bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2020‒03‒01
nine papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University

  1. Redox Biol. 2020 Feb 15. pii: S2213-2317(20)30126-9. [Epub ahead of print]32 101466
    Reis J, Massari M, Marchese S, Ceccon M, Aalbers FS, Corana F, Valente S, Mai A, Magnani F, Mattevi A.
      NADPH-oxidases (NOXs) purposefully produce reactive-oxygen-species (ROS) and are found in most kingdoms of life. The seven human NOXs are each characterized by a specific expression profile and a fine regulation to spatio-temporally tune ROS concentration in cells and tissues. One of the best known roles for NOXs is in host protection against pathogens but ROS themselves are important second messengers involved in tissue regeneration and the modulation of pathways that induce and sustain cell proliferation. As such, NOXs are attractive pharmacological targets in immunomodulation, fibrosis and cancer. We have studied an extensive number of available NOX inhibitors, with the specific aim to identify bona fide ligands versus ROS-scavenging molecules. Accordingly, we have established a comprehensive platform of biochemical and biophysical assays. Most of the investigated small molecules revealed ROS-scavenging and/or assay-interfering properties to various degrees. A few compounds, however, were also demonstrated to directly engage one or more NOX enzymes. Diphenylene iodonium was found to react with the NOXs' flavin and heme prosthetic groups to form stable adducts. We also discovered that two compounds, VAS2870 and VAS3947, inhibit NOXs through the covalent alkylation of a cysteine residue. Importantly, the amino acid involved in covalent binding was found to reside in the dehydrogenase domain, where the nicotinamide ring of NADPH is bound. This work can serve as a springboard to guide further development of bona fide ligands with either agonistic or antagonistic properties toward NOXs.
    Keywords:  NADPH oxidase; NOX; ROS scavengers; Reactive oxygen species
  2. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020 ;2020 2563764
    Chignalia AZ, Weinberg G, Dull RO.
      Norepinephrine (NE) is the naturally occurring adrenergic agonist that is released in response to hypotension, and it is routinely administered in clinical settings to treat moderate to severe hypotension that may occur during general anesthesia and shock states. Although NE has incontestable beneficial effects on blood pressure maintenance during hypotensive conditions, deleterious effects of NE on endothelial cell function may occur. In particular, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NADPH oxidase (Nox) on the deleterious effects of NE on endothelial cell function have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the effects of NE on ROS production in rat lung microvascular endothelial cells (RLMEC) and its contribution to cell death. RLMEC were treated with NE (5 ng/mL) for 24 hours and ROS production was assessed by CellROX and DCFDA fluorescence. Nox activity was assessed by NADPH-stimulated ROS production in isolated membranes and phosphorylation of p47phox; cell death was assessed by flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation. Caspase activation was assessed by fluorescent microscopy. Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4 mRNA expression was assessed by real-time PCR. NE increased ROS production, Nox activity, p47phox phosphorylation, Nox2 and Nox4 mRNA content, caspase-3 activation, and RLMEC death. Phentolamine, an α 1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, inhibited NE-induced ROS production and Nox activity and partly inhibited cell death while β-blockade had no effect. Apocynin and PEGSOD inhibited NE-induced caspase-3 activation and cell death while direct inhibition of caspase-3 abrogated NE-induced cell death. PEG-CAT inhibited NE-induced cell death but not caspase-3 activation. Collectively, these results indicate that NE induces RLMEC death via activation of Nox by α-adrenergic signaling and caspase-3-dependent pathways. NE has deleterious effects on RLMECs that may be important to its long-term therapeutic use.
  3. Antioxidants (Basel). 2020 Feb 19. pii: E171. [Epub ahead of print]9(2):
    Hafstad AD, Hansen SS, Lund J, Santos CXC, Boardman NT, Shah AM, Aasum E.
      Obesity and diabetes are independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and they are associated with the development of a specific cardiomyopathy with elevated myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) and impaired cardiac efficiency. Although the pathophysiology of this cardiomyopathy is multifactorial and complex, reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play an important role. One of the major ROS-generating enzymes in the cardiomyocytes is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2 (NOX2), and many potential systemic activators of NOX2 are elevated in obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that NOX2 activity would influence cardiac energetics and/or the progression of ventricular dysfunction following obesity. Myocardial ROS content and mechanoenergetics were measured in the hearts from diet-induced-obese wild type (DIOWT) and global NOK2 knock-out mice (DIOKO) and in diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice given normal water (DIO) or water supplemented with the NOX2-inhibitor apocynin (DIOAPO). Mitochondrial function and ROS production were also assessed in DIO and DIOAPO mice. This study demonstrated that ablation and pharmacological inhibition of NOX2 both improved mechanical efficiency and reduced MVO2 for non-mechanical cardiac work. Mitochondrial ROS production was also reduced following NOX2 inhibition, while cardiac mitochondrial function was not markedly altered by apocynin-treatment. Therefore, these results indicate a link between obesity-induced myocardial oxygen wasting, NOX2 activation, and mitochondrial ROS.
