bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2020‒02‒02
thirteen papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University

  1. Mol Cell Oncol. 2020 ;7(1): 1699375
    Yang WH, Chi JT.
      Ferroptosis is a novel form of programmed cell death. We found that the ferroptosis sensitivity in renal and ovarian cancers are regulated by cell density through TAZ-EMP1-NOX4 and TAZ-ANGPTL4-NOX2 pathway, respectively. These findings reveal TAZ as a novel genetic determinant of ferroptosis. Triggering ferroptosis may have therapeutic potential for TAZ-activated tumors.
    Keywords:  Angiopoietin-Like 4 (ANGPTL4); Epithelial Membrane Protein 1 (EMP1); Erastin; Ferroptosis; Hippo pathway; NADPH Oxidase 2 (NOX2); NADPH Oxidase 4 (NOX4); Ovarian Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1); transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ)
  2. Redox Biol. 2020 Jan 20. pii: S2213-2317(19)31410-7. [Epub ahead of print]30 101432
    Yang X, An N, Zhong C, Guan M, Jiang Y, Li X, Zhang H, Wang L, Ruan Y, Gao Y, Liu N, Shang H, Xing Y.
      Atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs in up to 11% of cancer patients treated with ibrutinib. The pathophysiology of ibrutinib promoted AF is complicated, as there are multiple interactions involved; the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying this are still unclear. Here, we aimed to determine the electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms of burst-pacing-induced AF in ibrutinib-treated mice. The results indicated differentially expressed proteins in ibrutinib-treated mice, identified through proteomic analysis, were found to play a role in oxidative stress-related pathways. Finally, treatment with an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX) prevented and reversed AF development in ibrutinib-treated mice. It was showed that the related protein expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the ibrutinib group was significantly increased, including NOX2, NOX4, p22-phox, XO and TGF-β protein expression. It was interesting that ibrutinib group also significantly increased the expression of ox-CaMKII, p-CaMKII (Thr-286) and p-RyR2 (Ser2814), causing enhanced abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release and mitochondrial structures, as well as atrial fibrosis and atrial hypertrophy in ibrutinib-treated mice, and apocynin reduced the expression of these proteins. Ibrutinib-treated mice were also more likely to develop AF, and AF occurred over longer periods. In conclusion, our study has established a pathophysiological role for ROS signaling in atrial cardiomyocytes, and it may be that ox-CaMKII and p-CaMKII (Thr-286) are activated by ROS to increase AF susceptibility following ibrutinib treatment. We have also identified the inhibition of NOX as a potential novel AF therapy approach.
    Keywords:  Atrial fibrillation; Electrical remodeling; Ibrutinib; Reactive oxygen species; Structural remodeling
  3. Adipocyte. 2020 Dec;9(1): 57-67
    Li P, Fan C, Cai Y, Fang S, Zeng Y, Zhang Y, Lin X, Zhang H, Xue Y, Guan M.
      Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), main cause of liver damage, is inextricably linked to diabetes. However, there is no specific means to improve the pathology of fatty liver in diabetic patients. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an important endocrine organ that secretes adipokines and microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in systemic metabolic regulation. To investigate the effects of BAT transplantation on liver lipid metabolism in diabetic mice, we transplanted BAT from male donor mice into diabetic mice induced by streptozotocin (STZ) combined with high-fat diet (HFD). At 10 weeks after transplantation, BAT transplantation significantly decreased the blood glucose and lipid, downregulated FAS, CD36, Scd1, ACCα, NOX2, NOX4, TGF-β1, FN and COL-1, up-regulated Nrf2, reversed the pathological changes of liver and increased the circulating miR-99a in diabetic mice. To verify whether circulating miR-99a improves oxidative stress by targeting inhibition of NOX4, we used 0.4mM palmitic acid (PA) to treat the LO2 cells. The expression of NOX4 protein was significantly decreased after transfection with miR-99a mimic, and increased after transfection with miR-99a inhibitor. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-99a could target NOX4 mRNA. These findings clarify the role of miR-99a and NOX4 in liver beneficial effect of BAT transplantation in diabetic mice.
