bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2019‒10‒27
ten papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University

  1. Redox Biol. 2019 Oct 04. pii: S2213-2317(19)30951-6. [Epub ahead of print]28 101338
    Manea SA, Vlad ML, Fenyo IM, Lazar AG, Raicu M, Muresian H, Simionescu M, Manea A.
      NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are instrumental in all inflammatory phases of atherosclerosis. Dysregulated histone deacetylase (HDAC)-related epigenetic pathways have been mechanistically linked to alterations in gene expression in experimental models of cardiovascular disorders. Hitherto, the relation between HDAC and Nox in atherosclerosis is not known. We aimed at uncovering whether HDAC plays a role in mediating Nox up-regulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, and atherosclerotic lesion progression. Human non-atherosclerotic and atherosclerotic arterial samples, ApoE-/- mice, and in vitro polarized monocyte-derived M1/M2-macrophages (Mac) were examined. Male ApoE-/- mice, maintained on normal or high-fat, cholesterol-rich diet, were randomized to receive 10 mg/kg suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a pan-HDAC inhibitor, or its vehicle, for 4 weeks. In the human/animal studies, real-time PCR, Western blot, lipid staining, lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were employed. The protein levels of class I, class IIa, class IIb, and class IV HDAC isoenzymes were significantly elevated both in human atherosclerotic tissue samples and in atherosclerotic aorta of ApoE-/- mice. Treatment of ApoE-/- mice with SAHA reduced significantly the extent of atherosclerotic lesions, and the aortic expression of Nox subtypes, NADPH-stimulated ROS production, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory markers. Significantly up-regulated HDAC and Nox subtypes were detected in inflammatory M1-Mac. In these cells, SAHA reduced the Nox1/2/4 transcript levels. Collectively, HDAC inhibition reduced atherosclerotic lesion progression in ApoE-/- mice, possibly by intertwined mechanisms involving negative regulation of Nox expression and inflammation. The data propose that HDAC-oriented pharmacological interventions could represent an effective therapeutic strategy in atherosclerosis.
    Keywords:  Atherosclerosis; Epigenetics; Histone deacetylase; NADPH oxidase; Oxidative stress
  2. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2019 Aug;70(4):
    Vrankova S, Zemancikova A, Torok J, Pechanova O.
      Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH) oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability lead to vascular dysfunction and development of hypertension. The goal of our study was to analyze an effect of salt diet and NO synthase (NOS) inhibition with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on blood pressure (BP), arterial reactivity, NO production, as well as ROS level in adult rats pretreated with low dose of L-NAME (2 mg/kg/day) for three weeks. Higher dose of L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day), or salt diet (8% NaCl), or combination of both were applied for the following four weeks. The administration of L-NAME in low dose had no effect on BP but enhanced the expression of eNOS. Both higher dose of L-NAME and salt diet elevated BP, decreased NOS activity, and impaired the endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation. However, salt diet did not increase ROS production and sympathoadrenergic arterial contractions in low dose L-NAME-pretreated rats. Combination of salt diet with higher dose of L-NAME did not evoke additive decrease of NOS activity, but it caused elevation of conjugated dienes (CD) concentration and NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox-2) protein expression. In conclusion, these findings indicate that chronic low dose of L-NAME treatment has a potential to trigger adapting mechanisms to attenuate some cardiovascular disorders.
  3. Inflammation. 2019 Oct 23.
    Nagarkoti S, Dubey M, Sadaf S, Awasthi D, Chandra T, Jagavelu K, Kumar S, Dikshit M.
      Neutrophil survival and oxidative stress during inflammatory conditions are linked to tissue damage. The present study explores less understood role of catalase, the enzyme catalysing hydrogen peroxide decomposition, in neutrophil survival/death. Importantly, inhibition of catalase activity following S-glutathionylation in the PMA, NO, or zymosan-activated neutrophils or treatment with catalase inhibitor led to neutrophil death. On the contrary, introducing reducing environment by TCEP rescued catalase activity and significantly improved neutrophil survival. Furthermore, augmentation in ROS generation by NOX-2 activation or induction of mitochondrial ROS by Antimycin-A induced catalase S-glutathionylation and cell death, which was prevented in the neutrophil cytosolic factor1 (NCF-1-/-) cells or was rescued by MitoTEMPO, a mitochondrial ROS scavenger, thus, suggesting a correlation between catalase S-glutathionylation/activity inhibition and reduced neutrophil survival. Altogether, enhanced NOX2 activation/mitochondrial dysfunction led to reduced survival of human and mice neutrophils, due to H2O2 accumulation, S-glutathionylation of catalase, and reduction in its enzymatic activity. The present study thus demonstrated mitigation of catalase activity under oxidative stress-impacted neutrophil survival.
