bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2020‒06‒28
eight papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University

  1. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jun 20. pii: E4406. [Epub ahead of print]21(12):
    Harvey AP, Robinson E, Edgar KS, McMullan R, O'Neill KM, Alderdice M, Amirkhah R, Dunne PD, McDermott BJ, Grieve DJ.
      Pressure overload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is initially adaptive but ultimately promotes systolic dysfunction and chronic heart failure. Whilst underlying pathways are incompletely understood, increased reactive oxygen species generation from Nox2 NADPH oxidases, and metabolic remodelling, largely driven by PPARα downregulation, are separately implicated. Here, we investigated interaction between the two as a key regulator of LVH using in vitro, in vivo and transcriptomic approaches. Phenylephrine-induced H9c2 cardiomyoblast hypertrophy was associated with reduced PPARα expression and increased Nox2 expression and activity. Pressure overload-induced LVH and systolic dysfunction induced in wild-type mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 7 days, in association with Nox2 upregulation and PPARα downregulation, was enhanced in PPARα-/- mice and prevented in Nox2-/- mice. Detailed transcriptomic analysis revealed significantly altered expression of genes relating to PPARα, oxidative stress and hypertrophy pathways in wild-type hearts, which were unaltered in Nox2-/- hearts, whilst oxidative stress pathways remained dysregulated in PPARα-/- hearts following TAC. Network analysis indicated that Nox2 was essential for PPARα downregulation in this setting and identified preferential inflammatory pathway modulation and candidate cytokines as upstream Nox2-sensitive regulators of PPARα signalling. Together, these data suggest that Nox2 is a critical driver of PPARα downregulation leading to maladaptive LVH.
    Keywords:  Nox2 NADPH oxidase; PPARα; chronic heart failure; left ventricular hypertrophy; microarray; oxidative stress; transverse aortic constriction
  2. Circ Res. 2020 Jun 22.
    Furmanik M, Chatrou M, van Gorp RH, Akbulut A, Willems B, Schmidt HH, van Eys G, Bochaton-Piallat ML, Proudfoot D, Biessen EA, Hedin U, Matic L, Mees B, Shanahan CM, Reutelingsperger C, Schurgers LJ.
      Rationale: Vascular calcification, the formation of calcium phosphate crystals in the vessel wall, is mediated by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive precluding mechanism-based therapies. Objective: Phenotypic switching denotes a loss of contractile proteins and an increase in migration and proliferation, whereby VSMCs are termed synthetic. We examined how VSMC phenotypic switching influences vascular calcification and the possible role of the uniquely calcium-dependent ROS-forming NADPH oxidase 5 (Nox5). Methods and Results: In vitro cultures of synthetic VSMCs showed decreased expression of contractile markers CNN1, αSMA and SM22α and an increase in synthetic marker S100A4 compared to contractile VSMCs. This was associated with increased calcification of synthetic cells in response to high extracellular Ca2+. Phenotypic switching was accompanied by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+-dependent Nox5 in synthetic VSMCs. Nox5 itself regulated VSMC phenotype as siRNA knock-down of Nox5 increased contractile marker expression and decreased calcification, while overexpression of Nox5 decreased contractile marker expression. ROS production in synthetic VSMCs was cytosolic Ca2+-dependent, in line with it being mediated by Nox5. Treatment of VSMCs with Ca2+ loaded extracellular vesicles (EVs) lead to an increase in cytosolic Ca2+. Inhibiting EV endocytosis with dynasore blocked the increase in cytosolic Ca2+ and VSMC calcification. Increased ROS production resulted in increased EV release and decreased phagocytosis by VSMCs. Conclusions: We show here that contractile VSMCs are resistant to calcification and identify Nox5 as a key regulator of VSMC phenotypic switching. Additionally, we describe a new mechanism of Ca2+ uptake via EVs and show that Ca2+ induces ROS production in VSMCs via Nox5. ROS production is required for release of EVs, which promote calcification. Identifying molecular pathways that control Nox5 and VSMC-derived EVs provides potential targets to modulate vascular remodelling and calcification in the context of mineral imbalance.
    Keywords:  Nox5; Vascular smooth muscle cells; extracellular vesicles
  3. J Hazard Mater. 2020 Jun 12. pii: S0304-3894(20)31193-6. [Epub ahead of print]400 123204
    Su H, Guan G, Ahmed RZ, Lyu L, Li Z, Jin X.
