bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2019‒09‒15
fourteen papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University


  1. Chem Biol Interact. 2019 Sep 05. pii: S0009-2797(19)31145-7. [Epub ahead of print] 108818
    Xiang H, Xue W, Wu X, Zheng J, Ding C, Li Y, Dou M.
      Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common complication of diabetes that remains the major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) is a member of FOX family involved in the progression of diabetes. However, the pathogenic role of FOXP1 in DN remains unclear. This study was aimed to explore the effects of FOXP1 on glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) in response to high glucose (HG) stimulation. We found that HG stimulation markedly inhibited the FOXP1 expression in MCs in dose-and time-dependent manner. CCK-8 assay proved that FOXP1 overexpression attenuated HG-induced cell proliferation in MCs. FOXP1 exhibited anti-oxidative activity in HG-induced MCs, as proved by the decreased production of ROS and expressions of ROS producing enzymes, NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 and NOX4. Besides, FOXP1 suppressed the expression and secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins including collagen IV (Col IV) and fibronectin (FN). Furthermore, FOXP1 overexpression significantly prevented HG-induced activation of Akt/mTOR signaling in MCs, and Akt activator blocked FOXP1-mediated cell proliferation, ROS production and ECM accumulation in MCs. Collectively, FOXP1 prevented HG-induced proliferation, oxidative stress, and ECM accumulation in MCs via inhibiting the activation of Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. The findings suggested that FOXP1 might be a therapeutic target for the treatment of DN.
    Keywords:  Diabetic nephropathy (DN); Extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation; Forkhead box P1 (FOXP1); Glomerular mesangial cells (MCs); High glucose (HG); Oxidative stress
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2019.108818
  2. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 ;10 586
    Ogola BO, Zimmerman MA, Sure VN, Gentry KM, Duong JL, Clark GL, Miller KS, Katakam PVG, Lindsey SH.
      Our previous work showed that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is protective in the vasculature and kidneys during angiotensin (Ang) II-dependent hypertension by inhibiting oxidative stress. The goal of the current study was to assess the impact of GPER deletion on sex differences in Ang II-induced hypertension and oxidative stress. Male and female wildtype and GPER knockout mice were implanted with radiotelemetry probes for measurement of baseline blood pressure before infusion of Ang II (700 ng/kg/min) for 2 weeks. Mean arterial pressure was increased to the same extent in all groups, but female wildtype mice were protected from Ang II-induced increases in pulse pressure, aortic wall thickness, and Nox4 mRNA. In vitro studies using vascular smooth muscle cells found that pre-treatment with the GPER agonist G-1 inhibited Ang II-induced ROS and NADP/NADPH. Ang II increased while G-1 decreased Nox4 mRNA and protein. The effects of Ang II were blocked by losartan and Nox4 siRNA, while the effects of G-1 were inhibited by adenylyl cyclase inhibition and mimicked by phosphodiesterase inhibition. We conclude that during conditions of elevated Ang II, GPER via the cAMP pathway suppresses Nox4 transcription to limit ROS production and prevent arterial stiffening. Taken together with our previous work, this study provides insight into how acute estrogen signaling via GPER provides cardiovascular protection during Ang II hypertension and potentially other diseases characterized by increased oxidative stress.
    Keywords:  G protein-coupled estrogen receptor; NADPH oxidase 4; cell signaling/signal transduction; estrogen; oxidative stress
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00586
  3. Int J Mol Cell Med. 2018 ;7(4): 220-225
    Najafi M, Shirazi A, Motevaseli E, Geraily G, Amini P, Shabeeb D, Eleojo Musa A.
      Lung injury is one of the major concerns for chest cancer patients that undergo radiotherapy as well as persons exposed to an accidental radiological event. Reduction/oxidation (redox) system plays a key role in lung injury via chronic upregulation of pro-oxidant enzymes. NOX2 and NOX4 are two important reactive oxygen species generating enzymes that are involved in radiation toxicity in some organs such as the bone marrow. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the expression of NOX2 and NOX4 signaling in rat's lung tissues. Upregulation of these genes may be involved in radiation-induced lung injury. Moreover, we evaluated the role of pre-treatment with melatonin on the expression of these genes. Twenty male rats were divided into 4 groups as control; melatonin treated; irradiation; and irradiation with melatonin pre-treatment. Rats were exposed to 15 Gy 60Co gamma rays and sacrificed after 10 weeks for evaluation of NF-κB, TGFβR1, SMAD2, NOX2, and NOX4 gene expression by real-time PCR. Results showed the upregulation of all five genes. The expression of NOX2 was more obvious compared to other genes. Administration of melatonin before irradiation could attenuate the expression of all mentioned genes. Results indicate that upregulation of NADPH oxidase genes such as NOX2 and NOX4 may be involved in the late effects of lung exposure to ionizing radiation. Melatonin via downregulation of these pro-oxidant genes is able to attenuate radiation toxicity in the lung.