    Keywords:  3-aminotriazole; Antimycin-A; Catalase S-glutathionylation; MitoTEMPO; Mitochondrial ROS; NADPH oxidase; Neutrophil survival
  4. J Mol Biol. 2019 Oct 18. pii: S0022-2836(19)30608-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    Roma LP, Jonas JC.
      Insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells play a critical role in blood glucose homeostasis and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the context of insulin resistance. Based on data obtained at the whole cell level using poorly specific chemical probes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) like superoxide and hydrogen peroxide have been proposed to contribute to the stimulation of insulin secretion by nutrients (positive role) and to the alterations of cell survival and secretory function in T2D (negative role). This raised the controversial hypothesis that any attempt to decrease β-cell oxidative stress and apoptosis in T2D would further impair insulin secretion. Over the last decade, the development of genetically-encoded redox probes that can be targeted to cellular compartments of interest and are specific of redox couples allowed the evaluation of short- and long-term effects of nutrients on β-cell redox changes at the subcellular level. The data indicated that the nutrient regulation of β-cell redox signaling and ROS toxicity is far more complex than previously thought, and that the subcellular compartmentation of these processes cannot be neglected when evaluating the mechanisms of ROS production or the efficacy of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant drugs under glucolipotoxic conditions and in T2D. In this review, we present what is currently known about the compartmentation of redox homeostatic systems and tools to investigate it. We then review data about the effects of nutrients on β-cell subcellular redox state under normal conditions and in the context of T2D, and discuss challenges and opportunities in the field.
    Keywords:  HyPer; Subcellular compartments; glucolipotoxicity; glucose-stimulated insulin secretion; roGFP
  5. Redox Biol. 2019 Oct 13. pii: S2213-2317(19)30721-9. [Epub ahead of print]28 101344
    Xie K, Varatnitskaya M, Maghnouj A, Bader V, Winklhofer KF, Hahn S, Leichert LI.
      Neutrophils produce a cocktail of oxidative species during the so-called oxidative burst to attack phagocytized bacteria. However, little is known about the neutrophils' redox homeostasis during the oxidative burst and there is currently no consensus about the interplay between oxidative species and cellular signaling, e.g. during the initiation of the production of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Using the genetically encoded redox sensor roGFP2, expressed in the cytoplasm of the neutrophil-like cell line PLB-985, we saw that stimulation by both PMA and E. coli resulted in oxidation of the thiol residues in this probe. In contrast to the redox state of phagocytized bacteria, which completely breaks down, the neutrophils' cytoplasmic redox state switched from its intital -318 ± 6 mV to a new, albeit higher oxidized, steady state of -264 ± 5 mV in the presence of bacteria. This highly significant oxidation of the cytosol (p value = 7 × 10-5) is dependent on NOX2 activity, but independent of the most effective thiol oxidant produced in neutrophils, MPO-derived HOCl. While the shift in the intracellular redox potential is correlated with effective NETosis, it is, by itself not sufficient: Inhibition of MPO, while not affecting the cytosolic oxidation, significantly decreased NETosis. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K, which abrogates cytosolic oxidation, did not fully prevent NETosis induced by phagocytosis of bacteria. Thus, we conclude that NET-formation is regulated in a multifactorial way, in part by changes of the cytosolic thiol redox homeostasis in neutrophils, depending on the circumstance under which the generation of NETs was initiated.
  6. Mol Cancer Res. 2019 Oct 22. pii: molcanres.0691.2019. [Epub ahead of print]
    Yang WH, Huang Z, Wu J, Ding CC, Murphy SK, Chi JT.
