bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2019‒09‒29
eight papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University

  1. Free Radic Biol Med. 2019 Sep 24. pii: S0891-5849(19)31484-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    Yang KJ, Kim JH, Chang YK, Park CW, Kim SY, Hong YA.
      Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in the development of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The inhibition of xanthine oxidoreductase is known to reduce levels of ROS. We investigated whether febuxostat could attenuate oxidative stress via the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) against CIN. In a mouse model of CIN, renal impairment and tubular injury substantially increased, whereas febuxostat attenuated renal injury. Plasma and kidney xanthine oxidoreductase levels were decreased by febuxostat. Febuxostat administration was accompanied by the upregulation of AMPK phosphorylation and the inhibition of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox)1 and Nox2, followed by the inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and heme oxygenase-1 expressions and the suppression of transcription factor forkhead box O (FoxO)1 and FoxO3a phosphorylation. Cell survival was significantly reduced after iohexol administration and febuxostat ameliorated iohexol-induced cell death in proximal tubular (HK-2) cells. Furthermore, febuxostat enhanced AMPK phosphorylation and inhibited Nox1, Nox2, and HIF-1α expression in iohexol-exposed HK-2 cells. Finally, these processes decrease ROS in both in vivo and in vitro models of CIN. AMPK inhibition using small interfering RNA blunted the antioxidative effects of febuxostat in iohexol-treated HK-2 cells. Febuxostat attenuated CIN by modulating oxidative stress through AMPK-NADPH oxidase-HIF-1α signaling.
    Keywords:  AMPK; Acute kidney injury; Contrast media; Febuxostat; Oxidative stress
  2. Mol Med Rep. 2019 Sep 13.
    Yuan X, Wang X, Li Y, Li X, Zhang S, Hao L.
      A number of studies have shown that aldosterone serves an important role in promoting renal interstitial fibrosis, although the specific mechanism remains to be elucidated. A previous study revealed that the fibrotic effect of aldosterone was associated with the expression of allograft inflammatory factor 1 (AIF‑1) in RAW264.7 macrophage cells, in a time‑ and concentration‑dependent manner. However, the exact mechanism through which aldosterone promotes renal interstitial fibrosis remains unknown. In the present study, the effects of aldosterone on renal inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen deposition and the expression levels of AIF‑1, phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K), AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the oxidative stress factor NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) and nuclear transcription factor erythroid‑related factor 2 (Nrf2) were assessed in normal rats, rats treated with aldosterone, rats treated with aldosterone and spironolactone and those treated with spironolactone only (used as the control). The effect of aldosterone on these factors was also investigated in the renal interstitium of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) rats. Additionally, the AIF‑1 gene was overexpressed and knocked down in macrophage RAW264.7 cells, and the effects of aldosterone on PI3K, AKT, mTOR, NOX2 and Nrf2 were subsequently investigated. The results showed that aldosterone promoted inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen deposition and the expression of AIF‑1, PI3K, AKT, mTOR and NOX2, but inhibited the expression of Nrf2. In the UUO rats, aldosterone also promoted renal interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen deposition and the expression of AIF‑1, NOX2, PI3K, AKT and mTOR, whereas the expression of Nrf2 was downregulated by aldosterone compared with that in the UUO‑only group; the influence of aldosterone was counteracted by spironolactone in the normal and UUO rats. In vitro, aldosterone upregulated the expression levels of AKT, mTOR, NOX2 and Nrf2 in RAW264.7 cells compared with those in untreated cells. Suppressing the expression of AIF‑1 inhibited the effects of aldosterone, whereas the overexpression of AIF‑1 enhanced these effects in RAW264.7 cells. These findings indicated that aldosterone promoted renal interstitial fibrosis by upregulating the expression of AIF‑1 and that the specific mechanism may involve AKT/mTOR and oxidative stress signaling.
  3. Nat Commun. 2019 Sep 25. 10(1): 4365
    Patel PH, Pénalva C, Kardorff M, Roca M, Pavlović B, Thiel A, Teleman AA, Edgar BA.