      Due to the extensive applications and deleterious effects of Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), the health risk and possible mechanisms have been a topic of concern. However, the knowledge on carcinogenic risk of TBBPA and corresponding mechanisms remains scarce. In this study, endometrial cancer cells were exposed to low doses of TBBPA and its main derivatives including TBBPA bis (2,3-dibromopropyl ether) (TBBPA-BDBPE) and TBBPA bis (2-hydroxyethyl ether) (TBBPA-BHEE). The data from wound healing and transwell assays demonstrated that TBBPA treatment exhibited the strongest enhanced effect on cell migration among other tested treatments. Of note, the process of invasion rather than epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was accompanied by the occurrence of migration elevated by TBBPA. Furthermore, the levels of several metabolite indicators were measured to assess the underlying mechanisms involved in TBBPA-induced cell migration. The findings suggested that NADPH oxidase (NOX)-driven ROS instead of energy metabolism was sensitive to TBBPA stimulation. In addition, molecular docking supported a link between TBBPA ligand and NOX receptor. Accordingly, this study has provided new insights for TBBPA-induced carcinogenic effects and may arise peoples' vigilance to environmental pollution of brominated flame retardant.
    Keywords:  Endometrial cancer; Energy metabolism; Migration; NADPH oxidase; TBBPA
  4. Mediators Inflamm. 2020 ;2020 2604967
    Zhang S, Yin Z, Qin W, Ma X, Zhang Y, Liu E, Chu Y.
      Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a devastating disease characterized by progressive vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. Pirfenidone (PFD) inhibits the progression of HPH, though the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. This study is aimed at determining the role and mechanism of PFD in HPH in human pulmonary artery adventitial fibroblasts (HPAAFs), which were cultured under normal or hypoxic conditions. NOX4 and Rac1 were inhibited or overexpressed by shRNA or pcDNA3.1, respectively. Proliferation of HPAAFs was quantified by colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assays to assess cellular metabolic activity, cell counts, and ethynyldeoxyuridine (EdU) assays to detect DNA synthesis. Migration of HPAAFs was assessed by a wound healing assay. The expression levels of smooth muscle alpha-actin (a-SMA) and procollagen I (COL1A1) were assessed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. PFD suppressed hypoxia-induced proliferation and migration of HPAAFs. Compared with the hypoxic control group, PFD reduced the expression of a-SMA and procollagen I (COL1A1). PFD reduced hypoxia-induced phosphorylation of p38 through the NOX4/reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling pathway. Moreover, Rac1 also decreased hypoxia-induced phosphorylation of p38, without any cross-interaction with NOX4. These findings demonstrate that PFD is a novel therapeutic agent to prevent cell proliferation, migration, and fibrosis, which might be useful in inhibiting vascular remodeling in patients with HPH.
  5. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(6): e0235204
    Bhowmick R, Sarkar RR.
      Manipulative strategies of ROS in cancer are often exhibited as changes in the redox and thiol ratio of the cells. Cellular responses to oxidative insults are generated in response to these changes which are triggered due to the rerouting of the metabolic framework to maintain survival under stress. However, mechanisms of these metabolic re-routing are not clearly understood and remained debatable. In the present work, we have designed a context-based dynamic metabolic model to establish that the coordinated functioning of glutathione peroxidase (GTHP), glutathione oxidoreductase (GTHO) and NADPH oxidase (NOX) is crucial in determining cancerous transformation, specifically in gliomas. Further, we propose that the puzzling duality of ROS (represented by changes in h2o2 in the present model) in exhibiting varying cellular fates can be determined by considering simultaneous changes in nadph/nadp+ and gsh/gssg that occur during the reprogramming of metabolic reactions. This will be helpful in determining the pro-apoptotic or anti-apoptotic fate of gliomas and can be useful in designing effective pro-oxidant and/or anti-oxidant therapeutic approaches against gliomas.
  6. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2020 Jun 27. 54(4): 629-647
    Curi R, Levada-Pires AC, Silva EBD, Poma SO, Zambonatto RF, Domenech P, Almeida MM, Gritte RB, Souza-Siqueira T, Gorjão R, Newsholme P, Pithon-Curi TC.