      Ovarian cancer (OVCA) is the deadliest gynecologic cancer. Despite recent advances, clinical outcomes remain poor, necessitating novel therapeutic approaches. To investigate metabolic susceptibility, we performed nutrigenetic screens on a panel of clear-cell and serous OVCA cells and identified cystine addiction and vulnerability to ferroptosis, a novel form of regulated cell death. Our results may have therapeutic potential, but little is known about the determinants of ferroptosis susceptibility in OVCA. We found that vulnerability to ferroptosis in OVCA cells is enhanced by lower cell confluency. Since the Hippo pathway effectors YAP/TAZ are recognized as sensors of cell density, and TAZ is the predominant effector in the tested OVCA cell lines, we investigated the role of TAZ in ferroptosis of OVCA. TAZ removal confers ferroptosis resistance, while TAZS89A overexpression sensitizes cells to ferroptosis. In addition, we found that lower TAZ level in chemo-resistant recurrent OVCA is responsible for reduced ferroptosis susceptibility. The integrative genomic analysis identified ANGPTL4 as a direct TAZ-regulated target gene that sensitizes ferroptosis by activating NOX2. Collectively, cell density-regulated ferroptosis in OVCA is mediated by TAZ through the regulation of the ANGPTL4-NOX2 axis, suggesting therapeutic potentials for OVCAs and other TAZ-activated tumors. Implications: This study reveals that TAZ promotes ferroptosis in ovarian cancers by regulating ANGPTL4 and NOX, offering a novel therapeutic potential for ovarian tumors with TAZ activation.
  7. Front Cell Neurosci. 2019 ;13 444
    Dhukhwa A, Bhatta P, Sheth S, Korrapati K, Tieu C, Mamillapalli C, Ramkumar V, Mukherjea D.
      Noise trauma is the most common cause of hearing loss in adults. There are no known FDA approved drugs for prevention or rescue of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). In this study, we provide evidence that implicates stress signaling molecules (TRPV1, NOX3, and TNF-α) in NIHL. Furthermore, we provide evidence that inhibiting any one of these moieties can prevent and treat NIHL when administered within a window period. Hearing loss induced by loud noise is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased calcium (Ca2+) in the endolymph and hair cells, and increased inflammation in the cochlea. Increased (Ca2+) and ROS activity persists for several days after traumatic noise exposure (NE). Chronic increases in (Ca2+) and ROS have been shown to increase inflammation and apoptosis in various tissue. However, the precise role of Ca2+ up-regulation and the resulting inflammation causing a positive feedback loop in the noise-exposed cochlea to generate sustained toxic amounts of Ca2+ are unknown. Here we show cochlear TRPV1 dysregulation is a key step in NIHL, and that inflammatory TNF-α cytokine-mediated potentiation of TRPV1 induced Ca2+ entry is an essential mechanism of NIHL. In the Wistar rat model, noise produces an acute (within 48 h) and a chronic (within 21 days) increase in cochlear gene expression of TRPV1, NADPH oxidase 3 (NOX3) and pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2). Additionally, we also show that H2O2 (100 μM) produces a robust increase in Ca2+ entry in cell cultures which is enhanced by TNF-α via the TRPV1 channel and which involves ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Mitigation of NIHL could be achieved by using capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist that rapidly desensitizes TRPV1. This mechanism is used in the treatment of pain in diabetic peripheral neuropathy) pretreatment or by inhibition of TNF-α with Etanercept (ETA), administered up to 7 days prior to NE or within 24 h of noise. Our results demonstrate the importance of the synergistic interaction between TNF-α and TRPV1 in the cochlea and suggest that these are important therapeutic targets for treating NIHL.
    Keywords:  Etanercept; TNF-α; TRPV1; capsaicin; cochlea; hearing loss; inflammation; noise exposure
  8. Glia. 2019 Oct 24.
    Dos-Santos-Pereira M, Guimarães FS, Del-Bel E, Raisman-Vozari R, Michel PP.
