bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2019‒11‒17
eleven papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University

  1. BMC Cancer. 2019 Nov 09. 19(1): 1078
    Cho SY, Kim S, Son MJ, Kim G, Singh P, Kim HN, Choi HG, Yoo HJ, Ko YB, Lee BS, Eun HS.
      BACKGROUND: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) not only can promote cancer progression, but also they have recently emerged as mediators of the mucosal immune system. However, the roles and clinical relevance of the collective or individual NADPH oxidase (NOX) family genes in cervical cancer have not been studied.METHODS: We investigated the clinical significance of the NOX family genes using data from 307 patients with cervical cancer obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Bioinformatics and experimental analyses were performed to examine NOX family genes in cervical cancer patients.
    RESULTS: Dual Oxidase1 (DUOX1) and Dual Oxidase 2 (DUOX2) mRNA levels were upregulated 57.9- and 67.5-fold, respectively, in cervical cancer patients. The protein expression of DUOX1, DUOX2, and NOX2 also identified in cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissues. Especially, DUOX1 and DUOX2 mRNA levels were significantly increased in patients infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16. Moreover, high DUOX1 mRNA levels were significantly associated with both favorable overall survival and disease-free survival in cervical cancer patients. High NOX2 mRNA levels was significantly associated with favorable overall survival. Gene set enrichment analyses revealed that high DUOX1 and NOX2 expression was significantly correlated with the enrichment of immune pathways related to interferon (IFN)-alpha, IFN-gamma, and natural killer (NK) cell signaling. Cell-type identification by estimating relative subsets of known RNA transcript analyses indicated that the fraction of innate immune cells, including NK cells, monocytes, dendritic cells, and mast cells, was elevated in patients with high DUOX1 expression.
    CONCLUSIONS: DUOX1 and NOX2 expression are associated with mucosal immunity activated in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and predicts a favorable prognosis in cervical cancer patients.
    Keywords:  Disease-free survival; Dual oxidases; NADPH oxidases; Papillomaviridae; Survival; Uterine cervical neoplasms
  2. Methods Mol Biol. 2020 ;2087 325-411
    Pick E.
      The superoxide (O2 ·-)-generating NADPH oxidase complex of phagocytes comprises a membrane-associated heterodimeric flavocytochrome, known as cytochrome b 558 (consisting of NOX2 and p22phox) and four cytosolic regulatory proteins, p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and the small GTPase Rac. Under physiological conditions, in the resting phagocyte, O2 ·- generation is initiated by engagement of membrane receptors by a variety of stimuli, followed by signal transduction sequences leading to the translocation of the cytosolic components to the membrane and their association with the cytochrome, a process known as NADPH oxidase assembly. A consequent conformational change in NOX2 initiates the electron flow along a redox gradient, from NADPH to molecular oxygen (O2), leading to the one-electron reduction of O2 to O2 ·-. Historically, methodological difficulties in the study of the assembled complex derived from stimulated cells, due to its lack of stability, led to the design of "cell-free" systems (also known as "broken cells" or in vitro systems). In a major paradigm shift, the cell-free systems have as their starting point NADPH oxidase components derived from resting (unstimulated) phagocytes, or as in the predominant method at present, recombinant proteins representing the components of the NADPH oxidase complex. In cell-free systems, membrane receptor stimulation and the signal transduction sequence are absent, the accent being placed on the actual process of assembly, all of which takes place in vitro. Thus, a mixture of the individual components of the NADPH oxidase is exposed in vitro to an activating agent, the most common being anionic amphiphiles, resulting in the formation of a complex between cytochrome b 558 and the cytosolic components and O2 ·- generation in the presence of NADPH. Alternative activating pathways require posttranslational modification of oxidase components or modifying the phospholipid milieu surrounding cytochrome b 558. Activation is commonly quantified by measuring the primary product of the reaction, O2 ·-, trapped immediately after its generation by an appropriate acceptor in a kinetic assay, permitting the calculation of rates of O2 ·- production, but numerous variations exist, based on the assessment of reaction products or the consumption of substrates. Cell-free assays played a paramount role in the identification and characterization of the components of the NADPH oxidase complex, the performance of structure-function studies, the deciphering of the mechanisms of assembly, the search for inhibitory drugs, and the diagnosis of various forms of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD).
