bims-noxint Biomed News
on NADPH oxidases in tumorigenesis
Issue of 2019‒07‒28
two papers selected by
Laia Caja Puigsubira
Uppsala University


  1. Redox Biol. 2019 Jul 11. pii: S2213-2317(19)30520-8. [Epub ahead of print]26 101272
    Augsburger F, Filippova A, Rasti D, Seredenina T, Lam M, Maghzal G, Mahiout Z, Jansen-Dürr P, Knaus UG, Doroshow J, Stocker R, Krause KH, Jaquet V.
      BACKGROUND: NADPH oxidases (NOX) are a family of flavoenzymes that catalyze the formation of superoxide anion radical (O2•-) and/or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). As major oxidant generators, NOX are associated with oxidative damage in numerous diseases and represent promising drug targets for several pathologies. Various small molecule NOX inhibitors are used in the literature, but their pharmacological characterization is often incomplete in terms of potency, specificity and mode of action.EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We used cell lines expressing high levels of human NOX isoforms (NOX1-5, DUOX1 and 2) to detect NOX-derived O2•- or H2O2 using a variety of specific probes. NOX inhibitory activity of diphenylene iodonium (DPI), apocynin, diapocynin, ebselen, GKT136901 and VAS2870 was tested on NOX isoforms in cellular and membrane assays. Additional assays were used to identify potential off target effects, such as antioxidant activity, interference with assays or acute cytotoxicity.
    KEY RESULTS: Cells expressing active NOX isoforms formed O2•-, except for DUOX1 and 2, and in all cases activation of NOX isoforms was associated with the detection of extracellular H2O2. Among all molecules tested, DPI elicited dose-dependent inhibition of all isoforms in all assays, however all other molecules tested displayed interesting pharmacological characteristics, but did not meet criteria for bona fide NOX inhibitors.
    CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that experimental results obtained with widely used NOX inhibitors must be carefully interpreted and highlight the challenge of developing reliable pharmacological inhibitors of these key molecular targets.
    Keywords:  NADPH oxidase; NOX; Reactive oxygen species; Small molecule inhibitors
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2019.101272
  2. Front Immunol. 2019 ;10 1472
    Hook JS, Cao M, Potera RM, Alsmadi NZ, Schmidtke DW, Moreland JG.
      The mortality rate of patients with critical illness has decreased significantly over the past two decades, but the rate of decline has slowed recently, with organ dysfunction as a major driver of morbidity and mortality. Among patients with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), acute lung injury is a common component with serious morbidity. Previous studies in our laboratory using a murine model of SIRS demonstrated a key role for NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-derived reactive oxygen species in the resolution of inflammation. Nox2-deficient (gp91phox-/y) mice develop profound lung injury secondary to SIRS and fail to resolve inflammation. Alveolar macrophages from gp91phox-/y mice express greater levels of chemotactic and pro-inflammatory factors at baseline providing evidence that Nox2 in alveolar macrophages is critical for homeostasis. Based on the lung pathology with increased thrombosis in gp91phox-/y mice, and the known role of platelets in the inflammatory process, we hypothesized that Nox2 represses platelet activation. In the mouse model, we found that platelet-derived chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4 (CXCL4) and CXCL7 were increased in the bronchoalveolar fluid of gp91phox-/y mice at baseline and 24 h post intraperitoneal zymosan-induced SIRS consistent with platelet activation. Activated platelets interact with leukocytes via P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1). Within 2 h of SIRS induction, alveolar neutrophil PSGL-1 expression was higher in gp91phox-/y mice. Platelet-neutrophil interactions were decreased in the peripheral blood of gp91phox-/y mice consistent with movement of activated platelets to the lung of mice lacking Nox2. Based on the severe lung pathology and the role of platelets in the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), we evaluated NET production. In contrast to previous studies demonstrating Nox2-dependent NET formation, staining of lung sections from mice 24 h post zymosan injection revealed a large number of citrullinated histone 3 (H3CIT) and myeloperoxidase positive cells consistent with NET formation in gp91phox-/y mice that was virtually absent in WT mice. In addition, H3CIT protein expression and PAD4 activity were higher in the lung of gp91phox-/y mice post SIRS induction. These results suggest that Nox2 plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating platelet activation and NET formation in the lung.
    Keywords:  NET formation; Nox2; lung injury; neutrophil; platelet
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01472