      We used mouse microglial cells in culture activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 ng/ml) to study the anti-inflammatory potential of cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive component of cannabis. Under LPS stimulation, CBD (1-10 μM) potently inhibited the release of prototypical proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and that of glutamate, a noncytokine mediator of inflammation. The effects of CBD were predominantly receptor-independent and only marginally blunted by blockade of CB2 receptors. We established that CBD inhibited a mechanism involving, sequentially, NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production and NF-κB-dependent signaling events. In line with these observations, active concentrations of CBD demonstrated an intrinsic free-radical scavenging capacity in the cell-free DPPH assay. Of interest, CBD also prevented the rise in glucose uptake observed in microglial cells challenged with LPS, as did the inhibitor of NADPH oxidase apocynin and the inhibitor of IκB kinase-2, TPCA-1. This indicated that the capacity of CBD to prevent glucose uptake also contributed to its anti-inflammatory activity. Supporting this view, the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) mimicked the antioxidant/immunosuppressive effects of CBD. Interestingly, CBD and 2-DG, as well as apocynin and TPCA-1 caused a reduction in glucose-derived NADPH, a cofactor required for NADPH oxidase activation and ROS generation. These different observations suggest that CBD exerts its anti-inflammatory effects towards microglia through an intrinsic antioxidant effect, which is amplified through inhibition of glucose-dependent NADPH synthesis. These results also further confirm that CBD may have therapeutic utility in conditions where neuroinflammatory processes are prominent.
    Keywords:  NADPH oxidase; cannabidiol; glucose metabolism; microglia; neuroinflammation; oxidative stress
  9. Cells. 2019 Oct 22. pii: E1299. [Epub ahead of print]8(10):
    Valls-Lacalle L, Negre-Pujol C, Rodríguez C, Varona S, Valera-Cañellas A, Consegal M, Martínez-González J, Rodríguez-Sinovas A.
      Abstract: Connexin 43 (Cx43) is essential for cardiac electrical coupling, but its effects on myocardial fibrosis is controversial. Here, we analyzed the role of Cx43 in myocardial fibrosis caused by angiotensin II (AngII) using Cx43fl/fl and Cx43Cre-ER(T)/fl inducible knock-out (Cx43 content: 50%) mice treated with vehicle or 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) to induce a Cre-ER(T)-mediated global deletion of the Cx43 floxed allele. Myocardial collagen content was enhanced by AngII in all groups (n = 8-10/group, p < 0.05). However, animals with partial Cx43 deficiency (vehicle-treated Cx43Cre-ER(T)/fl) had a significantly higher AngII-induced collagen accumulation that reverted when treated with 4-OHT, which abolished Cx43 expression. The exaggerated fibrotic response to AngII in partially deficient Cx43Cre-ER(T)/fl mice was associated with enhanced p38 MAPK activation and was not evident in Cx43 heterozygous (Cx43+/-) mice. In contrast, normalization of interstitial collagen in 4-OHT-treated Cx43Cre-ER(T)/fl animals correlated with enhanced MMP-9 activity, IL-6 and NOX2 mRNA expression, and macrophage content, and with reduced -SMA and SM22 in isolated fibroblasts. In conclusion, our data demonstrates an exaggerated, p38 MAPK-dependent, fibrotic response to AngII in partially deficient Cx43Cre-ER(T)/fl mice, and a paradoxical normalization of collagen deposition in animals with an almost complete Cx43 ablation, an effect associated with increased MMP-9 activity and inflammatory response and reduced fibroblasts differentiation.
    Keywords:  angiotensin II; collagen; connexin 43; fibrosis; hypertrophy
  10. Cell Biol Int. 2019 Oct 21.
    Muthuramalingam K, Cho M, Kim Y.
      With poor prognosis and aberrant lung remodeling, pulmonary fibrosis exhibits worldwide prevalence accompanied by increase in burden in terms of hospitalization and death. Apart from genetic and non-genetic factors, fibrosis occurs as a side effect of bleomycin antineoplastic activity. Elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanism could help in the development of effective anti-fibrotic treatment strategies. In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism behind bleomycin-induced fibrosis using human alveolar epithelial cells (A549 cells). Based on the experimental observation, it was demonstrated that with TGF-β as a central mediator of fibrosis progression, a cross-talk between epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and senescence upon bleomycin treatment occurs. This results in the advancement of this serious fibrotic condition. Fibrosis was initiated through integrin activation and imbalance in the redox state (NOX expression) of the cell. It progressed along TGF-β-mediated non-canonical pathway (via ERK phosphorylation) followed by upregulation of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen synthesis. Additionally, in this process, loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin was observed. Furthermore, the expressions of senescence markers, such as p21 and p53, were upregulated upon bleomycin treatment, thereby intensifying the fibrotic condition. Accordingly, the molecular pathway mediating the bleomycin-induced fibrosis was explored in the current study. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  NOX; TGF-β; bleomycin; redox imbalance; senescence