      Epithelia are exposed to diverse types of stress and damage from pathogens and the environment, and respond by regenerating. Yet, the proximal mechanisms that sense epithelial damage remain poorly understood. Here we report that p38 signaling is activated in adult Drosophila midgut enterocytes in response to diverse stresses including pathogenic bacterial infection and chemical and mechanical insult. Two upstream kinases, Ask1 and Licorne (MKK3), are required for p38 activation following infection, oxidative stress, detergent exposure and wounding. Ask1-p38 signaling in enterocytes is required upon infection to promote full intestinal stem cell (ISC) activation and regeneration, partly through Upd3/Jak-Stat signaling. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the NADPH oxidase Nox in enterocytes, are required for p38 activation in enterocytes following infection or wounding, and for ISC activation upon infection or detergent exposure. We propose that Nox-ROS-Ask1-MKK3-p38 signaling in enterocytes integrates multiple different stresses to induce regeneration.
  4. Mucosal Immunol. 2019 Sep 25.
    Aviello G, Singh AK, O'Neill S, Conroy E, Gallagher W, D'Agostino G, Walker AW, Bourke B, Scholz D, Knaus UG.
      Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidases (NOX/DUOX) provide antimicrobial defense, redox signaling, and gut barrier maintenance. Inactivating NOX variants are associated with comorbid intestinal inflammation in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD; NOX2) and pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; NOX1); however Nox-deficient mice do not reflect human disease susceptibility. Here we assessed if a hypomorphic patient-relevant CGD mutation will increase the risk for intestinal inflammation in mice. Cyba (p22phox) mutant mice generated low intestinal ROS, while maintaining Nox4 function. The Cyba variant caused profound mucus layer disruption with bacterial penetration into crypts, dysbiosis, and a compromised innate immune response to invading microbes, leading to mortality. Approaches used in treatment-resistant CGD or pediatric IBD such as bone marrow transplantation or oral antibiotic treatment ameliorated or prevented disease in mice. The Cyba mutant mouse phenotype implicates loss of both mucus barrier and efficient innate immune defense in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation due to ROS deficiency, supporting a combined-hit model where a single disease variant compromises different cellular functions in interdependent compartments.
  5. Free Radic Biol Med. 2019 Sep 18. pii: S0891-5849(19)31010-X. [Epub ahead of print]
    Li XX, Ling SK, Hu MY, Ma Y, Li Y, Huang PL.
      The cardiovascular efficacy of glucose-lowering drugs is needed due to the cardiovascular complication in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Acarbose is an α-glucosidase inhibitor that suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia, however, the cardiovascular protection of acarbose has still remained controversial. NLRP3 inflammasome activation mediated tight junction disruption, a hallmark event of endothelial barrier dysfunction leading to endothelial hyperpermeability in diabetes. Given the anti-inflammatory property of acarbose, it was investigated that acarbose protected against vascular endothelial barrier dysfunction through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome in vascular endothelial cells in T2DM rats. The rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) were incubated with high glucose (HG, 30 mM) for 24 h in vitro. It was found that HG significantly induced the formation and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, which was markedly blocked by acarbose treatment. Furthermore, acarbose blocked the Nox4-dependent superoxide (O2.-) generation, which regulated NLRP3 inflammasome in RAECs. Importantly, we found that acarbose remarkably enhanced the junction protein expression of ZO-1 and VE-Cadherin and consequently abolished vascular hyperpermeability, which was associated with inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome in RAECs. In vivo, acarbose intervention relieved vascular leakage in the heart of diabetic rats injected with Evans blue dye and the vasodilatory response to acetylcholine, which was accompanied with the restoration of ZO-1, VE-Cadherin, Nox4 and NLRP3 inflammasome in the aortal endothelium of diabetic rats. Taken together, our data indicated that acarbose ameliorated endothelial barrier dysfunction by directly inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome which was dependent on inhibiting Nox4 oxidase-dependent O2.- production. These properties might carry a potential significance for acarbose in cardiovascular protection in diabetic patients.
    Keywords:  Acarbose; Diabetes; NLRP3 inflammasome; Nox4; Vascular permeability
  6. J Immunol. 2019 Sep 23. pii: ji1800469. [Epub ahead of print]
    Wu Y, Konaté MM, Lu J, Makhlouf H, Chuaqui R, Antony S, Meitzler JL, Difilippantonio MJ, Liu H, Juhasz A, Jiang G, Dahan I, Roy K, Doroshow JH.
      Dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) generates H2O2 that plays a critical role in both host defense and chronic inflammation. Previously, we demonstrated that the proinflammatory mediators IFN-γ and LPS enhance expression of DUOX2 and its maturation factor DUOXA2 through STAT1- and NF-κB‒mediated signaling in human pancreatic cancer cells. Using a panel of colon and pancreatic cancer cell lines, we now report the induction of DUOX2/DUOXA2 mRNA and protein expression by the TH2 cytokine IL-4. IL-4 activated STAT6 signaling that, when silenced, significantly decreased induction of DUOX2. Furthermore, the TH17 cytokine IL-17A combined synergistically with IL-4 to increase DUOX2 expression in both colon and pancreatic cancer cells mediated, at least in part, by signaling through NF-κB. The upregulation of DUOX2 was associated with a significant increase in the production of extracellular H2O2 and DNA damage-as indicated by the accumulation of 8-oxo-dG and γH2AX-which was suppressed by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium and a DUOX2-specific small interfering RNA. The clinical relevance of these experiments is suggested by immunohistochemical, microarray, and quantitative RT-PCR studies of human colon and pancreatic tumors demonstrating significantly higher DUOX2, IL-4R, and IL-17RA expression in tumors than in adjacent normal tissues; in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, increased DUOX2 expression is adversely associated with overall patient survival. These data suggest a functional association between DUOX2-mediated H2O2 production and induced DNA damage in gastrointestinal malignancies.
  7. Biomolecules. 2019 Sep 26. pii: E534. [Epub ahead of print]9(10):
    Sánchez-de-Diego C, Valer JA, Pimenta-Lopes C, Rosa JL, Ventura F.
      The integration of cell extrinsic and intrinsic signals is required to maintain appropriate cell physiology and homeostasis. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are cytokines that belong to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, which play a key role in embryogenesis, organogenesis and regulation of whole-body homeostasis. BMPs interact with membrane receptors that transduce information to the nucleus through SMAD-dependent and independent pathways, including PI3K-AKT and MAPKs. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are intracellular molecules derived from the partial reduction of oxygen. ROS are highly reactive and govern cellular processes by their capacity to regulate signaling pathways (e.g., NF-κB, MAPKs, KEAP1-NRF2 and PI3K-AKT). Emerging evidence indicates that BMPs and ROS interplay in a number of ways. BMPs stimulate ROS production by inducing NOX expression, while ROS regulate the expression of several BMPs. Moreover, BMPs and ROS influence common signaling pathways, including PI3K/AKT and MAPK. Additionally, dysregulation of BMPs and ROS occurs in several pathologies, including vascular and musculoskeletal diseases, obesity, diabetes and kidney injury. Here, we review the current knowledge on the integration between BMP and ROS signals and its potential applications in the development of new therapeutic strategies.
    Keywords:  BMP; MAPK; NOX; NRF2; PI3K; SMAD; cell signaling; reactive oxygen species (ROS)
  8. Curr Pharm Des. 2019 Sep 26.
    Sun L, Ji S, Xing J.
      BACKGROUND/AIMS: Central pro-inflammatory cytokine (PIC) signal is involved in neurological deficits after transient global ischemia induced by cardiac arrest (CA). The present study was to examine the effects of inhibiting microRNA-155 (miR-155) on IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the hippocampus of rats with induction of CA. We further examined the levels of products of oxidative stress 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-iso PGF2α, a product of oxidative stress); and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a key biomarker of protein oxidation) after cerebral inhibition of miR-155.METHODS: CA was induced by asphyxia and followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation in rats. ELISA and western blot analysis were used to determine the levels of PICs and products of oxidative stress; and the protein expression of NADPH oxidase (NOXs) in the hippocampus. In addition, neurological severity score and brain edema were examined to assess neurological functions.
    RESULTS: We observed amplification of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as 8-iso PGF2α and 8-OHdG in the hippocampus of CA rats. Intracerebroventricular infusion of miR-155 inhibitor attenuated elevation of PICs in the hippocampus. This also attenuated products of oxidative stress and upregulation of NOX4. Notably, inhibition of miR-155 improved neurological severity score and brain edema and this was linked to signal pathways of PIC and oxidative stress.
    CONCLUSION: We showed the significant role of blocking miR-155 signal in improving the neurological function in CA rats likely via inhibition of signal pathways of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, suggesting that miR-155 may be a target in preventing and/or alleviating development of the impaired neurological functions during CA-evoked global cerebral ischemia.
    Keywords:  cardiac arrest; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; hippocampus; microRNA-155