bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2019‒09‒22
five papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University

  1. Redox Biol. 2019 Aug 22. pii: S2213-2317(19)30234-4. [Epub ahead of print]28 101306
    Liao CR, Wang SN, Zhu SY, Wang YQ, Li ZZ, Liu ZY, Jiang WS, Chen JT, Wu Q.
      Interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, in particular, control the degeneration of articular cartilage, making them prime targets for osteoarthritis (OA) therapeutic strategies. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are prevalent in numerous diseases. Our previous work demonstrates that intra-articular injections of AOPPs accelerate regression of cartilage in OA models. Whether AOPPs exist in the course of OA and their effects on TNF-α and IL-1β expression in chondrocytes are still unclear. This study confirmed that AOPPs levels in human synovial fluid were positively associated with severity of OA. We also found AOPPs deposition in articular cartilage in anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) induced rodent OA models. AOPPs increased expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in chondrocytes in vitro, which was inhibited by pre-treatment with SB202190 (p38-MAPK inhibitor) or apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor) or NOX4 knockdown by siRNAs. Subsequently, we further verified in vivo that exogenous injection of AOPPs in OA mice up-regulated expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in cartilage, which was blocked by treatment with apocynin. In parallel, apocynin attenuated articular cartilage degeneration resulting in substantially lower OARSI scores. Specifically, apocynin reduced NOX4, p-P38, TNF-α and IL-1β and increased collagen II and glycosaminoglycan (GAG). This study demonstrated that AOPPs increased expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in chondrocytes via the NADPH oxidase4-dependent and p38-MAPK mediated pathway, and accelerated cartilage degeneration in OA progression. These findings suggest an endogenous pathogenic role of AOPPs in OA progression. Targeting AOPPs-triggered cellular mechanisms might be a promising therapeutic option for patients with OA.
    Keywords:  Advanced oxidation protein products; Chondrocytes; IL-1β; NADPH oxidase 4; Osteoarthritis; TNF-α
  2. Atherosclerosis. 2019 Sep 09. pii: S0021-9150(19)31468-6. [Epub ahead of print]290 9-18
    Zhang J, Cai W, Fan Z, Yang C, Wang W, Xiong M, Ma C, Yang J.
      BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The process of endothelial repair in diabetic patients after stent implantation was significantly delayed compared with that in non-diabetic patients, and oxidative stress is increasingly considered to be relevant to the pathogenesis of diabetic endothelial repair. However, the mechanisms linking diabetes and reendothelialization after vascular injury have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of microRNA-24 (miR-24) up-regulation in delayed endothelial repair caused by oxidative stress after balloon injury in diabetic rats.METHODS: In vitro, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) isolated from the thoracic aorta were stimulated with high glucose (HG) after miR-24 recombinant adenovirus (Ad-miR-24-GFP) transfection for 3 days. In vivo, diabetic rats induced using high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin (30 mg/kg) underwent carotid artery balloon injury followed by Ad-miR-24-GFP transfection for 20 min.
    RESULTS: The expression of miR-24 was decreased in HG-stimulated VSMCs and balloon-injured carotid arteries of diabetic rats, which was accompanied by increased expression of Ogt and Keap1 and decreased expression of Nrf2 and Ho-1. Up-regulation of miR-24 suppressed VSMC oxidative stress induced by HG in vitro, and miR-24 up-regulation promoted reendothelialization in balloon-injured diabetic rats. The underlying mechanism was related to the activation of the Nrf2/Ho-1 signaling pathway, which subsequently suppressed intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) production and malondialdehyde (MDA) and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity, and to the restoration of Sod and Gsh-px activation.
    CONCLUSIONS: The up-regulation of miR-24 significantly promoted endothelial repair after balloon injury through inhibition of oxidative stress by activating the Nrf2/Ho-1 signaling pathway.
    Keywords:  Diabetes mellitus; Ho-1; MicroRNA-24; Nrf2; Oxidative stress
  3. Biomed Res Int. 2019 ;2019 1806234
    Zhang M, Zhu X, Tong H, Lou A, Li Y, Li Y, Su L, Li X.