    Keywords:  Anionic amphiphile; Arachidonic acid; Cell-free assays; Cytochrome b 558; Cytosolic components; GTP; Kinetic assay; NADPH oxidase; NOX2; NOXes; Prenylation; Rac; Reactive oxygen species; Superoxide; Superoxide dismutase; p47phox; p67phox; “Peptide walking”
  3. Redox Biol. 2019 Nov 02. pii: S2213-2317(19)30987-5. [Epub ahead of print]28 101363
    Yen WC, Wu YH, Wu CC, Lin HR, Stern A, Chen SH, Shu JC, Tsun-Yee Chiu D.
      Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway that modulates cellular redox homeostasis via the regeneration of NADPH. G6PD-deficient cells have a reduced ability to induce the innate immune response, thus increasing host susceptibility to pathogen infections. An important part of the immune response is the activation of the inflammasome. G6PD-deficient peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients and human monocytic (THP-1) cells were used as models to investigate whether G6PD modulates inflammasome activation. A decreased expression of IL-1β was observed in both G6PD-deficient PBMCs and PMA-primed G6PD-knockdown (G6PD-kd) THP-1 cells upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or LPS/nigericin stimulation. The pro-IL-1β expression of THP-1 cells was decreased by G6PD knockdown at the transcriptional and translational levels in an investigation of the expression of the inflammasome subunits. The phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and downstream c-Fos expression were decreased upon G6PD knockdown, accompanied by decreased AP-1 translocation into the nucleus. Impaired inflammasome activation in G6PD-kd THP-1 cells was mediated by a decrease in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NOX signaling, while treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) enhanced inflammasome activation in G6PD-kd THP-1 cells. G6PD knockdown decreased Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli clearance in G6PD-kd THP-1 cells and G6PD-deficient PBMCs following inflammasome activation. These findings support the notion that enhanced pathogen susceptibility in G6PD deficiency is, in part, due to an altered redox signaling, which adversely affects inflammasome activation and the bactericidal response.
    Keywords:  Bactericidal response; G6PD; IL-1β; Inflammasome; NADPH oxidase; Redox homeostasis
  4. J Cell Sci. 2019 Nov 13. pii: jcs.236539. [Epub ahead of print]
    Schoen TJ, Rosowski EE, Knox BP, Bennin D, Keller NP, Huttenlocher A.
      Neutrophils are primary cells of the innate immune system that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mediate host defense. Deficient phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX) function leads to chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) that is characterized by invasive infections including those by the generally non-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus nidulans The role of neutrophil ROS in this specific host-pathogen interaction remains unclear. Here, we exploit the optical transparency of zebrafish to image the effects of neutrophil ROS on invasive fungal growth and neutrophil behavior in response to Aspergillus nidulans In a wild-type host, A. nidulans germinates rapidly and elicits a robust inflammatory response with efficient fungal clearance. PHOX-deficient larvae have increased susceptibility to invasive A. nidulans infection despite robust neutrophil infiltration. Expression of p22phox specifically in neutrophils does not affect fungal germination but instead limits the area of fungal growth and excessive neutrophil inflammation and is sufficient to restore host survival in p22phox-deficient larvae. These findings suggest that neutrophil ROS limits invasive fungal growth and has immunomodulatory activities that contribute to the specific susceptibility of PHOX-deficient hosts to invasive A. nidulans infection.
    Keywords:  Aspergillus; Chronic granulomatous disease; Neutrophils; Phagocyte oxidase/reactive oxygen species; Zebrafish
  5. Hepatology. 2019 Nov 09.
    Hwang S, He Y, Xiang X, Seo W, Kim SJ, Ma J, Ren T, Park SH, Zhou Z, Feng D, Kunos G, Gao B.
      Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of diseases ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and liver cancer. At present, how simple steatosis progresses to NASH remains obscure and effective pharmacological therapies are lacking. Hepatic expression of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), a key chemokine for neutrophil infiltration (a hallmark of NASH), is highly elevated in NASH patients but not in fatty livers in obese individuals or in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Here we demonstrate that overexpression of Cxcl1 in the liver alone promotes steatosis-to-NASH progression in HFD-fed mice by inducing neutrophil infiltration, oxidative stress, and stress kinase (such as ASK1 and p38MAPK) activation. Myeloid cell-specific deletion of the neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (Ncf1)/p47phox gene, which encodes a component of the NADPH oxidase 2 complex that mediates neutrophil oxidative burst, markedly reduced CXCL1-induced NASH and stress kinase activation in HFD-fed mice. Treatment with interleukin (IL)-22, a cytokine with multiple targets, ameliorated CXCL1/HFD-induced NASH or methionine-choline deficient diet-induced NASH in mice. Mechanistically, IL-22 blocked hepatic oxidative stress and its associated stress kinases via the induction of metallothionein, one of the most potent antioxidant proteins. Moreover, although it does not target immune cells, IL-22 treatment attenuated the inflammatory functions of hepatocyte-derived, mitochondrial DNA-enriched extracellular vesicles, thereby suppressing liver inflammation in NASH. CONCLUSION: Hepatic overexpression of CXCL1 is sufficient to drive steatosis-to-NASH progression in HFD-fed mice through neutrophil-derived reactive oxygen species and activation of stress kinases, which can be reversed by IL-22 treatment via the induction of metallothionein.
    Keywords:  Inflammation; extracellular vesicles; mitochondrial DNA; oxidative stress
  6. Free Radic Biol Med. 2019 Nov 12. pii: S0891-5849(19)31603-X. [Epub ahead of print]
    Abais-Battad JM, Lund H, Dasinger JH, Fehrenbach DJ, Cowley AW, Mattson DL.
      Previous studies utilizing the SSp67phox-/- rat have demonstrated the importance of systemic NADPH oxidase NOX2-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the pathogenesis of Dahl Salt-Sensitive (SS) hypertension and renal damage. It is established that the immune system contributes to the development of SS hypertension and our laboratory has observed an enrichment of NOX2 subunits in infiltrating T cells. However, the contribution of immune cell-derived ROS in SS hypertension remains unknown. To assess the role of ROS in immune cells, SSp67phox-/- rats underwent total body irradiation and received bone marrow transfer from either SS (+SS) or SSp67phox-/- (+SSp67phox-/-) donor rats. Demonstrated in a respiratory burst assay, response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulus (135 μM) was 10.2-fold greater in peritoneal macrophages isolated from +SS rats compared to nonresponsive + SSp67phox-/- cells, validating that + SS rats were capable of producing NOX2-derived ROS in cells of hematopoietic origin. After 3 weeks of high salt challenge, there was an exacerbated increase in mean arterial pressure in +SS rats compared to + SSp67phox-/- control rats (176.1 ± 4.7 vs 147.9 ± 8.4 mmHg, respectively), which was accompanied by a significant increase in albuminuria (168.3 ± 23.7 vs 107.0 ± 20.4 mg/day) and renal medullary protein cast formation (33.2 ± 4.7 vs 8.1 ± 3.5%). Interestingly, upon analysis of renal immune cells, there was trending increase of CD11b/c + monocytes and macrophages in the kidney of +SS rats (4.7 ± 0.4 vs 3.5 ± 0.5 × 106 cells/kidney, +SS vs + SSp67phox-/-, p = 0.06). These data altogether demonstrate that immune cell production of NOX2-derived ROS is sufficient to exacerbate Dahl SS hypertension, renal damage, and renal inflammation.
    Keywords:  Hypertension; Immune cells; NADPH oxidase; Reactive oxygen species; Renal damage; p67phox
  7. Eur Heart J. 2019 Nov 13. pii: ehz772. [Epub ahead of print]
    Kuntic M, Oelze M, Steven S, Kröller-Schön S, Stamm P, Kalinovic S, Frenis K, Vujacic-Mirski K, Bayo Jimenez MT, Kvandova M, Filippou K, Al Zuabi A, Brückl V, Hahad O, Daub S, Varveri F, Gori T, Huesmann R, Hoffmann T, Schmidt FP, Keaney JF, Daiber A, Münzel T.