    Keywords:  NOX2; NOX4; Radiation; SMAD2; TGFβR1; lung
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.22088/IJMCM.BUMS.7.4.220
  4. Steroids. 2019 Sep 10. pii: S0039-128X(19)30184-9. [Epub ahead of print] 108494
    Barton M, Meyer MR, Prossnitz ER.
      Chronic non-communicable diseases share the pathomechanism of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, known as Nox. The recent discovery that expression of Nox1, a Nox isoform that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and kidney disease, is regulated by the expression and activity of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) led to the identification of orally active small-molecule GPER blockers as selective Nox1 downregulators (NDRs). Preclinical studies using NDRs have demonstrated beneficial effects in vascular disease, hypertension, and glomerular renal injury. These findings suggest the therapeutic potential of NDRs, which reduce Nox1 protein levels, not only for cardiovascular disease conditions including arterial hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and chronic renal disease, but also for other non-communicable diseases, such as cerebrovascular disease and vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, autoimmune diseases and cancer, in which elevated Nox1-derived ROS production plays a causal role.
    Keywords:  Chronic renal disease; Coronary artery disease; HFpEF; Heart failure; Hypertension; NADPH Oxidase; Non-communicable diseases; Oxidative stress; Stroke; Superoxide; Vascular
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2019.108494
  5. Cancers (Basel). 2019 Sep 07. pii: E1328. [Epub ahead of print]11(9):
    Khan MA, D'Ovidio A, Tran H, Palaniyar N.
      Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are cytotoxic DNA-protein complexes that play positive and negative roles in combating infection, inflammation, organ damage, autoimmunity, sepsis and cancer. However, NETosis regulatory effects of most of the clinically used drugs are not clearly established. Several recent studies highlight the relevance of NETs in promoting both cancer cell death and metastasis. Here, we screened the NETosis regulatory ability of 126 compounds belonging to 39 classes of drugs commonly used for treating cancer, blood cell disorders and other diseases. Our studies show that anthracyclines (e.g., epirubicin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, and idarubicin) consistently suppress both NADPH oxidase-dependent and -independent types of NETosis in human neutrophils, ex vivo. The intercalating property of anthracycline may be enough to alter the transcription initiation and lead NETosis inhibition. Notably, the inhibitory doses of anthracyclines neither suppress the production of reactive oxygen species that are necessary for antimicrobial functions nor induce apoptotic cell death in neutrophils. Therefore, anthracyclines are a major class of drug that suppresses NETosis. The dexrazoxane, a cardioprotective agent, used for limiting the side effects of anthracyclines, neither affect NETosis nor alter the ability of anthracyclines to suppress NETosis. Hence, at correct doses, anthracyclines together with dexrazoxane could be considered as a therapeutic candidate drug for suppressing unwanted NETosis in NET-related diseases.
    Keywords:  DNA-metabolism inhibitors; Nox-dependent and -independent NETosis; anthracyclines; drug screening; neutrophil extracellular trap (NET)
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11091328
  6. Biotech Histochem. 2019 Sep 10. 1-8
    Ozer MK, Bilgic S, Armagan I, Savran M.
      We investigated whether thymoquinone (TQ) exerts a beneficial effect on renal injury due to amikacin (AK) administration in rats. To generate kidney damage with AK, a single 1.2 g/kg dose of AK was administered intraperitoneally. TQ was administered orally to the AK treated group at a dose of 40 mg/kg for five days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and blood samples were used to measure blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) levels. Kidney samples were taken to measure the oxidative stress biomarker, malondialdehyde (MDA), and expression of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Because reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis contribute to tissue damage associated with NADPH oxidase (NOX), we also investigated NOX-2, NOX-4 and apoptosis marker, caspase-3, expression using immunohistochemistry. MDA, BUN, Cr, NOX-2, NOX-4 and caspase-3 production were increased, and SOD and CAT were decreased in the AK treated group compared to controls. MDA, BUN, Cr, NOX-2, NOX-4 and caspase-3 levels were decreased, and SOD and CAT levels were increased in TQ + AK treated rats compared to AK treated animals. TQ appears to protect the kidney from the toxic effects of AK.