    Keywords:  Brown adipose tissue; NOX4; miR-99a; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  4. Hum Gene Ther. 2020 Jan 28.
    Ma H, Dong X, Cao X, Hei N, Li J, Wang Y, Kong J, Dong B.
      The pro-renin receptor (PRR), as an important novel component of the renin-angiotensin system, has multifunction yet not completely known. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of PRR on the formation of Ang II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. We used Ang II (1.44 mg/kg/day) infusion to induce AAA, then mice received different treatment with saline, telmisartan, no treatment, Ad-EGFP, Ad-PRR, or Ad-PRR plus telmisartan. The incidence of AAA was 35%, 60%, 65%, 90%, and 55% in the Telmisartan, Vehicle, Ad-EGFP, Ad-PRR, and Ad- PRR+Telmisartan groups, respectively. Compared with the Vehicle and Ad-EGFP groups, PRR overexpression markedly increased macrophage infiltration; levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including MCP-1 and TNF-α; the expression and activity of MMP2 and MMP9; NOX2 and NOX4 protein and mRNA expression; NADPH oxidase activity; ERK and P38MAPK expression; but decreased smooth muscle cells content in AAA. However, telmisartan reversed the adverse effects of PRR. In addition, ERK inhibitor PD98059 eliminated the acceleration of Ang II-induced AAA formation by PRR and co-administration of telmisartan and PD98059 further abolished the adverse effects of PRR on Ang II-induced AAA formation. Thus, PRR plays an important role in the pathological development of AAA via both Ang II-dependent and -independent activation of ERK pathways and inhibition of PRR activation may be a promising approach to the treatment of AAA.
  5. Redox Biol. 2020 Jan 20. pii: S2213-2317(19)31455-7. [Epub ahead of print]30 101434
    Rousset F, Nacher-Soler G, Coelho M, Ilmjarv S, Kokje VBC, Marteyn A, Cambet Y, Perny M, Roccio M, Jaquet V, Senn P, Krause KH.
      Age-related hearing (ARHL) loss affects a large part of the human population with a major impact on our aging societies. Yet, underlying mechanisms are not understood, and no validated therapy or prevention exists. NADPH oxidases (NOX), are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cochlea and might therefore be involved in the pathogenesis of ARHL. Here we investigate ARHL in a mouse model. Wild type mice showed early loss of hearing and cochlear integrity, while animals deficient in the NOX subunit p22phox remained unaffected up to six months. Genes of the excitatory pathway were down-regulated in p22phox-deficient auditory neurons. Our results demonstrate that NOX activity leads to upregulation of genes of the excitatory pathway, to excitotoxic cochlear damage, and ultimately to ARHL. In the absence of functional NOXs, aging mice conserve hearing and cochlear morphology. Our study offers new insights into pathomechanisms and future therapeutic targets of ARHL.
    Keywords:  Age-related hearing loss; Auditory neurons; Excitotoxicity; Glutamatergic signaling; NADPH oxidase; Presbycusis
  6. Pharmacol Rep. 2018 Sep;70(5): 917-929
    Wang Y, Niu M, Yin S, Zhang F, Shi R.
      BACKGROUND: To evaluate the protective effect of nebivolol against kidney damage and elucidate the underlying mechanism in a two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) rat model.METHODS: 2K1C rats were obtained by clipping left renal artery of male Wistar rats and were considered hypertensive when systolic blood pressure (SBP) was ≥160 mmHg 4 weeks after surgery. The 2K1C hypertensive rats were divided into untreated, nebivolol (10 mg/kg, ig), and atenolol (80 mg/kg, ig) treatment groups. The treatments lasted for 8 weeks. SBP, kidney structure and function, plasma and kidney angiotensin (Ang) II, nitric oxide (NO), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and the oxidant status were examined. Kidney protein expression of NADPH oxidase (Nox) isoforms and its subunit p22phox, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms, protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT) 1, and dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) 1 and 2 was tested by western blotting.
