bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2020‒05‒24
thirteen papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University


  1. Bone Joint Res. 2020 Jan;9(1): 23-28
    Kurosawa T, Mifune Y, Inui A, Nishimoto H, Ueda Y, Kataoka T, Yamaura K, Mukohara S, Kuroda R.
      Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of apocynin, an inhibitor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) and a downregulator of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), on high glucose-induced oxidative stress on tenocytes.Methods: Tenocytes from normal Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured in both control and high-glucose conditions. Apocynin was added at cell seeding, dividing the tenocytes into four groups: the control group; regular glucose with apocynin (RG apo+); high glucose with apocynin (HG apo+); and high glucose without apocynin (HG apo-). Reactive oxygen species production, cell proliferation, apoptosis and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of NOX1 and 4, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined in vitro.
    Results: Expression of NOX1, NOX4, and IL-6 mRNA in the HG groups was significantly higher compared with that in the RG groups, and NOX1, NOX4, and IL-6 mRNA expression in the HG apo+ group was significantly lower compared with that in the HG apo- group. Cell proliferation in the RG apo+ group was significantly higher than in the control group and was also significantly higher in the HG apo+ group than in the HG apo- group. Both the ROS accumulation and the amounts of apoptotic cells in the HG groups were greater than those in the RG groups and were significantly less in the HG apo+ group than in the HG apo- group.
    Conclusion: Apocynin reduced ROS production and cell death via NOX inhibition in high-glucose conditions. Apocynin is therefore a potential prodrug in the treatment of diabetic tendinopathy.Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2020;9(1):23-28.
    Keywords:  Apocynin; Diabetic tendinopathy; High glucose; NADPH oxidase; Oxidative stress
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1302/2046-3758.991.BJR-2019-0074.R1
  2. Microvasc Res. 2020 May 16. pii: S0026-2862(20)30072-8. [Epub ahead of print] 104012
    Wang Z, Yang J, Qi J, Jin Y, Tong L.
      Recent evidences have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in regulating angiogenesis and preventing tissue injury. However, the precise molecular mechanisms behind ROS-induced angiogenesis are still unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ROS-induced angiogenesis in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (rBMECs) and identify involving the signal pathways. For initial experiments, the rBMECs were incubated with different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). For the second experiments, the rBMECs were respectively treated with ROS scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU), NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor apocynin, small interfering RNAs-mediated knock down Nox2 or Nox4, or pretreated with c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125. The cell proliferation, migration, tube formation, and the expressions of several important neuroangiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -9 and phos-JNK were measured. Low level of H2O2 significantly promoted endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, migration and tube formation and upregulated levels of VEGF, BDNF, MMP-9 and phos-JNK. DMTU and apocynin significantly inhibited endothelial angiogenesis and downregulated these protein levels. As expected, knockdown of Nox2 or Nox4 expression blocked endothelial angiogenesis and downregulated the expressions of pro-neuroangiogenic factors. Furthermore, H2O2-induced endothelial angiogenesis and high expressions of pro-neuroangiogenic factors were decreased by SP600125. In conclusion, Nox-derived ROS were required for endothelial angiogenesis. Low level of ROS may activate JNK signaling pathway and upregulate pro-neuroangiogenic factors, ultimately mediating endothelial angiogenesis.
    Keywords:  Angiogenesis; Endothelial cell; NADPH oxidase; Reactive oxygen species; c-Jun N-terminal kinase
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mvr.2020.104012
  3. J Biophotonics. 2020 May 21. e202000089
    Mehrvar S, Foomani FH, Shimada S, Yang C, Zheleznova NN, Mostaghimi S, Cowley AW, Ranji M.
