bims-nocaut Biomed News
on Non-canonical autophagy
Issue of 2022‒07‒31
three papers selected by
Quentin Frenger
University of Strasbourg

  1. Autophagy. 2022 Jul 28.
      PINK1-PRKN/Parkin-mediated mitophagy represents an important mitochondrial quality control (MQC) pathway that clears damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria. Although the conjugation of mammalian Atg8-family proteins (mATG8s) to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a defining step in autophagy, its role in mitophagy remains unclear. In our recent study, we found that the mATG8 conjugation system is not required for PINK1-PRKN-mediated mitochondria clearance. Instead, mATG8 conjugation system-independent mitochondria clearance relies on secretory autophagy, in a process we term as the autophagic secretion of mitochondria (ASM). As ASM results in the spurious activation of the CGAS-STING1 pathway, we propose that defects in mATG8 lipidation may promote inflammation through ASM.
    Keywords:  Extracellular vesicles; PINK1-PRKN; inflammation; mATG8 conjugation system; mitochondrial quality control; mitophagy; secretory autophagy
  2. Cells. 2022 Jul 22. pii: 2262. [Epub ahead of print]11(15):
      Autophagy is a highly conserved lysosomal degradation pathway active at basal levels in all cells. However, under stress conditions, such as a lack of nutrients or trophic factors, it works as a survival mechanism that allows the generation of metabolic precursors for the proper functioning of the cells until the nutrients are available. Neurons, as post-mitotic cells, depend largely on autophagy to maintain cell homeostasis to get rid of damaged and/or old organelles and misfolded or aggregated proteins. Therefore, the dysfunction of this process contributes to the pathologies of many human diseases. Furthermore, autophagy is highly active during differentiation and development. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the different pathways, molecular mechanisms, factors that induce it, and the regulation of mammalian autophagy. We also discuss its relevant role in development and disease. Finally, here we summarize several investigations demonstrating that autophagic abnormalities have been considered the underlying reasons for many human diseases, including liver disease, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, neoplastic diseases, cancers, and, more recently, infectious diseases, such as SARS-CoV-2 caused COVID-19 disease.
    Keywords:  autophagy; development; diseases; modulators; molecular mechanisms; morphogenesis
  3. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jul 14. pii: 7789. [Epub ahead of print]23(14):
      As a neurodegenerative disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD) shows a higher incidence during the aging process, mainly revealing the characteristics of a significant decrease in cognition, uncontrolled emotion, and reduced learning and memory capacity, even leading to death. In the prevention and treatment of AD, some pharmacological therapy has been applied in clinical practice. Unfortunately, there are still limited effective treatments for AD due to the absence of clear and defined targets. Currently, it is recognized that the leading causes of AD include amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) deposition, hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, neurofibrillary tangles, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation. With in-depth mechanistic exploration, it has been found that these causes are highly correlated with the dysfunctional status of autophagy. Numerous experimental results have also confirmed that the development and progression of AD is accompanied by an abnormal functional status of autophagy; therefore, regulating the functional status of autophagy has become one of the important strategies for alleviating or arresting the progression of AD. With the increasing attention given to microRNAs (miRNAs), more and more studies have found that a series of miRNAs are involved in the development and progression of AD through the indirect regulation of autophagy. Therefore, regulating autophagy through targeting these miRNAs may be an essential breakthrough for the prevention and treatment of AD. This article summarizes the regulation of miRNAs in autophagy, with the aim of providing a new theoretical reference point for the prevention and treatment of AD through the indirect regulation of miRNA-mediated autophagy.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; autophagy; exercise; miRNA; natural products; pharmacological therapy