      AIMS: Electronic (e)-cigarettes have been marketed as a 'healthy' alternative to traditional combustible cigarettes and as an effective method of smoking cessation. There are, however, a paucity of data to support these claims. In fact, e-cigarettes are implicated in endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the vasculature and the lungs. The mechanisms underlying these side effects remain unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of e-cigarette vapour on vascular function in smokers and experimental animals to determine the underlying mechanisms.METHODS AND RESULTS: Acute e-cigarette smoking produced a marked impairment of endothelial function in chronic smokers determined by flow-mediated dilation. In mice, e-cigarette vapour without nicotine had more detrimental effects on endothelial function, markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid peroxidation than vapour containing nicotine. These effects of e-cigarette vapour were largely absent in mice lacking phagocytic NADPH oxidase (NOX-2) or upon treatment with the endothelin receptor blocker macitentan or the FOXO3 activator bepridil. We also established that the e-cigarette product acrolein, a reactive aldehyde, recapitulated many of the NOX-2-dependent effects of e-cigarette vapour using in vitro blood vessel incubation.
    CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarette vapour exposure increases vascular, cerebral, and pulmonary oxidative stress via a NOX-2-dependent mechanism. Our study identifies the toxic aldehyde acrolein as a key mediator of the observed adverse vascular consequences. Thus, e-cigarettes have the potential to induce marked adverse cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cerebrovascular consequences. Since e-cigarette use is increasing, particularly amongst youth, our data suggest that aggressive steps are warranted to limit their health risks.
    Keywords:   Oxidative stress; Behavioural risk factor; E-cigarette vapour; Endothelial dysfunction; Lifestyle drug
  8. Adipocyte. 2019 Dec;8(1): 347-356
    Wu C, Zhang H, Zhang J, Zhang H, Zeng Y, Fang S, Li P, Zhang Y, Lin X, Wang L, Xue Y, Guan M.
      Although much is known about that corticosteroids affect the functions of adipose tissues, little genetic information is available for perirenal adipose tissue (peri-N) from patients with cortisol-producing adenoma (CPA). We conducted microarray analysis of peri-N from patients with CPA by using an Affymetrix human U133 plus 2.0 array. We also analysed the inflammation, fibrosis and oxidative stress in vitro. Compared with normotension (NT) group, CPA group has significantly higher protein levels of TNFα, IL-6, fibronectin (FN) and collagen I (COLI). The protein level of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) significantly increased, while nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels were significantly reduced in the CPA group. Dexamethasone markedly induced fibrosis and adipogenesis-related gene expression in predifferentiated stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and brown preadipocytes. Chronic exposure to endogenous glucocorticoids due to CPA increases peri-N oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis, which may contribute to the metabolic disturbances associated with hypercortisolism in these patients.
    Keywords:  Cushing’s syndrome; adipose tissue; fibrosis; inflammation; microarray; oxidative stress
  9. Free Radic Biol Med. 2019 Nov 09. pii: S0891-5849(19)31298-5. [Epub ahead of print]
    Tomko N, Kluever M, Wu C, Zhu J, Wang Y, Salomon RG.
