bims-nocaut Biomed News
on Non-canonical autophagy
Issue of 2023‒03‒12
two papers selected by
Quentin Frenger
University of Strasbourg

  1. EMBO J. 2023 Mar 06. e112387
      The cGAS-STING pathway plays an important role in host defense by sensing pathogen DNA, inducing type I IFNs, and initiating autophagy. However, the molecular mechanism of autophagosome formation in cGAS-STING pathway-induced autophagy is still unclear. Here, we report that STING directly interacts with WIPI2, which is the key protein for LC3 lipidation in autophagy. Binding to WIPI2 is necessary for STING-induced autophagosome formation but does not affect STING activation and intracellular trafficking. In addition, the specific interaction between STING and the PI3P-binding motif of WIPI2 leads to the competition of WIPI2 binding between STING and PI3P, and mutual inhibition between STING-induced autophagy and canonical PI3P-dependent autophagy. Furthermore, we show that the STING-WIPI2 interaction is required for the clearance of cytoplasmic DNA and the attenuation of cGAS-STING signaling. Thus, the direct interaction between STING and WIPI2 enables STING to bypass the canonical upstream machinery to induce LC3 lipidation and autophagosome formation.
    Keywords:  STING; WIPI2; autophagy; cGAS; cytoplasmic DNA
  2. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2023 Mar 09.
      Lysosomes are catabolic organelles that contribute to the degradation of intracellular constituents through autophagy and of extracellular components through endocytosis, phagocytosis and macropinocytosis. They also have roles in secretory mechanisms, the generation of extracellular vesicles and certain cell death pathways. These functions make lysosomes central organelles in cell homeostasis, metabolic regulation and responses to environment changes including nutrient stresses, endoplasmic reticulum stress and defects in proteostasis. Lysosomes also have important roles in inflammation, antigen presentation and the maintenance of long-lived immune cells. Their functions are tightly regulated by transcriptional modulation via TFEB and TFE3, as well as by major signalling pathways that lead to activation of mTORC1 and mTORC2, lysosome motility and fusion with other compartments. Lysosome dysfunction and alterations in autophagy processes have been identified in a wide variety of diseases, including autoimmune, metabolic and kidney diseases. Deregulation of autophagy can contribute to inflammation, and lysosomal defects in immune cells and/or kidney cells have been reported in inflammatory and autoimmune pathologies with kidney involvement. Defects in lysosomal activity have also been identified in several pathologies with disturbances in proteostasis, including autoimmune and metabolic diseases such as Parkinson disease, diabetes mellitus and lysosomal storage diseases. Targeting lysosomes is therefore a potential therapeutic strategy to regulate inflammation and metabolism in a variety of pathologies.