      Uninephrectomy (UNX) is known to result in structural and metabolic changes to the remaining kidney, although it is uncertain if this alters the mitochondrial redox state and how soon such changes may occur. A custom-designed fluorescence cryo-imaging technique was used to quantitatively assess the effect of UNX by measuring the levels of NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) and FAD (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide) in the remaining kidney. Kidneys were snap-frozen 3 days following UNX, and the intrinsic fluorescence of NADH and FAD were optically acquired. The 3D images were created to characterize the NADH/FAD redox ratios (RR) of the right kidneys, which underwent UNX and the remaining kidneys 3 days following UNX. Both the NADPH-oxidases (Nox2 and Nox4) and the mitochondria are the main sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in tubular epithelial cells. Responses to the UNX were obtained in kidneys of normal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats, and SS rats in which NADPH-oxidase isoform 4 (Nox4) was knocked out (SSNox4-/- ). The results found that each of the strains exhibited similar increases in kidney weights averaging 17% after 3 days of UNX. SD and SSNox4-/- rats both exhibited global reductions of the RR (P < 0.05) with a similar tendency observed in SS rats (P < 0.08), indicating increased ROS production. The unexpected reduction of the RR in the remnant kidneys of SSNox4-/- rats indicates that mechanisms independent of H2 O2 produced from Nox4 may be responsible for this global increase of ROS. We propose that the reduced RR was largely a consequence of enhanced mitochondrial bioenergetics due to increased tubular workload of the remaining kidney. The data indicate that mitochondria become the dominant source of increased ROS following UNX and could represent an important hypertrophic signaling mechanism.
    Keywords:  Hypertension; Medulla; Nox4; Optical Imaging; Redox State; Uninephrectomy
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/jbio.202000089
  4. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(5): e0233208
    Lu J, Jiang G, Wu Y, Antony S, Meitzler JL, Juhasz A, Liu H, Roy K, Makhlouf H, Chuaqui R, Butcher D, Konaté MM, Doroshow JH.
      To facilitate functional investigation of the role of NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) and associated reactive oxygen species in cancer cell signaling, we report herein the development and characterization of a novel mouse monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes the C-terminal region of the NOX1 protein. The antibody was validated in stable NOX1 overexpression and knockout systems, and demonstrates wide applicability for Western blot analysis, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry. We employed our NOX1 antibody to characterize NOX1 expression in a panel of 30 human colorectal cancer cell lines, and correlated protein expression with NOX1 mRNA expression and superoxide production in a subset of these cells. Although a significant correlation between oncogenic RAS status and NOX1 mRNA levels could not be demonstrated in colon cancer cell lines, RAS mutational status did correlate with NOX1 expression in human colon cancer surgical specimens. Immunohistochemical analysis of a comprehensive set of tissue microarrays comprising over 1,200 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue cores from human epithelial tumors and inflammatory disease confirmed that NOX1 is overexpressed in human colon and small intestinal adenocarcinomas, as well as adenomatous polyps, compared to adjacent, uninvolved intestinal mucosae. In contradistinction to prior studies, we did not find evidence of NOX1 overexpression at the protein level in tumors versus histologically normal tissues in prostate, lung, ovarian, or breast carcinomas. This study constitutes the most comprehensive histopathological characterization of NOX1 to date in cellular models of colon cancer and in normal and malignant human tissues using a thoroughly evaluated monoclonal antibody. It also further establishes NOX1 as a clinically relevant therapeutic target in colorectal and small intestinal cancer.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233208
  5. Redox Biol. 2020 May 11. pii: S2213-2317(20)30190-7. [Epub ahead of print]34 101569
    Wang X, Zhang S, Ding Y, Tong H, Xu X, Wei G, Chen Y, Ju W, Fu C, Qi K, Li Z, Zeng L, Xu K, Qiao J.
      NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulates platelet function and thrombosis. It remains controversial regarding NOX2's role in platelet function. As a regulatory subunit for NOX2, whether p47phox regulates platelet function remains unclear. Our study intends to evaluate p47phox's role in platelet function. Platelets were isolated from wild-type or p47phox-/- mice followed by analysis of platelet aggregation, granule secretion, surface receptors expression, spreading, clot retraction and ROS generation. Additionally, in vivo hemostasis, arterial and venous thrombosis was assessed. Moreover, human platelets were treated with PR-39 to inhibit p47phox activity followed by analysis of platelet function. p47phox deficiency significantly prolonged tail-bleeding time, delayed arterial and venous thrombus formation in vivo as well as reduced platelet aggregation, ATP release and αIIbβ3 activation. In addition, p47phox-/- platelets presented impaired spreading on fibrinogen or collagen and defective clot retraction concomitant with decreased phosphorylation of Syk and PLCγ2. Moreover, CRP or thrombin-stimulated p47phox-/- platelets displayed reduced intracellular ROS generation which was further decreased after inhibition of NOX1. Meanwhile, p47phox deficiency increased VASP phosphorylation and decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, ERK5 and JNK without affecting AKT and c-PLA2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, p47phox translocates to membrane to interact with both NOX1 and NOX2 after stimulation with CRP or thrombin. Finally, inhibition of p47phox activity by PR-39 reduced ROS generation, platelet aggregation and clot retraction in human platelets. In conclusion, p47phox regulates platelet function, arterial and venous thrombus formation and ROS generation, indicating that p47phox might be a novel therapeutic target for treating thrombotic or cardiovascular diseases.