      Neutrophils were traditionally considered as short-lived cells with abundant secretory and protein synthetic activity. Recent studies, however, indicate neutrophils are in reality a heterogeneous population of cells. Neutrophils differentiate from pluripotent stem cells in the bone marrow, and can further mature in the blood stream and can have different phenotypes in health and disease conditions. Neutrophils undergo primary functions such as phagocytosis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), release of lipid mediators and inflammatory proteins (mainly cytokines), and apoptosis. Neutrophils stimulate other neutrophils and trigger a cascade of immune and inflammatory responses. The underpinning intracellular metabolisms that support these neutrophil functions are herein reported. It has been known for many decades that neutrophils utilize glucose as a primary fuel and produce lactate as an end product of glycolysis. Neutrophils metabolize glucose through glycolysis and the pentose- phosphate pathway (PPP). Mitochondrial glucose oxidation is very low. The PPP provides the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) complex activity to produce superoxide from oxygen. These cells also utilize glutamine and fatty acids to produce the required adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and precursors for the synthesis of molecules that trigger functional outcomes. Neutrophils obtained from rat intraperitoneal cavity and incubate for 1 hour at 37°C metabolize glutamine at higher rate than that of glucose. Glutamine delays neutrophil apoptosis and maintains optimal NOX activity for superoxide production. Under limited glucose provision, neutrophils move to fatty acid oxidation (FAO) to obtain the required energy for the cell function. FAO is mainly associated with neutrophil differentiation and maturation. Hypoxia, hormonal dysfunction, and physical exercise markedly change neutrophil metabolism. It is now become clear that neutrophil metabolism underlies the heterogeneity of neutrophil phenotypes and should be intense focus of investigation.
    Keywords:  Inflammation; Glutamine; Glucose; Hormones; Physical Exercise
  7. J Immunother Cancer. 2020 Jun;pii: e000622. [Epub ahead of print]8(1):
    Meziani L, Gerbé de Thoré M, Hamon P, Bockel S, Andrade Louzada R, Clemenson C, Corre R, Liu W, Dupuy C, Mondini M, Deutsch E.
      BACKGROUND: Macrophages play pivotal roles in tumor progression and the response to anticancer therapies, including radiotherapy (RT). Dual oxidase (DUOX) 1 is a transmembrane enzyme that plays a critical role in oxidant generation.METHODS: Since we found DUOX1 expression in macrophages from human lung samples exposed to ionizing radiation, we aimed to assess the involvement of DUOX1 in macrophage activation and the role of these macrophages in tumor development.
    RESULTS: Using Duox1-/- mice, we demonstrated that the lack of DUOX1 in proinflammatory macrophages improved the antitumor effect of these cells. Furthermore, intratumoral injection of Duox1-/- proinflammatory macrophages significantly enhanced the antitumor effect of RT. Mechanistically, DUOX1 deficiency increased the production of proinflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, CXCL9, CCL3 and TNFα) by activated macrophages in vitro and the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II in the membranes of macrophages. We also demonstrated that DUOX1 was involved in the phagocytotic function of macrophages in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor effect of Duox1-/- macrophages was associated with a significant increase in IFNγ production by both lymphoid and myeloid immune cells.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that DUOX1 is a new target for macrophage reprogramming and suggest that DUOX1 inhibition in macrophages combined with RT is a new therapeutic strategy for the management of cancers.
    Keywords:  immunotherapy; interferon inducers; macrophages; radioimmunotherapy; radiotherapy
  8. Sci Rep. 2020 Jun 23. 10(1): 10203
    Di Summa F, Kargarpour Z, Nasirzade J, Stähli A, Mitulović G, Panić-Janković T, Koller V, Kaltenbach C, Müller H, Panahipour L, Gruber R, Strauss FJ.
      Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) contains a broad spectrum of bioactive molecules that can trigger several cellular responses. However, these molecules along with their upstream responses remain mostly uninvestigated. By means of proteomics we revealed that PRF lysates contain more than 650 proteins, being TGF-β one of the few growth factors found. To uncover the major target genes regulated by PRF lysates, gingival fibroblasts were exposed to lysates obtained from PRF membranes followed by a whole genome array. We identified 51 genes strongly regulated by PRF including IL11, NOX4 and PRG4 which are characteristic TGF-β target genes. RT-PCR and immunoassay analysis confirmed the TGF-β receptor I kinase-dependent increased expression of IL11, NOX4 and PRG4. The PRF-derived TGF-β activity was verified by the translocation of Smad2/3 into the nucleus along with the increased phosphorylation of Smad3. Considering that PRF is clinically used in combination with dental implants and collagen membranes, we showed here that PRF-derived TGF-β activity adsorbs to titanium implants and collagen membranes indicated by the changes in gene expression and immunoassay analysis. Our study points towards TGF-β as major target of PRF and suggest that TGF-β activity released by PRF adsorbs to titanium surface and collagen membranes.