      Previously, we discovered that free radical-induced oxidative fragmentation of the docosahexaenoate ester of 2-lysophosphatidylcholine produces 4-hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoic acid (HOHA) lactone that, in turn, promotes the migration and invasion of endothelial cells. This suggested that HOHA lactone might similarly promote migration and invasion of glioblastoma multiformae (GBM) brain cancer stem cells (CSCs). A bioinformatics analysis of clinical cancer genomic data revealed that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)1 and three markers of oxidative stress - superoxide dismutase 2, NADPH oxidase 4, and carbonic anhydrase 9 - are upregulated in human mesenchymal GBM cancer tissue, and that MMP1 is positively correlated to all three of these oxidative stress markers. In addition, elevated levels of MMP1 are indicative of GBM invasion, while low levels of MMP1 indicate survival. We also explored the hypothesis that the transition from the proneural to the more aggressive mesenchymal phenotype, e.g., after treatment with an anti-angiogenic therapy, is promoted by the effects of lipid oxidation products on GBM CSCs. We found that low micromolar concentrations of HOHA lactone increase the cell migration velocity of cultured GBM CSCs, and induce the expression of MMP1 and two protein biomarkers of the proneural to mesenchymal transition (PMT): p65 NF-κβ and vimentin. Exposure of cultured GBM CSCs to HOHA lactone causes an increase in phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt kinases that are dependent on both protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) and MMP1 activity. We conclude that HOHA lactone promotes the PMT in GBM through the activation of PAR1 and MMP1. This contributes to a fatal flaw in antiangiogenic, chemo, and radiation therapies: they promote oxidative stress and the generation of HOHA lactone in the tumor that fosters a change from the proliferative proneural to the migratory mesenchymal GBM CSC phenotype that seeds new tumor growth. Inhibition of PAR1 and HOHA lactone are potential new therapeutic targets for impeding GBM tumor recurrence.
    Keywords:  4-Hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoic acid lactone; 4-Hydroxynon-2-enal; Brain cancer; Cancer stem cells; Glioblastoma multiforme; Hypoxia; Matrix metalloprotease; NF-κβ p65; NOX4; Oxidative stress; PAR1; Proneural to mesenchymal transition; SOD; Vimentin
  10. Methods Mol Biol. 2020 ;2087 215-222
    Bedouhène S, Dang PM, Hurtado-Nedelec M, El-Benna J.
      Neutrophils play a pivotal role in innate immunity and in the inflammatory reactions. Upon activation, neutrophils release several toxic molecules directed against microbial pathogens into the phagosome. These molecules include reactive oxygen species (ROS), myeloperoxidase, glucosidases, proteases, and antibacterial peptides. In resting cells these proteins and the enzyme responsible for ROS production (NOX2) are stored inside or at the membranes of different granules called azurophil or primary, specific or secondary, gelatinase or tertiary, and the secretory vesicles. Each granule has a specific density, content, and markers. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is the azurophil granule marker, and the neutrophil-gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is the specific granule marker. After cell activation by different stimuli, granule contents are released into the phagosome or in the extracellular space through a process called degranulation. Also during this process, membrane granules fuse with the phagosome and plasma membrane allowing expression of new markers at the cell surface. The degranulation can be assessed by measuring either the release of different proteins by neutrophils or the expression of granule markers at the plasma membrane. In this chapter, we describe the techniques used to measure degranulation of azurophil and specific neutrophil granules using different approaches such as measurement of MPO enzymatic activity and detection of MPO and NGAL proteins by SDS-PAGE and Western blot.
    Keywords:  Azurophil granules; Degranulation; Myeloperoxidase; NGAL; Neutrophils; Specific granules
  11. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2019 Oct 01. pii: S0165-2427(18)30442-2. [Epub ahead of print]219 109956
    Hofstetter AR, Sacco RE.
      Studies in mouse and lamb models indicate important roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathology and immune response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The role of ROS in bovine RSV (BRSV) infection of calves remains unclear. BRSV naturally infects calves, leading to similar disease course, micro- and macro-lesions, and symptomology as is observed in RSV infection of human neonates. Furthermore, humans, lambs, and calves, but not mice, have an active lung oxidative system involving lactoperoxidase (LPO) and the dual oxidases (DUOX) 1 and 2. To gain insight into the role of ROS in the BRSV-infected lung, we examined gene expression in infected bovine cells using qPCR. A panel of 19 primers was used to assay ex vivo and in vitro BRSV-infected cells. The panel targeted genes involved in both production and regulation of ROS. BRSV infection significantly increased transcription of five genes in bovine respiratory tract cells in vitro and ex vivo. PTGS2 expression more than doubled in both sample types. Four transcripts varied significantly in lung lesions, but not non-lesion samples, compared with uninfected lung. This is the first report of the transcriptional profile of ROS-related genes in the airway after BRSV infection in the natural host.
    Keywords:  Bovine turbinate cells; Cows; Cyclooxygenase-2; Lung; Quantitative PCR; Reactive oxygen species; Respiratory syncytial virus