    RESULTS: Nebivolol and atenolol exerted similar hypotensive effects. However, atenolol had little effect while nebivolol significantly ameliorated the functional decline and structural damage in the kidney, especially in non-clipped kidney (NCK), which was associated with the reduction of Ang II in NCK. Moreover, nebivolol inhibited the NCK production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by decreasing Nox2, Nox4, and p22phox expression. Further, nebivolol reduced the plasma and kidney ADMA levels by increasing DDAH2 expression and decreasing PRMT1 expression. Nebivolol also increased the NCK NO level by ameliorating the expression of kidney NOS isoforms.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that long-term treatment with nebivolol had renoprotective effect in 2K1C rats partly via regulation of kidney ROS-ADMA-NO pathway.
    Keywords:  2K1C hypertension; Kidney; Nebivolol; ROS-ADMA-NO pathway
  7. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2020 Jan;66(1): 15-23
    Takishita Y, Yasuda H, Shimizu M, Matsuo A, Morita A, Tsutsumi T, Tsuchiya M, Sato EF.
      Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation plays an important role in inflammatory diseases. Although it is known that NET formation occurs via NADPH oxidase (NOX)-dependent and NOX-independent pathways, the detailed mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to elucidate the role of mitochondria in NOX-dependent and NOX-independent NET formation. We generated mitochondrial DNA-deficient cells (ρ0 cells) by treating HL-60 cells with dideoxycytidine and differentiated them to neutrophil-like cells. These neutrophil-like ρ0 cells showed markedly reduced NOX-independent NET formation but not NOX-dependent NET formation. However, NET-associated intracellular histone citrullination was not inhibited in ρ0 cells. Furthermore, cells membrane disruption in NOX-dependent NET formation occurred in a Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and mixed lineage kinase domain like pseudokinase (MLKL)-dependent manner; however, cell membrane disruption in NOX-independent NET formation partially occurred in an MLKL-dependent manner. These results highlight the importance of mitochondria in NOX-independent NET formation.
    Keywords:  NETosis; mitochondria; neutrophil extracellular trap; peptidylarginine deiminase 4
  8. Sci Rep. 2020 Jan 31. 10(1): 1582
    Geng L, Fan LM, Liu F, Smith C, Li J-.
      Microglia express constitutively a Nox2 enzyme that is involved in neuroinflammation by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Amyloid β (Aβ) plays a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanism of Aβ-induced microglial dysfunction and redox-regulation of microgliosis in aging remains unclear. In this study, we examined Nox2-derived ROS in mediating microglial response to Aβ peptide 1-42 (Aβ42) stimulation in vitro, in aging-associated microgliosis in vivo and in post-mortem human samples. Compared to controls, Aβ42 markedly induced BV2 cell ROS production, Nox2 expression, p47phox and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, cell proliferation and IL-1β secretion. All these changes could be inhibited to the control levels in the presence of Nox2 inhibitor or superoxide scavenger. Compared to young (3-4 months) controls, midbrain tissues from wild-type aging mice (20-22 months) had significantly higher levels of Nox2-derived ROS production, Aβ deposition, microgliosis and IL-1β production. However, these aging-related changes were reduced or absent in Nox2 knockout aging mice. Clinical significance of aging-associated Nox2 activation, microgliosis and IL-1β production was investigated using post-mortem midbrain tissues of humans at young (25-38 years) and old age (61-85 years). In conclusion, Nox2-dependent redox-signalling is crucial in microglial response to Aβ42 stimulation and in aging-associated microgliosis and brain inflammation.
  9. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jan 26. pii: E808. [Epub ahead of print]21(3):
    Martinotti S, Patrone M, Balbo V, Mazzucco L, Ranzato E.