    Keywords:  NADPH-oxidase; ROS; cardiac efficiency; metabolism; myocardial oxygen consumption; obesity
  4. Immunol Lett. 2020 Feb 21. pii: S0165-2478(19)30600-5. [Epub ahead of print]
    Trevelin SC, Shah AM, Lombardi G.
      NADPH oxidase 2 is a superoxide-generating enzymatic complex based on the catalytic subunit gp91phox that is also known as Nox2. Initially identified in neutrophils, NADPH oxidase 2 was long considered responsible only for the killing of phagocytized microorganisms. However, advances in knowledge about redox signalling and the discovery of Nox2 expression in different cell types, including macrophages, endothelial cells (ECs), dendritic cells (DCs), B and T lymphocytes, have changed this paradigm. For instance, Nox2 expressed in macrophages and neutrophils limits the transcription of cytokines and toll-like receptors (TLRs) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), whereas Nox2 in DCs facilitates antigen cross-presentation to T cells. More recently, our group observed that Nox2 inhibits the suppressive ability of regulatory T cells (Tregs) by limiting NF-κB and FoxP3 activation. In this review, we discuss non-canonical microbicidal functions and redox-signalling-associated roles of Nox2 in different cell types, emphasizing its roles in the innate and adaptive immune system.
    Keywords:  Tregs; gp91phox; p47phox; reactive oxygen species (ROS); redox signalling
  5. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020 ;2020 5367102
    Zhang Y, Guo P, Xiang W, Liu Q, Liu X, Ma N, Zhou S, He H, Wlaschek M, Scharffetter-Kochanek K, Zhang TC, Ma W.
      Treatments on neoplastic diseases and cancer using genotoxic drugs often cause long-term health problems related to premature aging. The underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Based on the study of a long-lasting senescence-like growth arrest (10-12 weeks) of human dermal fibroblasts induced by psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) treatment, we here revealed that slowly repaired bulky DNA damages can serve as a "molecular scar" leading to reduced cell proliferation through persistent endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that caused accelerated telomere erosion. The elevated levels of ROS were the results of mitochondrial dysfunction and the activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX). A combined inhibition of DNA-PK and PARP1 could suppress the level of ROS. Together with a reduced expression level of BRCA1 as well as the upregulation of PP2A and 53BP1, these data suggest that the NHEJ repair of DNA double-strand breaks may be the initial trigger of metabolic changes leading to ROS production. Further study showed that stimulation of the pentose phosphate pathway played an important role for NOX activation, and ROS could be efficiently suppressed by modulating the NADP/NADPH ratio. Interestingly, feeding cells with ribose-5-phosphate, a precursor for nucleotide biosynthesis that produced through the PPP, could evidently suppress the ROS level and prevent the cell enlargement related to mitochondrial biogenesis. Taken together, these results revealed an important signaling pathway between DNA damage repair and the cell metabolism, which contributed to the premature aging effects of PUVA, and may be generally applicable for a large category of chemotherapeutic reagents including many cancer drugs.
  6. Clin Sci (Lond). 2020 Feb 28. 134(4): 403-417
    Njeim R, Farhat T, Alkhansa S, Youssef N, Dia B, Slika R, Diab R, Azar ST, Eid AA.
      Diabetic kidney disease is one of the most serious complications of diabetes worldwide and is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. While research has primarily focused on hyperglycemia as a key player in the pathophysiology of diabetic complications, recently, increasing evidence have underlined the role of adipose inflammation in modulating the development and/or progression of diabetic kidney disease. This review focuses on how adipose inflammation contribute to diabetic kidney disease. Furthermore, it discusses in detail the underlying mechanisms of adipose inflammation, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway and critically describes their role in diabetic kidney disease. This in-depth understanding of adipose inflammation and its impact on diabetic kidney disease highlights the need for novel interventions in the treatment of diabetic complications.
    Keywords:  Adipose Inflammation; Diabetes; Diabetic Kidney Disease; NADPH oxidase; Oxidative Stress; obesity
  7. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020 ;2020 8630275
    Loffredo L, Ettorre E, Zicari AM, Inghilleri M, Nocella C, Perri L, Spalice A, Fossati C, De Lucia MC, Pigozzi F, Cacciafesta M, Violi F, Carnevale R, .
      Background: Neurodegenerative diseases (ND) as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis represent a growing cause of disability in the developed countries. The underlying physiopathology is still unclear. Several lines of evidence suggest a role for oxidative stress and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) in the neuropathological pathways that lead to ND. Furthermore, recent studies hypothesized a role for gut microbiota in the neuroinflammation; in particular, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from Gram-negative bacteria in the gut is believed to play a role in causing ND by increase of oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess NOX2 activity as well as serum 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α (8-iso-PGF2.Methods: One hundred and twenty-eight consecutive subjects, including 64 ND patients and 64 controls (CT) matched for age and gender, were recruited. A cross-sectional study was performed to compare serum activity of soluble NOX2-dp (sNOX2-dp), blood levels of isoprostanes, serum H2O2, and LPS in these two groups. Serum zonulin was used to assess gut permeability.
