bims-netuvo Biomed News
on Nerves in tumours of visceral organs
Issue of 2022‒02‒13
four papers selected by
Maksym V. Kopanitsa
The Francis Crick Institute

  1. J Healthc Eng. 2022 ;2022 9658890
      Perineural invasion (PNI) is a typical feature of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which occurs in most cases. The embryonic protein Nodal plays a critical role in embryonic neural development and is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer. In this study, we explored the contribution of Nodal to pancreatic cancer PNI and progression. We evaluated the function of Nodal in PNI by coculturing rat dorsal root ganglia and pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and performing cellular and molecular biology assays. The results illustrate that Nodal upregulates NGF (nerve growth factor), BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), and GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) expression in pancreatic cancer cells and promotes cancer cell migration/invasion. Furthermore, in the in vitro 3D PNI model, Nodal enhances nerve outgrowth to pancreatic cancer cell colonies. Our study indicates that Nodal participates in tumor invasion by mediating neural and tumor cell signaling interactions, and inhibiting the expression of Nodal represents a potential strategy for targeting PNI in pancreatic cancer therapy.
  2. Dermatol Surg. 2022 Feb 01.
      BACKGROUND: Lymph node metastasis is a critical prognostic indicator for mortality in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).OBJECTIVE: To identify and characterize key risk factors for SCC lymph node metastasis.
    METHODS: This was a multi-institutional, case-control study of 65 cutaneous SCCs with known lymph node metastasis matched with 195 cutaneous SCCs without lymph node metastasis (3:1 matching). The cases and controls were matched by anatomic location, age, and sex. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were generated to determine the association between specific risk factors and lymph node metastasis in a multivariate analysis.
    RESULTS: Recurrent tumors (p < .001), perineural invasion (p < .001), lymphovascular invasion (p = .002), size of 2 cm or greater (p = .008), and hypothyroidism (p = .03) were significantly more common in the lymph node metastasis cohort. Recurrence (OR 6.3, 95% CI 2.6-15.3), perineural invasion (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.7-11.8), and hypothyroidism (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.04-7.0) remained significant on performing a multivariate analysis.
    CONCLUSION: Lymph node metastasis in SCC is associated with recurrence, perineural invasion, lymphovascular invasion, size of 2 cm or greater, and hypothyroidism. Clinical consideration of these findings within the context of current staging systems may help improve patient outcomes.
  3. Sci Rep. 2022 Feb 09. 12(1): 2182
      Ultrasound (US) has been shown to stimulate brain circuits, however, the ability to excite peripheral nerves with US remains controversial. To the best of our knowledge, there is still no in vivo neural recording study that has applied US stimulation to a nerve isolated from surrounding tissue to confirm direct activation effects. Here, we show that US cannot excite an isolated mammalian sciatic nerve in an in vivo preparation, even at high pressures (relative to levels recommended in the FDA guidance for diagnostic ultrasound) and for a wide range of parameters, including different pulse patterns and center frequencies. US can, however, reliably inhibit nerve activity whereby greater suppression is correlated with increases in nerve temperature. By prohibiting the nerve temperature from increasing during US application, we did not observe suppressive effects. Overall, these findings demonstrate that US can reliably inhibit nerve activity through a thermal mechanism that has potential for various health disorders, though future studies are needed to evaluate the long-term safety of therapeutic ultrasound applications.