      We previously demonstrated that angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)), an essential endocrine factor, inhibits the NLRP3 inflammasome by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in fibrotic livers. We also demonstrated that the NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to the liver damage induced by pyroptosis after heatstroke. However, the role of Ang-(1-7) in the hepatocytes under heat stress remains uncertain. We aimed to examine the change in angiotensin peptides in the livers affected by heatstroke and the effect on the ROS-NLRP3 inflammatory signalling pathway. In vivo, increased angiotensin II (Ang II) and decreased Ang-(1-7) in the serum of heatstroke patients suffering from hepatic dysfunction were observed. The change in angiotensin peptides was considered a potential biomarker that could be used to predict hepatic dysfunction. Enhanced Ang II and attenuated Ang-(1-7) levels were also observed in the liver tissue of heatstroke rats, which were consistent with their receptors and converting enzymes. Hepatic damage associated with increased ROS and protein expression levels of NOX4, NLRP3, caspase-1, and IL-1β was attenuated by AVE 0991, an analogue of Ang-(1-7). In vitro, pyroptosis, characterized by activated caspase-1 and IL-1β, was observed in hepatocytes under heat stress, which was enhanced by Ang II and attenuated by antioxidants, NOX4 siRNA, and AVE 0991. In summary, AVE 0991 attenuates pyroptosis and liver damage induced by heat stress by inhibiting the ROS-NLRP3 inflammatory signalling pathway.
  4. Mol Brain. 2019 Sep 18. 12(1): 78
    Xiao X, Jiang Y, Liang W, Wang Y, Cao S, Yan H, Gao L, Zhang L.
      Ferroptosis, a newly discovered form of iron-dependent regulated cell death, has been implicated in traumatic brain injury (TBI). MiR-212-5p has previously been reported to be downregulated in extracellular vesicles following TBI. To investigate whether miR-212-5p is involved in the ferroptotic neuronal death in TBI mice, we first examined the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and ferrous ion, and the expression of ferroptosis-related molecules at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h following controlled cortical impact (CCI) in mice. There was a significant upregulation in the expression of Gpx4 and Acsl4 at 6 h, Slc7a11 from 12 h to 72 h, and Nox2 and Sat1 from 6 h to 72 h post injury. Similarly, an upregulation in the expression of Gpx4 at 6 h, Nox2 from 6 h to 72 h, xCT from 12 h to 72 h, and Sat1 at 72 h after CCI was observed at the protein level. Interestingly, MDA and ferrous ion were increased whereas miR-212-5p was decreased in the CCI group compared to the sham group. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of miR-212-5p attenuated ferroptosis while downregulation of miR-212-5p promoted ferroptotic cell death partially by targeting prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (Ptgs2) in HT-22 and Neuro-2a cell lines. In addition, administration of miR-212-5p in CCI mice significantly improved learning and spatial memory. Collectively, these findings indicate that miR-212-5p may protect against ferroptotic neuronal death in CCI mice partially by targeting Ptgs2.
    Keywords:  Ferroptosis; Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 (Ptgs2); Traumatic brain injury (TBI); miR-212-5p
  5. Pharmaceutics. 2019 Sep 17. pii: E482. [Epub ahead of print]11(9):
    Lee SG, Lee J, Kim KM, Lee KI, Bae YS, Lee HJ.
      In a previous study, the specific NOX1/2/4 inhibitor Ewha-18278 was confirmed as a possible treatment for osteoporosis both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the compound by intravenous (IV) and oral administrations to rats. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-based and diazepam injection-based formulations were used to dissolve the compound. In the latter formulation applicable to humans, the changes in PK parameters were monitored at two different concentrations (1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL). The area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero time to infinity (AUCinf) of Ewha-18278 was highest in the DMSO-based formulation (2 mg/mL). Also, the concentration was increased 1.6-fold at the low concentration of the diazepam injection-based formulation compared to the high concentration. There was no statistical significance in the AUCinf of the compound between DMSO-based formulation (2 mg/mL) and diazepam injection-based formulation (1 mg/mL). These results suggest that Ewha-18278 can be delivered to humans by both IV and oral routes. In addition, the diazepam injection-based formulation of Ewha-18278 appears to be a suitable candidate for dosage development for future toxicity test and clinical trial.
    Keywords:  NOX1/2/4 inhibitor; human applicable formulation; osteoporosis; pharmacokinetics; pyrazole derivative