and reduced the ROS amount in cryopreserved group (p ≤ 0.01). Apoptotic rate, [Ca2+]i, ATP, and MMP did not change with DPI and PMA in cryopreserved groups. We conclude that NOX5 activity in fresh sperm is low, and it increases during cryopreservation. NOX5 inhibition improves the cryopreserved sperm quality.
    Keywords:  Calcium; Cryopreservation; Human sperm; NADPH oxidase 5; Reactive oxygen species
  5. Eur J Pharmacol. 2020 Jun 30. pii: S0014-2999(20)30406-4. [Epub ahead of print] 173314
    Yang YZ, Liu ZH, Wang SC, Zhang XQ, Xu HJ, Yang L, Kong LD.
      Excessive fructose intake is a risk factor for liver oxidative stress injury. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate as a hepatoprotective agent is used to treat liver diseases in clinic. However, its antioxidant effects and the underlying potential mechanisms are still not clearly understood. In this study, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate was found to alleviate liver oxidative stress and inflammatory injury in fructose-fed rats. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate suppressed hepatic reactive oxygen species overproduction (0.97 ± 0.04 a.u. versus 1.34 ± 0.07 a.u.) in fructose-fed rats by down-regulating mRNA and protein levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) 1, NOX2 and NOX4, resulting in reduction of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels (1.13 ± 0.09 a.u. versus 1.97 ± 0.12 a.u.). Similarly, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate reduced reactive oxygen species overproduction (1.07 ± 0.02 a.u. versus 1.35 ± 0.06 a.u.) and IL-1β levels (1.14 ± 0.09 a.u. versus 1.66 ± 0.07 a.u.) in fructose-exposed HepG2 cells. Furthermore, data from treatment of reactive oxygen species inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine or NOXs inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium in fructose-exposed HepG2 cells showed that fructose enhanced NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4 expression to increase reactive oxygen species generation, causing oxidative stress and inflammation, more importantly, these disturbances were significantly attenuated by magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these effects suggest that magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate may inhibit NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4 expression to reduce reactive oxygen species generation, subsequently prevent liver oxidative stress injury under high fructose condition. Thus, the blockade of NOX1, NOX2 and NOX4 expression by magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate may be the potential therapeutic approach for improving fructose-induced liver injury in clinic.
    Keywords:  Excessive fructose intake; Liver oxidative stress; Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate; NOXs; Reactive oxygen species
  6. Cancers (Basel). 2020 Jun 27. pii: E1706. [Epub ahead of print]12(7):
    Narayanan D, Ma S, Özcelik D.
      Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced predominantly by the mitochondrial electron transport chain and by NADPH oxidases in peroxisomes and in the endoplasmic reticulum. The antioxidative defense counters overproduction of ROS with detoxifying enzymes and molecular scavengers, for instance, superoxide dismutase and glutathione, in order to restore redox homeostasis. Mutations in the redox landscape can induce carcinogenesis, whereas increased ROS production can perpetuate cancer development. Moreover, cancer cells can increase production of antioxidants, leading to resistance against chemo- or radiotherapy. Research has been developing pharmaceuticals to target the redox landscape in cancer. For instance, inhibition of key players in the redox landscape aims to modulate ROS production in order to prevent tumor development or to sensitize cancer cells in radiotherapy. Besides the redox landscape of a single cell, alternative strategies take aim at the multi-cellular level. Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are crucial for the development of the hypoxic tumor microenvironment, and hence are explored as target and as drug delivery systems in cancer therapy. This review summarizes the current pharmaceutical and experimental interventions of the cancer redox landscape.
    Keywords:  Nrf2–Keap1 signaling pathway; antioxidants; drug development; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; hypoxia; oxidative stress response; reactive oxygen species; redox homeostasis; tumor redox microenvironment