    Keywords:  NOX1; NOX2; Platelet function; Thrombosis; p47phox
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2020.101569
  6. J Exp Med. 2020 Jul 06. pii: e20190745. [Epub ahead of print]217(7):
    Dasgupta A, Shukla SK, Vernucci E, King RJ, Abrego J, Mulder SE, Mullen NJ, Graves G, Buettner K, Thakur R, Murthy D, Attri KS, Wang D, Chaika NV, Pacheco CG, Rai I, Engle DD, Grandgenett PM, Punsoni M, Reames BN, Teoh-Fitzgerald M, Oberley-Deegan R, Yu F, Klute KA, Hollingsworth MA, Zimmerman MC, Mehla K, Sadoshima J, Tuveson DA, Singh PK.
      Approximately one third of cancer patients die due to complexities related to cachexia. However, the mechanisms of cachexia and the potential therapeutic interventions remain poorly studied. We observed a significant positive correlation between SIRT1 expression and muscle fiber cross-sectional area in pancreatic cancer patients. Rescuing Sirt1 expression by exogenous expression or pharmacological agents reverted cancer cell-induced myotube wasting in culture conditions and mouse models. RNA-seq and follow-up analyses showed cancer cell-mediated SIRT1 loss induced NF-κB signaling in cachectic muscles that enhanced the expression of FOXO transcription factors and NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), a key regulator of reactive oxygen species production. Additionally, we observed a negative correlation between NOX4 expression and skeletal muscle fiber cross-sectional area in pancreatic cancer patients. Knocking out Nox4 in skeletal muscles or pharmacological blockade of Nox4 activity abrogated tumor-induced cachexia in mice. Thus, we conclude that targeting the Sirt1-Nox4 axis in muscles is an effective therapeutic intervention for mitigating pancreatic cancer-induced cachexia.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20190745
  7. Genes (Basel). 2020 May 19. pii: E567. [Epub ahead of print]11(5):
    Jiranugrom P, Yoo ID, Park MW, Ryu JH, Moon JS, Yi SS.
      Hippocampal neurogenesis is linked with a cognitive process under a normal physiological condition including learning, memory, pattern separation, and cognitive flexibility. Hippocampal neurogenesis is altered by multiple factors such as the systemic metabolic changes. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) has been implicated in the regulation of brain function. While the role of NOX4 plays in the brain, the mechanism by which NOX4 regulates hippocampal neurogenesis under metabolic stress is unclear. In this case, we show that NOX4 deficiency exacerbates the impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis by inhibiting neuronal maturation by a chronic high fat diet (HFD). NOX4 deficiency resulted in less hippocampal neurogenesis by decreasing doublecortin (DCX)-positive neuroblasts, a neuronal differentiation marker, and their branched-dendrites. Notably, NOX4 deficiency exacerbates the impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis by chronic HFD. Moreover, NOX4 deficiency had a significant reduction of Cystatin C levels, which is critical for hippocampal neurogenesis, under chronic HFD as well as normal chow (NC) diet. Furthermore, the reduction of Cystatin C levels was correlated with the impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis in NOX4 deficient and wild-type (WT) mice under chronic HFD. Our results suggest that NOX4 regulates the impairment of Cystatin C-dependent hippocampal neurogenesis under chronic HFD.
    Keywords:  Cystatin C; NOX4; high fat diet; hippocampus; neurogenesis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11050567
  8. Hypertens Res. 2020 May 21.
    Gao N, Zhang Y, Lei L, Li L, Cao P, Zhao X, Lin L, Xu R.