      Wound repair is a dynamic process during which crucial signaling pathways are regulated by growth factors and cytokines released by several kinds of cells directly involved in the healing process. However, the limited applications and heterogeneous clinical results of single growth factors in wound healing encouraged the use of a mixture of bioactive molecules such as platelet derivatives for best results in wound repair. An interesting platelet derivative, obtained from blood samples, is platelet lysate (PL), which has shown potential clinical application. PL is obtained from freezing and thawing of platelet-enriched blood samples. Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) signals play a central role in the control of endothelial cell survival, proliferation, motility, and differentiation. We investigated the role of Ca2+ signaling in the PL-driven endothelial healing process. In our experiments, the functional significance of Ca2+ signaling machinery was highlighted performing the scratch wound assay in presence of different inhibitors or specific RNAi. We also pointed out that the PL-induced generation of intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) via NOX4 (NADPH oxidase 4) is necessary for the activation of TRPM2 and the resulting Ca2+ entry from the extracellular space. This is the first report of the mechanism of wound repair in an endothelial cell model boosted by the PL-induced regulation of [Ca2+]i.
    Keywords:  ROS; cell calcium; endothelial cells; platelet lysate; wound repair
  10. Biomed Pharmacother. 2020 Jan 27. pii: S0753-3322(20)30050-0. [Epub ahead of print]124 109860
    Zuo ML, Wang AP, Song GL, Yang ZB.
      Ischemic stroke is a devastating central nervous disease associated with oxidative stress and NOX2 is the main source of ROS responsible for brain tissue. miRNAs are a class of negative regulator of genes in mammals and involves the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. This study aims to observe the role of target miRNA(miR-652) of NOX2 in ischemic stroke. A rat cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (CI/R) injury model and an SH-SY5Y cell hypoxia/reoxygenation(H/R) model were used to simulate ischemic stroke, and corresponding gene expression, biochemical indicators and pathophysiological indicators were measured to observe the role of miR-652. NOX2 significantly increased in brain tissues subjected to I/R or in SH-SY5Y cells subjected to H/R, while the expression level of miR-652(potential target of NOX2) significantly decreased in both brain tissues and plasma. Overexpression of miR-652 significantly suppressed NOX2 expression and ROS generation in H/R treated SH-SY5Y cells and reduced the relative luciferase activity of cells transfected with plasmid NOX2-WT (reporter gene plasmid). MiR-652 agomir significantly decreased the expression of NOX2 and ROS generation in brain tissues of CIR rats, as well as tissue injury. These data indicated that miR-652 protected rats from cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury by directly targeting NOX2, is a novel target for ischemic stroke therapy.
    Keywords:  Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury; NOX2; Oxidative stress; miR-652
  11. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2020 Jan 28.
    Griffiths HR, Rooney MCO, Perrie Y.
      Significance Anti-bacterial defence invokes the innate immune system as a first responder, with neutrophils phagocytosing and forming NETs around pathogens in a ROS-dependent manner. Increased NOX2 activity and mitochondrial ROS production in phagocytic, antigen-presenting cells affects local cytokine secretion and proteolysis of antigens for presentation to T cells at the immune synapse. Uncontrolled oxidative post-translational modifications to surface and cytoplasmic proteins in antigen presenting cells during ageing can impair innate immunity. Recent Advances NOX2 plays a role in the maturation of dendritic cells, but paradoxically, NOX2 activity has also been shown to promote viral pathogenicity. Accumulating evidence suggests that a reducing environment is essential to inhibit pathogen proliferation, facilitate antigenic processing in the endosomal lumen and enable an effective immune synapse between antigen presenting cells and T cells. This suggests that the kinetics and location of ROS production and reducing potential are important for effective innate immunity. Critical Issues During ageing, innate immune cells are less well able to phagocytose, kill bacteria/viruses and process proteins into antigenic peptides - three key steps that are necessary for developing a specific targeted response to protect against future exposure. Aberrant control of ROS production and impaired Nrf2-dependent reducing potential may contribute to age-associated immune decline. Future Directions Local changes in redox potential may be achieved through adjuvant formulations to improve innate immunity. Further work is needed to understand the timing of delivery for redox modulators to facilitate innate immune cell recruitment, survival, antigen processing and presentation activity without disrupting essential ROS-dependent bacterial killing.