    Results: Compared with CT, ND patients had higher values of sNOX2-dp, 8-iso-PGF2α (8-iso-PGF2p < 0.001), zonulin (Rs = 0.411; p < 0.001), zonulin (Rs = 0.411; p < 0.001), zonulin (Rs = 0.411; α (8-iso-PGF2p < 0.001), zonulin (Rs = 0.411; p < 0.001), zonulin (Rs = 0.411; α (8-iso-PGF2p < 0.001), zonulin (Rs = 0.411; β, 0.459; p < 0.001), zonulin (Rs = 0.411; α (8-iso-PGF2β, 0.459; p < 0.001), zonulin (Rs = 0.411; R 2 = 57%).
    Conclusion: This study provides the first report attesting that patients with ND have high NOX2 activation that could be potentially implicated in the process of neuroinflammation.
  8. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 25. pii: E1575. [Epub ahead of print]21(5):
    Huang W, Hutabarat RP, Chai Z, Zheng T, Zhang W, Li D.
      Blueberries are rich in antioxidant anthocyanins. The hypotensive effects of blueberry anthocyanins in endothelial cells was investigated here. Pretreatment with blueberry anthocyanin extract, malvidin, malvidin-3-glucoside, and malvidin-3-galactoside significantly ameliorated high-glucose-induced damage by enhancing endogenous antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), lowering reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and NADPH oxidase isoform 4 (NOX4) expression, and increasing the cell vitalities. They also effectively induced a vasodilatory effect by increasing the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) and its promoters endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) levels as well as by decreasing the vasoconstrictor angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), xanthine oxidase-1 (XO-1), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. The activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway and the breakdown of protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ) pathway were involved in the bioactivities. The results indicated blueberry anthocyanins protected endothelial function against high-glucose (HG) injury via antioxidant and vasodilatory mechanisms, which could be promising molecules as a hypotensive nutraceutical for diabetes patients.
    Keywords:  anthocyanin; antioxidant; blueberry; hypotensive; malvidin; vasodilatory
  9. J Neurosci. 2020 Feb 24. pii: 2402-19. [Epub ahead of print]
    Henry RJ, Ritzel RM, Barrett JP, Doran SJ, Jiao Y, Leach JB, Szeto GL, Wu J, Stoica BA, Faden AI, Loane DJ.
      Chronic neuroinflammation with sustained microglial activation occurs following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is believed to contribute to subsequent neurodegeneration and neurological deficits . Microglia, the primary innate immune cells in brain, are dependent on colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) signaling for their survival. In this pre-clinical study, we examined the effects of delayed depletion of chronically activated microglia on functional recovery and neurodegeneration up to three months post-injury. A CSF1R inhibitor, PLX5622, was administered to adult male C57Bl/6J mice at one month after controlled cortical impact to remove chronically activated microglia, and the inhibitor was withdrawn 1-week later to allow for microglial repopulation. Following TBI, the repopulated microglia displayed a ramified morphology similar to that of sham uninjured mice, whereas microglia in vehicle-treated TBI mice showed the typical chronic posttraumatic hypertrophic morphology. PLX5622 treatment limited TBI-associated neuropathological changes at 3 months post-injury; these included a smaller cortical lesion, reduced hippocampal neuron cell death, and decreased NOX2- and NLRP3 inflammasome-associated neuroinflammation. Furthermore, delayed depletion of chronically activated microglia after TBI led to widespread changes in the cortical transcriptome and altered gene pathways involved in neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and neuroplasticity. Using a variety of complementary neurobehavioral tests, PLX5622-treated TBI mice also had improved long-term motor and cognitive function recovery through 3 months post-injury. Together, these studies demonstrate that chronic phase removal of neurotoxic microglia after TBI using CSF1R inhibitors markedly reduce chronic neuroinflammation and associated neurodegeneration, as well as related motor and cognitive deficits.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTTraumatic brain injury (TBI) is a debilitating neurological disorder that can seriously impact the patient's quality of life. Microglial-mediated neuroinflammation is induced after severe TBI and contributes to neurological deficits and on-going neurodegenerative processes. Here, we investigated the effect of breaking the neurotoxic neuroinflammatory loop at 1-month after controlled cortical impact in mice by pharmacological removal of chronically activated microglia using a CSF1R inhibitor, PLX5622. Overall, we show that short-term elimination of microglia during the chronic phase of TBI followed by repopulation results in long-term improvements in neurological function, suppression of neuroinflammatory and oxidative stress pathways, and a reduction in persistent neurodegenerative processes. These studies are clinically relevant and support new concepts that the therapeutic window for TBI may be far longer than traditionally believed if chronic and evolving microglial-mediated neuroinflammation can be inhibited or regulated in a precise manner.