    Keywords:  Amikacin; antioxidant; kidney; rat; renal injury; thymoquinone
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/10520295.2019.1650957
  7. EBioMedicine. 2019 Sep 05. pii: S2352-3964(19)30580-8. [Epub ahead of print]
    Wang N, Song L, Xu Y, Zhang L, Wu Y, Guo J, Ji W, Li L, Zhao J, Zhang X, Zhan L.
      BACKGROUND: Cisplatin resistance remains a major clinical obstacle to the successful treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Scribble contributes to ROS-induced inflammation and cisplatin-elevated toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes cell death. However, it is unknown whether and how Scribble is involved in the cisplatin-related cell death and the underlying mechanism of Scribble in response to chemotherapies and in the process of oxidative stress in NSCLC.METHODS: We used two independent cohorts of NSCLC samples derived from patients treated with platinum-containing chemotherapy and xenograft modeling in vivo. We analyzed the correlation between Scribble and Nox2 or Nrf2/PD-L1 both in vivo and in vitro, and explored the role of Scribble in cisplatin-induced ROS and apoptosis.
    FINDINGS: Clinical analysis revealed that Scribble expression positively correlated with clinical outcomes and chemotherapeutic sensitivity in NSCLC patients. Scribble protected Nox2 protein from proteasomal degradation. Scribble knockdown induced cisplatin resistance by blocking Nox2/ROS and apoptosis in LRR domain-dependent manner. In addition, low levels of Scribble correlated with high levels of PD-L1 via activation of Nrf2 transcription in vivo and in vitro.
    INTERPRETATIONS: Our study revealed that polarity protein Scribble increased cisplatin-induced ROS generation and is beneficial to chemotherapeutic outcomes in NSCLC. Although Scribble deficiency tends to lead to cisplatin resistance by Nox2/ROS and Nrf2/PD-L1, it is still possible that Scribble deficiency-induced PD-L1 may yield benefits in immunotherapy. FUND: National Key R&D Program of China, Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.
    Keywords:  Cisplatin sensitivity; NSCLC; Nox2; PD-L1; ROS; Scribble
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.08.057
  8. Exp Cell Res. 2019 Sep 09. pii: S0014-4827(19)30482-3. [Epub ahead of print] 111620
    Poncelet L, Dumont JE, Miot F, De Deken X.
      Thyroid hormone synthesis requires H2O2, produced by two NADPH oxidases, Duox1 and Duox2. To be fully active at the apical pole of the thyrocytes, these enzymes need additional maturation factors DuoxA1 and DuoxA2. The proteins have been shown to be localized at the cell surface, suggesting that they could form a complex with Duox counterparts. We have generated multiple HEK293 Tet-On3G cell lines that express various combinations of DuoxA upon doxycycline induction, in association with a constitutive expression of the Duox enzyme. We compared Duox specific activity, Duox/DuoxA cell surface interactions and the cellular consequences of sustained H2O2 generation. By normalizing H2O2 extracellular production by Duox or DuoxA membrane expression, we have demonstrated that the most active enzymatic complex is Duox2/DuoxA2, compared to Duox1/DuoxA1. A direct cell surface interaction was shown between Duox1/2 and both DuoxA1 and DuoxA2 using the Duolink® technology, Duox1/DuoxA1 and Duox2/DuoxA2 membrane complexes being more stable than the unpaired ones. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed in the nuclei of Duox2/DuoxA2 expressing cells after doxycycline induction and stimulation of Duox catalytic activity. The maturation and activity of Duox2 were drastically impaired when expressed with the glycosylation-defective maturation factor DuoxA2, while the impact of the unglycosylated DuoxA1 mutant on Duox1 membrane expression and activity was rather limited. The present data demonstrate for the first time that H2O2 produced by the Duox2/DuoxA2 cell surface enzymatic complex could provoke potential mutagenic DNA damage in an inducible cellular model, and highlight the importance of the co-expressed partner in the activity and stability of Duox/DuoxA complexes.
    Keywords:  DNA damage; Duox; DuoxA; N-glycosylation; Nox; Reactive oxygen species
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2019.111620
  9. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2019 Sep 11.
    Kitagawa R, Kon K, Uchiyama A, Arai K, Yamashina S, Kuwahara-Arai K, Kirikae T, Ueno T, Ikejima K.