  12. Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2020 Feb;17(1): 105-119
    Jung H, Kim HS, Lee JH, Lee JJ, Park HS.
      BACKGROUND: We first determined the efficacy of lesional injection of tonsil-derived MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) for the treatment of 5-fluorouracil induced oral mucositis.METHODS: Oral mucositis was induced in hamsters by administration of 5-fluorouracil (day 0, 2, 4) followed by mechanical trauma (day 1, 2, 4). The experimental groups included MT (mechanical trauma only), 5-FU + MT (mechanical trauma with 5-fluorouracil administration), TMSC (mechanical trauma with 5-fluorouracil administration, tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells injection), DEXA (mechanical trauma with 5-fluorouracil administration, dexamethasone injection), and saline (mechanical trauma with 5-fluorouracil administration, saline injection).
    RESULTS: On day 10, gross and histologic analyses showed that nearly complete healing and epithelialization of the cheek mucosa of the TMSC group, whereas the other groups showed definite ulcerative lesions. Compared with the MT and DEXA groups, CD31 expression was greater in the TMSC group on days 10 and 14. Tendency towards a decrease in MMP2 expression with the time in the TMSC group was observed. In addition, the TMSC group showed higher expression of TGF-β, and NOX4 on day 10 compared with the other groups. Scratch assay demonstrated that the conditioned media harvested from tonsil-derived MSCs significantly increased migratory efficacy of NIH3T3 cells. Transwell assay showed that the preferential migration of tonsil-derived MSCs to the wound area.
    CONCLUSION: Intralesional administration of tonsil-derived MSCs may accelerate wound healing of 5-fluorouracil induced oral mucositis by upregulating neovascularization and effective wound contraction. In addition, tonsil-derived MSCs might contribute to oral ulcer regeneration via the stimulation of fibroblast proliferation and migration.
    Keywords:  Mechanical trauma; Oral mucositis; Stem cells; Tonsil; Wound healing
  13. Free Radic Biol Med. 2020 Jan 23. pii: S0891-5849(19)32567-5. [Epub ahead of print]
    Iglesias DE, Cremonini E, Fraga CG, Oteiza PI.
      Chronic intestinal inflammation involves a cycle of oxidative stress, activation of redox sensitive transcription factors, and barrier permeabilization. The latter can lead to systemic inflammation and its associated co-morbidities. Diet can play a major role in the modulation of intestinal inflammation. Among plant bioactives, ellagic acid (EA) was reported to inhibit inflammatory bowel disease in animal models. This work investigated the mechanisms by which EA inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and loss of barrier integrity. Caco-2 cells differentiated into an intestinal epithelial cell monolayer were incubated with TNFα (10 ng/ml), in the presence of different EA concentrations. TNFα triggered interleukin (IL) 6 and 8 release into the medium, which was inhibited by EA in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 17.3 μM for IL-6). TNFα also led to: i) increased ICAM-1 and NLRP3 expression; ii) loss of epithelial barrier function; iii) increased oxidant production from NOX and mitochondrial origin; iv) NF-κB and ERK1/2 activation; and v) increased MLCK gene expression and MLC phosphorylation. EA (10-40 μM) inhibited all these adverse effects of TNFα. EA mainly acted through NF-κB and ERK1/2 inhibition, breaking the cycle of inflammation, oxidative stress, redox-sensitive pathway (e.g. NF-κB, ERK1/2) activation and intestinal permeabilization. This suggests that consumption of EA, via foods or supplements, may afford a strategy to mitigate intestinal inflammation and its associated co-morbidities.
    Keywords:  ERK1/2 activation; Intestinal barrier permeabilization; Intestinal inflammation; Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK); NF-κB activation; Oxidative stress; Tight junction