      Hypertension associated with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with a high risk of vascular diseases. However, the mechanisms of HHcy-associated hypertensive renal damage and the efficacy of folic acid (FA) as a treatment have not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether lowering the plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level using different doses of FA can reduce HHcy-associated glomerular injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and to clarify the potential mechanisms of such effects. SHRs were randomized into a control group, HHcy group, HHcy + low-dose FA (LFA) group, and HHcy + high-dose FA (HFA) group. Compared with the control group, the HHcy group had reduced serum superoxide dismutase and GFR levels and elevated serum malondialdehyde and urinary albumin creatinine ratio levels. Increased extracellular matrix of the glomerulus and an increased glomerular sclerosis index, podocyte foot process effacement and fusion, as well as increased podocyte apoptosis, were observed in the HHcy group compared with the control group; these effects were associated with increased expression of NOX2 and NOX4 and decreased nephrin expression in renal tissue from SHRs with HHcy. HHcy-induced changes were counteracted by LFA and HFA treatment. Apart from lower levels of NOX2 in the HHcy + HFA group, there were no significant differences in other indicators between the HHcy + LFA and HHcy + HFA groups. These results suggest that even at a low dose, FA can reduce plasma Hcy and attenuate HHcy-induced glomerular injury by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis.
    Keywords:  Folic acid; Glomerular injury; HHcy; Hypertension; NADPH oxidase
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41440-020-0471-8
  9. Eur J Pharmacol. 2020 May 19. pii: S0014-2999(20)30298-3. [Epub ahead of print] 173206
    Laddha AP, Kulkarni YA.
      The human body has a mechanism for balancing the generation and neutralization of reactive oxygen species. The body is exposed to many agents that are responsible for the generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, which leads to disruption of the balance between generation of these species and oxidative stress defence mechanisms. Diabetes is a chronic pathological condition associated with prolonged hyperglycaemia. Prolonged elevation of level of glucose in the blood leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species. This generation of reactive oxygen species is responsible for the development of diabetic vasculopathy, which includes micro- and macrovascular diabetic complications. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) is a membrane-bound enzyme responsible for the development of reactive oxygen species in hyperglycaemia. Phosphorylation of the cytosolic components of NOX, such as p47phox, p67phox, and RAC-1, in hyperglycaemia is one of the important causes of conversion of oxygen to reactive oxygen. Overexpression of NOX in pathological conditions is associated with activation of aldose reductase, advanced glycation end products, protein kinase C and the hexosamine pathway. In addition, NOX also promotes the activation of inflammatory cytokines, such as TGF-β, TNF-α, NF-kβ, IL-6, and IL-18, the activation of endothelial growth factors, such as VEGF and FGF, hyperlipidaemia, and the deposition of collagen. Thus, overexpression of NOX is linked to the development of diabetic complications. The present review focuses on the role of NOX, its associated pathways, and various NOX inhibitors in the management and treatment of diabetic complications, such as diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy and cardiomyopathy.
    Keywords:  Diabetes; Diabetic complications; NADPH oxidase; NOX inhibitors
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173206
  10. Transl Oncol. 2020 May 13. pii: S1936-5233(20)30021-8. [Epub ahead of print]13(8): 100785
    Lippmann J, Petri K, Fulda S, Liese J.
      Ferroptosis, a newly discovered form of cell death mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, has recently been shown to have an impact on various cancer types; however, so far there are only few studies about its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The delicate equilibrium of ROS in cancer cells has found to be crucial for cell survival, thus increased levels may trigger ferroptosis in HCC. In our study, we investigated the effect of different ROS modulators and ferroptosis inducers on a human HCC cell line and a human hepatoblastoma cell line. We identified a novel synergistic cell death induction by the combination of Auranofin and buthionine sulfoxime (BSO) or by Erastin and BSO at subtoxic concentrations. We found a caspase-independent, redox-regulated cell death, which could be rescued by different inhibitors of ferroptosis. Both cotreatments stimulated lipid peroxidation. All these findings indicated ferroptotic cell death. Both cotreatments affected the canonical ferroptosis pathway through GPX4 downregulation. We also found an accumulation of Nrf2 and HO-1, indicating an additional effect on the non-canonical pathway. Our results implicate that targeting these two main ferroptotic pathways simultaneously can overcome chemotherapy resistance in HCC.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2020.100785
  11. iScience. 2020 Apr 29. pii: S2589-0042(20)30301-1. [Epub ahead of print]23(5): 101116
    Gansemer ER, McCommis KS, Martino M, King-McAlpin AQ, Potthoff MJ, Finck BN, Taylor EB, Rutkowski DT.