      Exacerbation of alcoholic hepatitis (AH) with comorbid metabolic syndrome is an emerging clinical problem, where microbiota plays a profound role in the pathogenesis. Here, we investigated the effect of rifaximin (RFX) on liver injury following chronic-binge ethanol (EtOH) administration in KK-Ay mice, a rodent model of metabolic syndrome. Female, 8-week-old KK-Ay mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli diet (5% EtOH) for 10 days, following a single EtOH gavage (4 g/kg BW). Some mice were given RFX (0.1 g/L, in liquid diet) orally. Small intestinal contents were collected from mice without binge. Intestinal microbiota was quantified using conventional, aerobic and anaerobic culturing techniques, and further analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing in detail. EtOH-feeding/binge caused hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, and induction of inflammatory cytokines in KK-Ay mice, which were markedly prevented by RFX treatment. Hepatic mRNA levels for cluster of differentiation (CD)-14, toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, and TLR2 and NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 were increased following EtOH-feeding/binge, and administration of RFX completely suppressed their increase. The net amount of small intestinal bacteria was increased over 3-fold after chronic EtOH feeding as expected; however, RFX did not prevent this net increase. Intriguingly, the profile of small intestinal microbiota was dramatically changed following EtOH feeding in the order level, where the Erysipelotrichales predominated in the relative abundance. In sharp contrast, RFX drastically blunted the EtOH-induced increases in the Erysipelotrichales almost completely, with increased proportion of the Bacteroidales. In conclusion, RFX prevents AH through modulation of small intestinal microbiota/innate immune responses in obese KK-Ay mice.
    Keywords:  alcoholic liver disease; dysbiosis; metabolic syndrome; pathogen-associated molecular patterns; toll-like receptor
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00372.2018
  10. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2019 Dec;47(1): 3704-3710
    Wang X, Huang H, Su C, Zhong Q, Wu G.
      Cardiovascular disease is recognized as a leading cause of death worldwide, but the risk of death is 2-3 times higher for individuals with diabetes. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is a leading pathway of vascular damage, and new treatment methods are needed to reduce NLRP3 inflammasome expression, along with a detailed understanding of how those treatments work. In a series of assays on human vascular endothelial cells that were exposed to high concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) to induce a diabetes-like environment, we found a significant impact of cilostazol, a vasodilator widely used to treat blood flow problems and well-tolerated medication. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the effects of cilostazol in primary human aortic endothelial cells. We found that cilostazol significantly reduced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, as well as the activity of other related and harmful factors, including oxidative stress, expression of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4), thioredoxin-interacting protein (TxNIP), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Cilostazol also protected the functionality of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), which serves to restrict NLRP3 inflammasome activity, when exposure to FFAs would have otherwise impaired its function. Thus, it appears that cilostazol's mechanism of action in reducing NLRP3 inflammasome activation is an indirect one; it protects SIRT1, which then allows SIRT1 to perform its regulatory job. Cilostazol has potential as an already-available, well-tolerated preventive medication that may alleviate some of the adverse vascular effects of living with diabetes. The findings of the present study lay the groundwork for further research on the potential of cilostazol as a safe and effective treatment against diabetic endothelial dysfunction and vacular disease.
    Keywords:  NLRP3 inflammasome; SIRT1; TxNIP; atherosclerosis; cilostazol; endothelial dysfunction; free fatty acid (FFA)
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2019.1665058
  11. PLoS One. 2019 ;14(9): e0221039
    Hsu J, Wang CH, Huang SC, Chen YW, Yu S, Hwang JJ, Lin JW, Ma MC, Chen YS.
      Ischemic neuron loss contributes to brain dysfunction in patients with cardiac arrest (CA). Histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution is a preservative used during organ transplantation. We tested the potential of HTK to protect neurons from severe hypoxia (SH) following CA. We isolated rat primary cortical neurons and induced SH with or without HTK. Changes in caspase-3, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-4 (NOX4) expression were evaluated at different time points up to 72 h. Using a rat asphyxia model, we induced CA-mediated brain damage and then completed resuscitation. HTK or sterile saline was administered into the left carotid artery. Neurological deficit scoring and mortality were evaluated for 3 days. Then the rats were sacrificed for evaluation of NOX4 and H2O2 levels in blood and brain. In the in vitro study, HTK attenuated SH- and H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity in a volume- and time-dependent manner, associated with persistent HIF-1α expression and reductions in procaspase-3 activation and NOX4 expression. The inhibition of HIF-1α abrogated HTK's effect on NOX4. In the in vivo study, neurological scores were significantly improved by HTK. H2O2 level, NOX4 activity, and NOX4 gene expression were all decreased in the brain specimens of HTK-treated rats. Our results suggest that HTK acts as an effective neuroprotective solution by maintaining elevated HIF-1α level, which was associated with inhibited procaspase-3 activation and decreased NOX4 expression.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221039
  12. Int J Mol Cell Med. 2018 ;7(4): 212-219
    Amini P, Saffar H, Nourani MR, Motevaseli E, Najafi M, Ali Taheri R, Qazvini A.