      Many metabolic diseases disrupt endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis, but little is known about how metabolic activity is communicated to the ER. Here, we show in hepatocytes and other metabolically active cells that decreasing the availability of substrate for the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle diminished NADPH production, elevated glutathione oxidation, led to altered oxidative maturation of ER client proteins, and attenuated ER stress. This attenuation was prevented when glutathione oxidation was disfavored. ER stress was also alleviated by inhibiting either TCA-dependent NADPH production or Glutathione Reductase. Conversely, stimulating TCA activity increased NADPH production, glutathione reduction, and ER stress. Validating these findings, deletion of the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier-which is known to decrease TCA cycle activity and protect the liver from steatohepatitis-also diminished NADPH, elevated glutathione oxidation, and alleviated ER stress. Together, our results demonstrate a novel pathway by which mitochondrial metabolic activity is communicated to the ER through the relay of redox metabolites.
    Keywords:  biological sciences; cell biology; functional aspects of cell biology
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101116
  12. Int Immunopharmacol. 2020 May 12. pii: S1567-5769(20)30177-6. [Epub ahead of print]84 106556
    Li H, Wang D, Chen Y, Yang M.
      β-Caryophyllene (BCP) is a bicyclic sesquiterpene compound that has anti-diabetic activity. However, the effect of BCP on diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains unclear. Here, we aimed to evaluate the potential role of BCP in high glucose (HG)-induced glomerular mesangial cells (MCs). MCs were maintained under HG condition to simulate DN in vitro. Our results showed that BCP inhibited HG-induced cell proliferation, ROS production and NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2/4 expression. BCP exhibited anti-inflammatory activity with decreased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 in HG-induced MCs. Moreover, BCP treatment suppressed the HG-induced secretion of fibronectin (FN) and collagen IV (Col IV) in MCs. Furthermore, BCP suppressed the NF-κB activation and enhanced the Nrf2 activation in HG-induced MCs. However, inhibition of Nrf2 attenuated the protective effects of BCP on HG-induced MCs, while inhibition of NF-κB enhanced the nephro-protective effects of BCP on MCs. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that BCP executed protective effects on HG-induced MCs via regulating NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling pathways.
    Keywords:  Diabetic nephropathy (DN); Extracellular matrix (ECM); Glomerular mesangial cells (MCs); Oxidative stress; β-Caryophyllene
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106556
  13. Aging (Albany NY). 2020 May 21. 12
    Xiong Y, Chen L, Yu T, Yan C, Zhou W, Cao F, You X, Zhng Y, Sun Y, Liu J, Xue H, Hu Y, Chen D, Mi B, Liu G.
      Diabetic foot ulcers are a common complication of diabetes, and are usually incurable in the clinic. Exosomes (carriers that transfer endogenous molecules) from diabetic patients' blood have been demonstrated to suppress diabetic wound repair. In this study, we investigated the effects of circulating exosomal microRNA-15a-3p (miR-15a-3p) on diabetic wound repair. Exosomes were extracted from diabetic patients' blood, and were found to inhibit diabetic wound repair in vitro and in vivo. miR-15a-3p was upregulated in diabetic exosomes, and impaired wound healing. When miR-15a-3p was knocked down in diabetic exosomes, their negative effects were partially reversed both in vitro and in vivo. NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5) was identified as a potential target of miR-15a-3p, and the inhibition of NOX5 reduced the release of reactive oxygen species, thereby impairing the functionality of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In summary, inhibition of circulating exosomal miR-15a-3p accelerated diabetic wound repair by activating NOX5, providing a novel therapeutic target for diabetic foot ulcer therapy.
    Keywords:  NADPH oxidase 5; diabetic foot ulcer; exosome; microRNA-15a-3p; wound repair
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.103143