      Radiation-induced lung injury is one of the most prominent factors that interfere with chest cancer radiotherapy, and poses a great threat to patients exposed to total body irradiation. Upregulation of pro-oxidant enzymes is one of the main mechanisms through which the late effects of ionizing radiation on lung injury can be exerted. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 are two important cytokines that have been proposed to be involved in this process. Through stimulation of dual oxidase 1 and 2 (DUOX 1 & 2), they induce chronic oxidative stress in irradiated tissues. In this study, we evaluated the effects of curcumin treatment on the regulation of IL-4 and IL-13, DUOX1 & 2 genes as well as the pathological changes developed by this treatment. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: radiation only; curcumin only; radiation +curcumin; and control group with neither pharmacotherapy nor radiation. Curcumin was administered for 4 and 6 consecutive days before and after irradiation, respectively. Also, the chest area was irradiated with 15 Gy using a cobalt-60 gamma rays source. All rats were sacrificed 67 days after irradiation, followed by the assessment of the levels of IL-4 and IL-13; the expression of IL- 4 receptor-a1 (IL4Ra1), IL13Ra2, DUOX1 and DUOX2, and finally the histopathological changes were evaluated. Radiation led to the increased level of IL-4, while the level of IL-13 showed no change. QPCR results showed the upregulation of IL4Ra1, DUOX1 and DUOX2 following lung irradiation. Histopathological evaluation also showed a remarkable increase in pneumonitis and fibrosis. Treatment with curcumin downregulated the expression of IL-4, IL4Ra1, DUOX1 & 2. Furthermore, it could mitigate pneumonitis and fibrosis following lung irradiation. The late effects of radiation- induced lung injury may be due to the upregulation of DUOX1 & 2 genes. Curcumin, through modulation of these genes, may contribute to the protection against ionizing radiation.
    Keywords:  Curcumin; DUOX1; DUOX2; radiation; radioprotection
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.22088/IJMCM.BUMS.7.4.212
  13. PLoS One. 2019 ;14(9): e0222352
    Lee SJ, Kang JS, Kim HM, Lee ES, Lee JH, Chung CH, Lee EY.
      CCL2/CCR2 signaling is believed to play an important role in kidney diseases. Several studies have demonstrated that blocking of CCR2 has a therapeutic effect on kidney diseases. However, the effects of CCR2 knockout on obesity-induced kidney injury remain unclear. We investigated the therapeutic effects and the mechanism of CCL2/CCR2 signaling in obesity-induced kidney injury. We used C57BL/6-CCR2 wild type and C57BL/6-CCR2 knockout mice: Regular diet wild type (RD WT), RD CCR2 knockout (RD KO), High-fat diet WT (HFD WT), HFD CCR2 KO (HFD KO). Body weight of WT mice was significantly increased after HFD. However, the body weight of HFD KO mice was not decreased compared to HFD WT mice. Food intake and calorie showed no significant differences between HFD WT and HFD KO mice. Glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides levels increased in HFD WT mice were decreased in HFD KO mice. Insulin resistance, increased insulin secretion, and lipid accumulation showed in HFD WT mice were improved in HFD KO mice. Increased desmin expression, macrophage infiltration, and TNF-α in HFD mice were reduced in HFD KO mice. HFD-induced albuminuria, glomerular hypertrophy, glomerular basement membrane thickening, and podocyte effacement were restored by CCR2 depletion. HFD-induced elevated expressions of xBP1, Bip, and Nox4 at RNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in HFD KO. Therefore, blockade of CCL2/CCR2 signaling by CCR2 depletion might ameliorate obesity-induced albuminuria through blocking oxidative stress, ER stress, and lipid accumulation.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222352
  14. Cancer Res. 2019 Sep 09. pii: canres.0721.2019. [Epub ahead of print]
    Bann DV, Jin Q, Sheldon KE, Houser KR, Nguyen L, Warrick JI, Baker MJ, Broach J, Gerhard GS, Goldenberg D.
      Highly penetrant hereditary thyroid cancer manifests as familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC), while low-penetrance hereditary thyroid cancer manifests as sporadic disease and is associated with common polymorphisms, including rs965513. Whole-exome sequencing of an FNMTC kindred identified a novel Y1203H germline Dual Oxidase-2 (DUOX2) mutation. DUOX2Y1203H is enzymatically active and increased production of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, sporadic thyroid cancer patients homozygous for rs965513 demonstrated higher DUOX2 expression than heterozygous or homozygous negative patients. These data suggest that dysregulated hydrogen peroxide metabolism is a common mechanism by which high- and low-penetrance genetic factors increase thyroid cancer risk.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-0721